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Rock Street, San Francisco

UNIVERSITE ANTONINE
FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Thesis for the Master of Science in Business
Option: International Management and Marketing
Impact of Brand extension on the brand personality
Case of Almaza and Beirut Beer
Presented by:
Marie Jean RABAH
Under the Supervision of:
Dr. Toni REAIDY
Academic Year 2017-2018
Zahle
Abstract
In this study we will investigate the impact of brand extension on the brand personality based on some research and survey done.
The thesis is dividing in two parts. The first one, the theoretical part I will define the brand management, what are a brand and its concept, and how companies can build a brand name. Then I will define the brand extension, her types, advantages and disadvantages and the process that we should follow to make an extension in the brand. In addition I will define the brand personality, characteristics, how to create brand personality and finally I will define the brand equity.

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And to know the impact of the brand extension on the brand personality, we have chosen two Lebanese companies Almaza Beer and Beirut Beer, and we made an interview with their marketing managers plus I distribute survey on five supermarkets in bekaa region to collect their feedback about the expansion of those two brands.

The research results identify positive relationships between the brand expansion and the brand personality.
In the conclusion, the impacts are evaluated and recommendations are given to the companies.

Acknowledgement
This project would not have been conceivable without the help of numerous individuals. I might want to offer my thanks to my supervisor Dr. Toni Reaidy for the valuable remarks, comments and commitment through the learning procedure of this master thesis. It was an awesome benefit and honor to work and concentrate under his direction. I am greatly appreciative for what he has offered me. I might likewise want to express gratitude toward him for his friendship, empathy, and great sense of humor.

I would also thanks M. Ghida Kassatly Boulous and Mr. Fouad Mrad for sharing their time and give me precious information about their companies and advices about the expansion strategy.

Likewise, I like to thank the members who participate in my survey, who have energetically shared their valuable time without their enthusiastic support and information; the approval study couldn’t have been without them.

I am extremely grateful to my parents for their love, prayers, caring and sacrifices for instructing and setting me up for my future.

Finally, my thanks go to all the people who have supported me to complete the research work directly or indirectly.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525834352 h 11.1 Background PAGEREF _Toc525834353 h 11.2 Problem Discussion PAGEREF _Toc525834354 h 31.3 Purpose PAGEREF _Toc525834355 h 42.Chapter one: Brand Management PAGEREF _Toc525834356 h 52.1 Brand management: Meaning and important concept PAGEREF _Toc525834357 h 52.2 What is a brand? PAGEREF _Toc525834358 h 62.3 Concepts of the brand PAGEREF _Toc525834359 h 72.4 Differences between brand image and brand identity PAGEREF _Toc525834360 h 102.5 The importance of Brands PAGEREF _Toc525834361 h 102.6 Steps in building a brand name PAGEREF _Toc525834362 h 112.7 Do Brands happen or are they Made? PAGEREF _Toc525834363 h 122.8 Changing profile of brand management PAGEREF _Toc525834364 h 132.9 Tips for successful brand management PAGEREF _Toc525834365 h 143.Chapter two: Brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834366 h 163.1 Definition of brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834367 h 163.2 Why brand extension? PAGEREF _Toc525834368 h 163.3 Types of brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834369 h 163.4 Theories about brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834370 h 173.5 Advantages of brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834371 h 183.6 Disadvantages of brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834372 h 203.7 Why do brand have extensions? PAGEREF _Toc525834373 h 203.8 Process to create brand extension PAGEREF _Toc525834374 h 213.9 Growth strategies in business PAGEREF _Toc525834375 h 223.10 Why brand extensions fail? PAGEREF _Toc525834376 h 233.11 How consumers evaluate brand extension? PAGEREF _Toc525834377 h 254.Chapter three: Brand personality PAGEREF _Toc525834378 h 264.1 Definition PAGEREF _Toc525834379 h 264.2 Characteristics of brand personality PAGEREF _Toc525834380 h 274.3 Choosing brand personality PAGEREF _Toc525834381 h 284.4 Why use brand personality? PAGEREF _Toc525834382 h 284.5Creating brand personality PAGEREF _Toc525834383 h 294.6 Brand Personality as a Sustainable Advantage PAGEREF _Toc525834384 h 315.Chapter four: Creating brand equity PAGEREF _Toc525834385 h 325.1 The Self-Expression Model PAGEREF _Toc525834386 h 325.2 The Relationship Basis Model PAGEREF _Toc525834387 h 325.3 The Functional Benefit Representation Model PAGEREF _Toc525834388 h 336.Chapter five: Methodology PAGEREF _Toc525834389 h 346.1 Overview of methodologies PAGEREF _Toc525834390 h 346.2 Quantitative Research PAGEREF _Toc525834391 h 356.3 Qualitative research PAGEREF _Toc525834392 h 356.4 Mixed methods Research PAGEREF _Toc525834393 h 356.5 Research design PAGEREF _Toc525834394 h 367. Chapter six: Almaza Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834395 h 377.1 Overview about Almaza Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834396 h 377.2 Name of Almaza Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834397 h 377.3 SWOT Analysis of Almaza Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834398 h 387.4 Different types of Almaza Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834399 h 397.5 Marketing Review PAGEREF _Toc525834400 h 397.6 Product Positioning PAGEREF _Toc525834401 h 407.7 Product differentiator, unique selling point or competitive advantage PAGEREF _Toc525834402 h 407.8 Customers PAGEREF _Toc525834403 h 417.9 Market research plan and usability testing PAGEREF _Toc525834404 h 417.10 Almaza best advertising experience PAGEREF _Toc525834405 h 428.Chapter Seven: Beirut Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834406 h 448.1 Overview about Beirut Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834407 h 448.2 SWOT analysis of Beirut Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834408 h 448.3 Different types of Beirut Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834409 h 458.4 Beirut Beer launched PAGEREF _Toc525834410 h 458.5 First Advertising for Beirut Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834411 h 469.Almaza versus Beirut Beer PAGEREF _Toc525834412 h 479.1 Brief comparison PAGEREF _Toc525834413 h 479.2 Comparing the 4P’s of Beirut Beer versus Almaza PAGEREF _Toc525834414 h 489.3 Compare the price and size of the Brews PAGEREF _Toc525834415 h 4910.Results and Analysis PAGEREF _Toc525834416 h 5110.1 Analysis of the interview PAGEREF _Toc525834417 h 5110.2 Analysis of the survey PAGEREF _Toc525834418 h 5211.Discussion PAGEREF _Toc525834419 h 5712.Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc525834420 h 5813.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525834421 h 5914.References PAGEREF _Toc525834422 h 6015.Appendix PAGEREF _Toc525834423 h I15.1 Interview PAGEREF _Toc525834424 h I15.2 Survey PAGEREF _Toc525834425 h II

List of Figures
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: how Brand Personality Creates Brand Equity? PAGEREF _Toc522609216 h 30Figure 2: inductive approach PAGEREF _Toc522609217 h 34Figure 3: deductive approach PAGEREF _Toc522609218 h 35

List of Tables TOC h z c “Table”
Table 1: difference between brand image and brand identity PAGEREF _Toc522609318 h 10Table 2: comparing the price and size of the brews PAGEREF _Toc522609319 h 48
Introduction1.1 BackgroundReliably a several number of new products in different classes are pushed the world over. For instance, expanding competition and creating promoting have made the successful execution of another product more troublesome starting late (Aaker 1996). This makes the task, looked by sponsors noteworthy when and how to use a brand name, as there are distinctive decisions in naming a product. One choice is to exhibit a totally new brand name for new product offering, for example when Coca-Cola pushed new drinks under the name of Fruitopia. Another option is using a present brand related to another brand, known as sub-brand or settled stamping. A sub-brand, for instance, Weight Watchers Smart Ones, borders a present brand name with another thing.

Then again a settled brand, for example, Polo by Ralph Lauren, empowers the customer to separate the brand, meanwhile evacuating affiliations for the most part more far off a long way from the parent brand (Bhat et al 1998). A standout among the most ordinary and successful courses for promoters to expand their portfolios, while decreasing propelling costs and furthermore the threat of thing dissatisfaction, is brand extension, portrayed by Fox et al (2001) as the path toward giving another thing, made in another class, under the name of a present brand.

Ninety-five percent of each and every new product today is related with a present brand, consistently a long way from the thing characterization in which the parent brand is found (Vital Course 2002). Such a successful augmentation has been refined by Caterpillar, moving from mining equipment into footwear. Cat Footwear is available in excess of 150 countries with bargains outperforming 5 million dollars, making them the greatest youth-arranged, non-athletic shoe association on the world (Vital Bearing 2002).

In spite of the way that the closeness between mining additionally, shoes isn’t to a great degree self-evident, it is the prospect of “rugged outdoor equipment” rather than the thing itself that has viably traded to buyers. While Caterpillar has made sense of how to trade the characteristics of its parent brand to another market, far from each brand expansion experiences a comparative accomplishment.

The French stationary makers Bic oversaw out how to develop to shaving hardware and cigarette lighters, anyway slumped wretchedly in the dispatch of its scent go, everything considered a photo conscious market did in this way not consider Bic to be fitting in that particular market (Vital Bearing 2002). Virgin serves in as the most uncommon instance of using brand extensions, drew in with more brand extensions than some other in the midst of the past 20 years, with in excess of 200 individual associations, reaching out from records and carriers to mobile phones, insurances and refreshments. The Virgin brand should be viewed as fun and derisive while giving the best understanding. With these given affiliations, in every practical sense each market could be appropriate for them to enter. Although Virgin without a doubt extends their image in unbelievable range, they as a general rule on occasion do it with much triumph. In this manner, the more productive endeavors and achievements in music and flights are sold off to help the various fizzled things (Ritson 2002).

Through brand extension, a strong brand can make it easier for the customer to recognize the new thing exhibited under the parent brand. Over the latest two decades, brand extension have transformed into the most noticeable thing system, on account of its clear ability to diminish hazard among purchasers and decrease the hazard and headway costs. Regardless, this method of working up another brand can be exorbitant, dull and obviously not for the most part viably drove nor for the most part got.

What’s more, it requires impressive endeavors in making another brand idea and in addition in advancing the new thing accessible, and furthermore supporting it in the midst of its life cycle. A couple of promoters question that a brand extension is the across the board technique for reviving a brand. It is somewhat assumed that various overseers use this technique since it is in vogue, with the risk of associations getting a handle on the use of a brand extension before eating up each one of the benefits for improvement of the parent brand (Kapferer 2001).

Furthermore, a standout among the most basic components of this methodology is making a bond between the brand and the buyer, as the client at first may have little enthusiasm for the brand proposal. As needs be, great hypotheses are required in order to secure this bond, ensuring the client a brand proposal with a particular proportion of immovable quality, moreover realizing an expensive on-going methodology (Keller et al 2003).

Park et al (1986) push the enormity of perceiving the utilitarian and enthusiastic characteristics, while surveying a brand’s attributes. Basic components when successfully driving a brand expansion are subsequently to clearly fathom these characteristics affixed to a brand, what they stay for and along these lines make an inside and out made arrangement of movement for the brand’s value. In this way, it is relied upon basic for associations to get view of their buyers and what factors that builds the estimation of an association’s picture esteem, in order to settle on the districts where such positive points of view can be used as a piece of the brand development (Murphy 1990).

1.2 Problem DiscussionFor quite a while experts have focused upon the focal parts of the brand extension as an advancing procedure and investigated its impact on the business all things considered. An examination coordinated by Harley (1998) stresses on the conviction that a development is presently a fundamental part in the life of a brand. It is additionally battled that brand expansions are a sign of improvement, headway of degree and market adaptability.

Various examinations have been conducted, with a specific end goal to feature the benefits of this technique. Keller et al (2003) derived that a critical preferred standpoint of a strong parent brand is the reduced seen chance among clients, while getting lower promoting and restricted time costs. Moreover, brand expansions are found to empower associations to grow their quality, customer base and long term reasonability (Keller 1998).

In any case, extraordinary examinations have been finished remembering the true objective to show that a brand extension could in like manner be viewed as a dangerous technique. Chen et al (2000) show a couple of censuring musings towards brand expansion. Their revelations uncover that the widened brand is viewed as tearing up, while diminishing the total offers of the parent brand. Other than this examination exhibits that an extension can make purchaser disorder regarding the idea of the as of late displayed things. As demonstrated by Kapferer (2001), not all kind of brands should from this time forward depend vivaciously on brand extension, suggesting that regulatory energy and an empowering thing run are once in a while better differentiating alternatives to revive a brand.

Besides, since brand extensions are for the most part used and are seen as an indispensable piece of a brand, we consider it a testing territory, in which to get a more conspicuous discernment. As the power of a brand is considered by various to reside in the brains of shoppers, observations, emotions and feelings associated with the brand plainly end up crucial to pass on to them. Furthermore, late cases have exhibited brands extending to absolutely interesting thing orders. The examination concerning this particular wonder is uncommon. This has additionally stirred us to inquire about this locale and endeavor to perceive how the parent brand truly impacts the brand development in another thing characterization.

As hypothesis in brand extension, in this way the assumptions under which administrators work, tend to be used consistently of thing grouping, it has consequently taken less idea to the level of differentiation of the parent mark and the extended things. This could be one purpose behind the showed disillusionment of various brand expansions. Another clarification behind this might be the nonattendance of limit among publicists to perceive what parts of the brand value are extremely associated with the parent brand. In any case, more research inside this zone is recommended to be required, thus why we have decided to moreover look at this ponder.

Besides, it is communicated that the estimation of a brand lies in the mind of clients; thusly it is in like manner fundamental when running over the learning crucial for this examination. Thus, brand associations convey data structures that impact customer responses and in the long run brand value (Keller 2003). The significance of fathoming what affiliations are in all actuality traded back to the parent brand while coordinating a brand extension establishes the clarification behind picking the brand esteem perspective for our examination.

1.3 PurposeThe purpose behind this search is to go over the relationship of shoppers who are being presented to a brand expansion from an alternate item classification. Our aim is to know the impact of brand expansion on the brand personality the case of Almaza and Beirut Beer.

Chapter one: Brand Management2.1 Brand management: Meaning and important conceptBrand administration starts with having an exhaustive learning of the articulation “brand”. It joins making an assurance, making that certification and keeping up it. It induces depicting the brand, orchestrating the brand, and passing on the brand. Brand administration is just a claim to fame of making and keeping up the brand. Branding makes clients concentrated on your exchange. A solid brand isolates your item from other organization contender to yours. It gives a quality picture to your organization and exchange.

Brand administration consolidates managing the substantial and immaterial characteristics of brand. On account of thing brands, the unmistakable resources join the thing itself, cost, bundling, and so forth. Despite the fact that if there ought to be an administration, the unmistakable resources fuse the customers’ understanding. The intangibles join enthusiastic association with the goods/service.

Branding is gathering of different publicizing mix medium into a whole so as to give you a character. It is just getting your client’s judgment nearby your picture name. It gives a photograph of a refined, giant and solid exchange.

It is tied in with getting the extraordinary market for your thing/services and about making a sureness with the present and arranged customers’ mind that you essentially are the outstanding course of action to their issues.

Those points of view about branding might be on relate brand message particularly, settle on client dedication, impel those buyers to those things, and build up a vivacious network for the clients. Branding shapes client acknowledgment’s around the item. It should raise client wishes around those items. The key point about marking will disturb partition.

Strong brands decrease customers’ apparent money related, social and security risks in obtaining items/services. The clients would way have the capacity to all the more likely envision the immaterial things with the assistance of brand name. Solid brand affiliations have a high bit of the general business. The brand ought to be given unfathomable help so it can keep up itself in long run. It is fundamental to manage all brands and fabricate check an incentive over some stretch of time. Here comes significance and convenience of brand administration. Brand administration has any sort of impact in building a corporate picture. A brand director needs to organize generally mark execution. An intense brand must be made if the brand association structure is skillful.

2.2 What is a brand?Brands are unique in relation to items in a way that brands are “what the clients buy”; while item are “what concern/associations make”. Brand is an amassing of energized and supportive alliance. Brand may be an assurance that the thing will execute as indicated by customer’s craving. It shapes customer’s needs about the thing. Brands generally have a trademark which grapples them from use by others. A brand gives specific data about the affiliation, awesome or organization, disconnecting it from others in the market. Brand passes on a confirmation about the traits that make the thing or organization unprecedented. A strong brand could be a deduces of making individuals mindful of what the association addresses and what are its commitments.

Brands impact clients buy decision. Over some timeframe outline, buyers find the brands which fulfill their require. On the off chance that the buyers see a specific brand and have information about it, they settle on fast buy decision and spare bundle of time. Moreover, they spare look costs for thing. Buyers remain submitted and faithful to a brand as long as they recognize and have a verifiable understanding that the brand will keep assembling their needs and perform inside the required way reliably. For whatever long of time that the buyers get points of interest and fulfillment from utilization of the thing, they will more likely keep on purchasing that brand.

Brands in addition, in a word, can be portrayed as a merchant’s affirmation to supply reliably an extraordinary course of action of characteristics, administration, and inclination to the shoppers/purchasers. It may be a name, term, sign, picture or a blend of all these organized to perceive the stock/administration of the item from those of contenders have a basic impact in proposing certain thing highlights to purchasers.

A brand partners with the four colossal parts of an organization clients, specialists, organization and speculators. Brand is just a social affair of memories in clients mind. Brand tends to regards, thought and character. It could be an arrangement of accommodating, energetic and sane affiliations and points of interest which have included spotlight on market’s intellectual. Affiliations are just the photographs and pictures related with the brand or brand benefits.

It gathers your picture inside the cerebrum of your clients. You’ll be skilled have the fanciest picture, the fundamental bundling, and the best thing outline, it doesn’t wanton you have a solid brand with the exception of on the off chance that it deciphers into the psyches of your clients.

Branding could be a course of action of association and correspondence techniques that offer assistance to see an association or things from others organizations, which means to set up a continuing on association inside the brains of clients. The key portions that shape a brand’s gadget join a brand’s character, picture correspondence, (for instance, by logos and trademarks), mark care, brand unwavering quality, and particular branding (brand organization) methods.

2.3 Concepts of the brandBrand Association: is anything which is critical organized in customer’s brains generally the brand. Brand ought to be associated with something positive so the clients relate your picture to being sure. Brand affiliation is the qualities of brand which come into customer’s’ mind when the brand is talked around. It is associated with the certain and unequivocal repercussions which a customer relates/relationship with a particular brand title. Brand association can also be portrayed as how much a particular thing/benefit is seen inside its thing/benefit class/arrangement. While picking a brand name, it is significant that the title picked should sustain an essential quality or favored point of view association that shapes its thing orchestrating.

Brand Name: is one of the brand sections which have any sort of impact the clients to perceive and separate one thing from another. It ought to be picked particularly precisely in light of the way that it gets the key subject of a thing in a beneficial and quiet way. It can effectively be watched and its significance can be secured and sanctioned inside the memory quickly. Choice of a brand name requires a bit of research. Brand names are not on an exceptionally fundamental level related with the thing.
Brand Attributes: (Brand characteristics) they recommend the fundamental thought of brand. Brand properties are a load of highlights, which fixate on the physical and identity points of view of the brand. Characteristics are made through pictures, activities, or assumptions. Brand qualities offer assistance with impacting brand to character.

A solid brand must have taking after attributes:
Relevancy: A solid brand must be basic. It must meet people’s needs and should play out the manner in which they expect it to. An unprecedented work must be done to induce clients to purchase the item; else inspite of your thing being extraordinary, individuals won’t get it.

Consistency: A dependable brand suggests what the brand rely on and constructs customers put stock in mark. An unfaltering brand is the place the organization imparts message in a way that does not kill from the middle brand proposal.

Proper positioning: A solid brand ought to be organized so it impacts a put in target get-together of people brain and them to incline toward it over various brands.

Sustainable: A solid brand ought to be organized so it impacts a put in target get-together of people brain and them to incline toward it over various brands.

Credibility: A strong brand should do what it ensures. The manner in which you impart your image to the gathering of individuals/customers should be sensible. It should not miss the mark to pass on what it ensures. Try not to exaggerate as customers need to acknowledge inside the guarantee you make to them.

Inspirational: A strong brand should above/ motivate the classification it is praised for.

Uniqueness: A strong brand ought to be unmistakable and unique. It should set you isolated from different rivals in promote.

Appealing: A strong brand should offer. Customers ought to be pulled in by the assurance you make and by the regard you give.

Brand Personality: Brand personality is the manner in which a brand talks and proceeds. It recommends appointing human identity properties/characteristics to a brand to recognize partition. These characteristics mean brand lead through the two people tending to the brand (i.e. its pros) and furthermore through propelling, bundling, and so forth. Right when brand picture or brand character is conferred similar to human traits, it is called brand personality.

Brand positioning proposes “target consumer’s” inspiration to purchase your brand in inclination to other people. It is guarantees that all brand action incorporates a run of the mill point; is guided, formed and passed on by the brand’s preferences/inspirations to purchase; and it center at all think to contact with the customer.

Brand Awareness: is the likelihood that buyers are obvious generally the life and transparency of the thing. It is how much customers absolutely relate the brand with the particular thing. It is evaluated as degree of quality advances that has past information of brand. Brand mindfulness joins both brand affirmation and brand survey.

Brand recognition is the farthest point of client to see earlier information of brand when they are asked addresses almost that brand or when they are gave the possibility that particular brand, i.e., the customers can unquestionably disengage the brand as having being prior watched or tuned in.

Brand is the ability of client to recoup a brand from his memory when given the thing class/grouping, needs fulfilled by that class or obtaining situation as a pennant. Toward the day’s end, it insinuates that customers should accurately recoup stamp from the memory when given some knowledge or he can review the particular brand when the thing class is said.

Brand Loyalty: could be the place the buyer fears getting and debilitating thing from another brand which he doesn’t acknowledge. It is assessed through procedures like verbal reputation, dull buying, cost affectability, duty, mark trust, consumer loyalty, and so forth. Brand reliability is how much a customer constantly buys a comparative brand inside a thing characterization. The customers stay faithful to a particular brand as long in light of the way that it is open. They don’t purchase from various providers inside the item class. Brand loyalty exists when the buyer feels that the brand includes right thing traits and quality at right expense. Without a doubt in the occasion that substitute brands are accessible at more affordable expense or pervasive quality, the brand immovable buyer will stick to his brand.

Brand Promise: is the thing that you say to the client and what is to be passed on. In the occasion that you’re not prepared to meet the needs of the client, your trade will either fight. In the event that you’re not prepared to give the brand guarantee you’ll not have the ability to meet the needs that have been made inside the clients mind.

Brand Identity: an affiliation is talented for making an apparent thing with charming characteristics. It is the methods by which an organization looks for to isolate itself. It tends to how an organization ought to be seen inside the expose. An organization confers its character to the buyers through its stamping and propelling methodology. A brand is extraordinary due to its character. Brand personality wires taking after fragments: Brand vision, mark culture, arranging, character, associations, and presentations.

Brand Image: is for the most part the most part impression in buyers’ mind that is shaped from all sources. Customers make different association with the brand. In perspective of these affiliations, they shape mark picture. A photo is conformed to the brand on the start of emotional affirmations of affiliations bundle that the buyers have almost the brand.

2.4 Differences between brand image and brand identityBrand Image Brand Identity
Seen by the collector or the buyer. Creates from the source or the company.

Brand message is loosened by the shopper within the frame of brand picture. Brand message is attached together in terms of brand personality.

The meaning is “How clients/target market sees you?” The meaning is “who you truly are?
Its nature is that it is appearance situated or strategic. It’s nature is that it is substance directed or strategic
symbolizes discernment of customers Show firms’ reality.

Presents “others view” Presents “your desire”.

It is superficial. It is enduring.

Is looking back. Is looking ahead.

Is passive. Is active.

It indicates “what you have got”. It indicates “where you want to be”.

Add up to consumers’ recognition about the brand Add up to guarantee that a company makes to customers.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Difference between brand image and brand identityCenter on forming your brand identity, brand picture will follow.

2.5 The importance of BrandsAaker’s unique meaning of a brand is distinctive name and additionally image, (for example, a logo, trademark or bundle configuration) proposed to recognize the products or services of it are possible that one merchant or a gathering of venders, and to separate those merchandise or services from those of competitors. Aaker utilizes the term brand equity to describe “an arrangement of brand resources and liabilities connected to a brand, its name and image, which add to or subtract from the esteem gave by a products or services to a firm as well as that association’s clients” (Aaker 1991, p7). This client esteem can be given in a few different ways, for instance:
Save time for customers: empowering quick area of a confided in brand on a supermarket, at a value that the client knows or expects will be reasonable or aggressive.

Diminishment in client risk, giving affirmation to the client that the item will be dependable and unlikely to fail.

Confirmation that, if by chance the marked item is observed to be faulty, it will be supplanted rapidly and without additionally cost.

2.6 Steps in building a brand nameOnce in a while, affiliations are dependably prompted by a combination of thought to make products and services which can be progressed locally or extensively. Overall, such items or services require the establishment of a brand or affiliation name. A noteworthy piece of the time these brands merge both picture and lettering and can complete generally in advancing such item or administrations. Along these lines, one of the head enters strolls in building a Brand is picking upon a brand name for the thing or administrations one wish to offer.

Branding might be a handle that allows a man or an assemble of individuals the ability to supply a brand picture and lettering to a thought. After doing as such, one incorporates a way better possibility of offering such things to a more extensive social occasion of individuals whether that is on a neighborhood or overall level. Thus, though the old saying “nothing occurs until the point that somebody offers something,” still stands authentic to a couple of degrees, on occasion about shows up as in case the strategy for advancing and marking has outperformed the need to offer.

One of the head key walks in offering any products or services is the conviction one holds in relationship with the thing. In this manner, as it was the people who unequivocally recognize inside the things and organizations advertised by the association are proposing to be fantastic at offering same. Else, one may need to work from a progressing or pragmatic expert point of view in relationship with progressing instead of deals concerning time to advance same.

Another movement is to build up a brand that keeps up commitment with its client base and consolidates a strong client advantage division. For, having such a division these days where one is both experienced and acknowledged concerning having any sort of influenced others can be a phenomenal find. Along these lines, associations who address oneself has having a strong client base and for beyond any doubt more grounded client advantage office are routinely more beneficial than the people who don’t.

An awfully fundamental development in raising a brand is to perceive the target showcase before making the picture and lettering in association with progressing. This is every now and again since unmistakable age bunches respond in an unanticipated course to an accumulation of picture and lettering particularly as so much is reshaped by a gathering of packs and others utilizing such surface dishonorably. In this way, in case one can describe the brand name, image and lettering and show same to an advancing examination audit board or something like that, one might have the capacity to get a superior; a higher; a more grounded; comprehension of which social affair of individuals one should facilitate their item or administration to in mastermind to make the principal deals.

Everything considered, in case one can pass on the utilization of their product or services unmistakably, set up trust inside the system, be that locally or around the world, point progressing at the right party of people, assemble a base of buyers and client dependability and offer staggering client benefit, by then one is in transit to not so to talk making and propelling a mind boggling brand yet offering one too.

Hereafter, while chasing down steps in building a brand, there are different advances which one can total to help make the making of such brand and clearer errand. These merge, knowing your social event of people, manufacturing your picture, finding a wonderful picture and lettering to address same, focusing on the suitable gathering of spectators and setting different notification in as different on the web and separated propelling settings one can discover. For, ensuing to doing in that capacity, one may sensible find that they are advancing to make certain a more prominent number of things and organizations than one had ever envisioned possible.

2.7 Do Brands happen or are they Made?Are brands manufactured or do they sensible happen over some stretch of time? Everything considered, this is routinely a troublesome convey to manage for, both are real. One of the fundamental characteristics of profitable brands being reality that they withstand the preliminary of time, we ought to concur that in different cases the brands to a great degree ended up beneficial as a result of the clients and the accomplish a gathering status over some vague time span.

See around a couple of the principal well-known brands that have not so to speak made a faction and worldwide fan taking after, anyway have possessed the capacity to be immovably related with the way of life and social culture of people and society. Brands like Marlboro, Harley Davidson, Apple, and Mont Blanc and so forth have wound up a part of the mind and culture of networks over the world. Most as often as possible you’ll find that the individual pegs his victory by owning a Harley Davidson or a Merc. In a manner of speaking when he has gotten and had one of these brands does he consider that he has made it throughout everyday life or has arrived.

Ask the proprietors from these brands whether they had thought of building the gainful brand toward the start of their example of overcoming adversity and in all probabilities, they would never have predicted to do in that capacity. Inside the trademark course off business, these Affiliations have taken off things to push their business. In compose to assemble devotion and give stretched out a motivation to the clients, they would have contributed in improving the regard proposition reliably and focused on driving the brand.

Over some stretch of time, the phenomenal exercises and the thing would have made with the needs and need of the clients making a beeline for really endurance on the section of the buyers with the specific brand. From this time forward the brand gains the power and status. We should now see that the fortifying of the brand has happened from the customer’s choice. Understanding the wonder of broadened brand control, the Associations would have anchored in building the brand and rising to grow its compass and affirmation. Gradually with continuously clients choosing their faithfulness to the brand, it finds the opportunity to be a group.

Exactly when a brand orders huge notoriety and finds the opportunity to be an inner circle, you may observe that the affiliation has been consolidated into supporting and working up the brand. They contribute into the brand the extent that it’s utility, features, quality and ensure and build up a few the proposed regards or touchy characteristics that offer to the clients and make the brand charming.

Harley Davidson ensures a particular kind of experience, opportunity and soul, thus enrapturing to that solid streak in men who start to see with it and from this time forward shape systems and gatherings to praise the brand.

2.8 Changing profile of brand managementStroll into any broad store and see at two or three the racks particularly the foods and stock. You may be befuddled to see not so to talk the blend of things but instead the diverse brands and furthermore nonspecific things those are open in each class. Fundamental authority for a buyer is outstandingly an issue getting out him confused. In different cases the amount of brands on the rack can effectively drive the buyer to pick the slightest costly open brand or pick a nonspecific thing and therefore get over with the decision making.

Not at all like earlier a long time, the profile of the brand executive’s work has changed and advanced with the developing occasions. The brand administrators are dependable for the entire trade and are required to guarantee they keep up a sound Rate of productivity. The brand esteem has made the Associations and furthermore the offer costs particularly touchy to brand picture and brand administration.

Overseeing the brand, its advancement, piece of the pie (market share), advantage and additionally keeping up the picture and also the esteem proposal inside the here and now and in addition long haul are the test that is stood up to by the Brand Administrators.

Creative changes and forceful nature of open markets and globalization have changed the distraction of brand organization and customer lead. The brand managers are underneath weight to push systems that can impact thing partition, to address the customers and give them with broadened respect proposition continually.

The present brand supervisor’s work asks for a grouping of capacity sets required managing the testing condition. Other than the adjustments in showcase condition, advancement and resultant changes inside the production network segments, the client conduct and in addition wants is evolving. Budgetary condition fuses a noteworthy impact on the brands and in addition on the client conduct.

Changes inside the financial division checking client financing, charge card acquiring too impacts the brand improvements in all business sectors. Advancement, current social examples, refined lifestyle and electronic media and so on can represent the deciding moment the brands inside the promotion.

The brand managers have ought to be absolutely comfortable with and mindful of the improvements or changes happening inside the particular fields and outside condition and furthermore have the ability to move rapidly with decisions and plans for enabling their brands in the midst of the troubles.

Brand management is certainly not an individual work. The parts of brand administration and furthermore the movements inside the profile of brand administration wrapping level of profitability and essential concern obligation of the brand to the alter sheet, calls for cross utilitarian gatherings to coordinate to deal with a brand classification.

2.9 Tips for successful brand managementThe internet has changed the manner in which that associations show themselves to the market, paying little heed to whether they genuinely have web properties to supervise. Each time an association achieves something horrendous it appears to discover its bearing on the web. Overseeing affirmation among web clients is about tremendous since once something gets out, it melds an affinity to spread like wild impact.

Give the talks to the followers: Making ordinary substance for web properties is troublesome. Considering current things to state on a trustworthy initiate is harder than it looks. As opposed to propel out updates, the going with that a web property collects can do all the talking. Verbal promoting is one of the primary persuading ways to deal with drive an association. Awesome or unpleasant, let them say what they need to state. Positive commitment to this field can assist a trade than flawless much anything.

Unifying Web Properties: Since there are so different courses for an association to show its message, it’s typical for associations to have assorted properties on undeniable destinations. Clients and customers ought to get an enduring message paying little respect to what property they visit. Most of the properties ought to too bolster into one another with an end goal to extend their change. The sales of the get-together of people for each web property are indisputable and the substance should reflect that.

Interact with customers: It searches awful for an association to have web closeness and never utilize it as a derives of opening up the lines of correspondence with clients. A few associations without a doubt debilitate the breaking point of their clients to send messages on Facebook or they put aside until the moment that the complete of chance to answer in the event that they have the work empowered. This methodology will simply incite discontent among the client base. Getting information can help organizations make sense of their deficiencies and settle them.

Know the Audience: All organizations have a measurement that takes after their each move. Along these lines, all substance that is posted on the web should address that social affair of people. Extra advances should be made to individuals who are careless of the brand. The substance ought to float back around to the primary message going for the most gathering of people.

Chapter two: Brand extension3.1 Definition of brand extensionThe Brand Expansion is the advancing technique wherein another item is impelled under the current brand name. The classification in which thing is pushed might be related or unrelated to the brand’s present class. The brand that offers ascend to another thing under its title is called “The Parent Brand”.

Brand Expansion is the use of a set up brand name in new thing classifications. This new class to which the brand is extended can be related or unrelated to the current item classifications. A renowned/fruitful brand has any kind of effect an association to dispatch things in new classes all the more viably. For instance, Nike’s image focus thing is shoes. Be that as it may, it is directly extended sunglasses, soccer balls, basketballs, and golf equipment’s. A current brand that offers ascend to a brand development is implied as parent brand. In the event that the customers of the new trade have qualities and objectives synchronizing/coordinating those of the middle business, and if these qualities and objectives are exemplified inside extending a brand outside its middle thing classification can be valuable it might be said that it has any kind of effect assessing thing classification openings, perceives resource necessities, brings down risk, and measures brand’s importance and demand. Brand, it is probably going to be acknowledged by customers inside the new exchange.

3.2 Why brand extension?It increments brand awareness
Development in item to exceed expectations client desire
To extend the profitability of the company by advertising different item categories.

A strategy to strengthen the brand and procuring new client making a thrill.

Getting a handle on brand value by advertising new complementary item
3.3 Types of brand extensionHorizontal extension suggests events when a current brand name is associated with another thing, in either a similar thing class (line extension) or in another item class/classification (franchise/brand expansion), with a similar cost arranging or quality level, however assorted on a couple of other characteristic than value/quality level, for example, flavor, size, scent, color etc.

Line expansions happen when an organization exhibits additional things inside a similar item classification under a similar brand title, for example, new flavors, shapes, colors, included ingredients, package sizes.

Category extensions use a current brand name to enter an item category new to the company.
Vertical extension: when an organization introduces another item in same thing class however cost and nature of thing is distinctive is called vertical extension
Upscale extension: including a new item with higher cost and quality characteristics than the first
Downscale, including a new item with lowers quality and cost focuses. Downscale vertical expansions may offer the proportionate of examining to a new advertise section, and bring a few advertise share enhancement.

3.4 Theories about brand extensionAaker and Keller’s investigated the determinants of mentalities toward brand expansions and set and communication demonstrate. They evaluated a directed relapse model to test their speculations. Their discoveries exhibited that buyers’ assessments of brand extension are construct fundamentally with respect to:
The degree of the fit between the original and the extension item classifications
Association of the nature of the parent brand (Quality) with the level of fit between the original also, the expansion item classifications
The trouble of making the expansion item class
Aaker and Keller’s thought about three measures of fit: transferability (Exchange) of aptitudes from the parent to the extension classification, complementarity (Supplement), and sustainability (Substitute) of the parent and the extension classifications. While Aaker and Keller’s found bolster for the greater part of their conjectured connections, they additionally demonstrated that quality in essence did not affect the customer assessments of the brand extension.

Several authors conducted numerous replications of the A;K study to confirm the study made by them
(e.g., Bottomley and Doyle, 1996; Holden and Barwise, 1996; Sunde and Brodie, 1993).
Holden and Barwise discovered that Quality was a critical and essential indicator of how customers assess extension. Utilizing a technique for simple vote-checking of critical coefficients from both examination level and expansion level examinations, Holden and Barwise got some key speculations from the brand extension literature. They discovered help that assessments of brand expansions are controlled by the quality of the parent brand and the fit between the parent and the expansion brands. Likewise, they found mixed support for the association of quality with every one of the three fit variables.
While the collaborations of quality with Exchange and Supplement were critical, they reasoned that the collaboration of Value and Substitute was non-critical. In light of their auxiliary analysis, they likewise prescribed that the more miserly fundamental impacts demonstrate be considered as a suitable model by future scientists as they will probably be more valuable to the two experts and analysts.
3.5 Advantages of brand extensionCapitalize existing brand assets: When market segment impediments are high, an organization through brand extension can achieve improvement by promoting its current image resources
Lower cost get to retail operation: Brand development allows the retailing association a basic and a lower cost get to a current conveyance. For case, traditional men’s wear brands have joined ladies’ wear into their extents.

Economies in advancement and publicizing: Inside the time of communication revolution, customers are well aware of different brands available inside the market. Brand extension incorporates presenting item assortments of the current brands offered inside the market. In this way, there’s no got the chance to develop open care again. Economies in advancement and promoting, in this manner, gather to associations accepting brand development strategies.

Gives an instant position and reputation: Existing brand name gives guarantee items or new organizations a minute position and reputation. Clients have conviction in existing brands. The current certainty is instantly exchanged to the new offer…

Expands perceived quality to the new offer: A product might be a bundle of utilities. Customers are organized to buy a brand in a manner of speaking when its cost is excellent of its advantages. The quality, seen by the purchaser must organize the quality of the current retail offer, is exchanged by the customer to the new thing.

Reassures a prospective purchaser that the retail offer is well supported: customers perceive a brand name just when it is positively observed by them. A conspicuous brand consoles an arranged purchaser that the retail offer is all around upheld by the organization. Along these lines, it enables beginning purchases.

Brand extension increases the probability of success: Exceptional changes happen in promoting environment. A publicize witnesses the section of contenders into it that incorporates to the creating many-sided quality of rivalry. As a safeguard against rivalry and need to create, item dispatch gets the opportunity to be certain. Be that as it may, tremendous speculations are required to make and dispatch another brand. By growing a brand the advertiser can cut the expenses down extensively though extending the probability of success in the meantime.

Extensions enhance promotional efficiency: Supporting countless brands will incorporate high expenses. Its progression cost structure will go up. Furthermore, theory in one brand does not offer help alternate brands. Be that as it may, under brand extension, a starting at now set up title is used to enter another item exercises. At the point when the Dettol (brand of cleaners) is promoting, it by suggestion benefits different brands under a similar name. Support, at the season of new thing dispatches, the title care as of now exists. Along these lines, it needs less publicizing help in examination with new brand dispatches.

By knowing the name, a customer can without much of a stretch get it the execution conveyance of another brand: Brand extensions offer a less hazardous course to another thing classification. At the point when a customer is conspicuous with a brand, the customer realizes what to envision from the brand. Commonly in light of what the customer starting at now knows nearly the brand.

Brand extensions immensely help parent brand: Brand extensions they offer help to the parent brand from numerous points of view
The primary and first advantage is that brand extensions acquire lucidity brand meaning. It can as a general rule broaden the item meaning
Secondly, extensions force the brand’s bond with customers. It reinforces the brand picture by including this affiliation.

Superior returns are generated from diversified brands: Various brands were at initial a mono-item. After some time, the mono-action progressed into a separated structure. Walt Disney, for instance was nearly development motion pictures for youngsters in the midst of the fifties. Be that as it may, directly it has created as an exceedingly heterogeneous exchange. These consolidate dispersing, motion pictures, television, subject stops and ventures. It has been exhibited that focused brands increase less though extended brands make colossal returns.

3.6 Disadvantages of brand extensionBrand expansion may discourage innovation. It might prompt organizations making too various “lookalike” things.

The brand expansion may weaken the value of the center brand. The organization may venture into also various other items extend which may debilitate their offer.

The issue of cannibalization may arise. Organization’s advantages might be misused by making items which nearly take after the first. They may get their deals at the cost of the initial.

The organization might be allured to rely upon the control of the inside brand name. Accordingly, it may not enable satisfactory monetary help to the extension.

Brand expansion may have a spillover impact. The negative reputation for the main item horribly impacts some other thing with a similar brand name.

An improper development is probably going to cause negative alliance among the things with a similar brand name. For delineation, a cigarette organization’s venture into wellbeing things.

3.7 Why do brand have extensions?As the business condition is changing, the profile of the organization and in addition the method for leading exchange is changing too. The Use of innovation and globalization has changed everything around trade. Promoting isn’t what it used to be. Website and online promoting has changed the go up against of conventional advancing and both are extraordinary by any measures. When we take a gander at the work profile of brand management, we find that in the course of the last few quite a while, there have been a couple of changes.

The present brand managers are not figuratively speaking arranging thing advancement and promoting services, yet fill in as business executives in charge of the brand. They are in all actuality in charge of the arrangements, advancement and also the advantages of the brand in Multinational organizations. A strong brand may have a gathering of brand executives dealing with the brand over a couple of geographic zones and countries. With the overall brands being available in various markets, there emerges the require for neighborhood factors and sensibilities to be incorporated with the brand and into the brand administration too. Thus it makes it fundamental to build a brand administration gathering or structure that can work through miniaturized scale and extensive scale levels.

Inside the market place, where rivalry is outstandingly high and seriously among brands, the brand managers are constantly under strain on various fronts. In any case, for a brand to create or hold piece of the pie (piece of the market), there must be ceaseless push to give incremental value through the brand. Besides, management have extended wants from the brand as far as pay improvement, piece of the overall industry and in addition the foot line. Brand management accordingly are compelled to choose mark development systems in orchestrate to make thing partition and to broaden salary streams. Some of the time, brand expansions ended up fundamental to rule in a few of the niche portions which may not be tended to by the parent brand and hence the brand expansion makes a difference pick up incremental advertise share. Brand expansion is excessively considered, making it impossible to be the most ordinary movement for brands. At the point when organization experienced a piece of ventures into creating and advancement for propelling the parent brand, they might not want to accept off out any open door to profit by the limit that they have made and amplify rates of profitability.

Brand extensions are excessively considered, making it impossible to be the most ordinary development for brands. At the point when organization experienced a piece of innovation into creating and advancement for propelling the parent brand, they might not want to accept off out any open door to gain by the limit that they have made and amplify rates of profitability.

3.8 Process to create brand extensionMeasure brand equity One of the greatest concerns while actualizing brand extension is the danger of causing brand weakening, that is, the point at which the new item classification fizzles and exhibits a negative effect on the brand in general. Along these lines, the initial step is to have a Brand Value estimation set up keeping in mind the end goal to track conceivable future effects.

Measure the potential risk: Run a situation examination to distinguish the positive or negative consequences for the business and brand value. The objective is to actualize a brand expansion whose danger of disappointment does not surpass any promoting efficiencies.

Leverage from business core competency: The new item should use every one of the aptitudes and know-how from the present business and showcasing tasks so as to pick up an upper hand in the new classification. By distinguishing the business key skills, the brand will have the capacity to pick up efficiencies and make showcase separation.

Invest in Marketing Research: In the energy to develop the business, brands disregard ensuring the new class has showcase potential, that there are clear chances or neglected client needs. While recognizing key chances, try to comprehend prospect and current clients and gauge their acknowledgment for potential brand acknowledgment. Utilize advertising research likewise to test the conceivable new brand expansions.

Make the brand extension a logical fit: The new item should be a consistent fit to the brand, perfect, expected and take after the present brand story. The connection between the new item and the parent brand ought to be effectively followed. The greatest brand extension traps fall into this classification.

Create a Brand Extension Strategy: In the wake of ensuring the story takes after a smooth way between the two classes, ensure you build up a brand administration plan and a convincing go-to-advertise procedure that will interface with your gathering of people over various touch focuses on the Client Purchase Way.

3.9 Growth strategies in businessMost little organizations have plans to build up their trade and increase deals and benefits. Regardless, there are sure methodologies organizations must use for realizing an advancement strategy. The procedure an organization uses to broaden its trade is by and large surprising upon its financial situation, the competition and even government control. A couple of basic improvement philosophies in exchange fuse advertise entrance, showcase advancement, item improvement, broadening and procurement.

Market Penetration: The point of this system is to broaden offers of existing goods or service on existing markets, and along these lines to expand your piece of the market. To do this, you’ll be capable draw in customers from your rivals or potentially ensure that your own customers buy your current goods or services more. This might be satisfied by a cost diminish, an augmentation in progression and appropriation bolster; the obtaining of an opponent inside a similar market or unassuming thing refinements.

Market Development: This implies growing offers of existing products or services on effectively unexplored markets. Market expansion incorporates an examination of the manner by which an organization’s current offer can be sold on new markets, or how to build up the current market. This could be done by particular customer areas; mechanical purchasers for an extraordinary that was at that point sold in a manner of speaking to the families; New districts or regions nearly of the country; Outside business sectors
Product Development: The goal is to dispatch new goods or services on existing markets. Product change might be used to extend the offer proposed to current customers with the purpose of growing their turnover. These things might be gotten by: Interest in innovative work of additional product; Procurement of rights to make another person’s thing; Purchasing inside the goods and “branding” it; Joint progression with ownership of another organization that require get to the association’s conveyance channels or brands.

Diversification: This implies propelling new goods or services on effectively unexplored markets. Extension is the minimum secure technique. It incorporates the promoting, by the organization, of absolutely new products and services on a thoroughly cloud publicize. Broadening might be confined into propel classes.

Horizontal diversification: This incorporates the purchase or improvement of new goods by the organization, with the purpose of offering them to existing customer packs. These new things are every now and again mechanically or commercially separated to current products yet that will offer to current customers. For illustration, an organization that was influencing notebook prior may too enter the pen to advertise with its new product.

Vertical Diversification: The Organization enters the division of its suppliers or of its clients. For case, if you have an organization that does reconstructing of houses and workplaces and you start offering paints and other advancement materials for use in this trade.

Concentric diversification: Concentric diversification incorporates the headway of another line of products or services with particular as well as business similarities to a current keep running of items. This kind of extension is every used by little creators of purchaser products, e.g. a bakery shop starts making cakes or dough things.

Conglomerate diversification: Is moving to new products or services that have no mechanical or business connection with current items, equipment, distribution channels, yet which may offer to new cluster of customers. The significant method of reasoning behind this sort of improvement is the exceptional return on investment inside the new business. It is frequently utilized by enormous organizations scanning for approaches to modify their intermittent portfolio with their non-cyclical portfolio.

3.10 Why brand extensions fail?From a brand approach expert’s perspective, to acknowledge success, a brand extension must be a predictable fit with the parent brand, utilization for competitive advantage, and a chance to enhance the brand and fortify advancement. At the point when brand extension fall flat, does the new thing bomb, as well as negative affiliations influence the parent brand’s photo and value.

In like manner, awfully various advertisers acknowledge that strong brand esteem and a “good idea” are adequate for a productive brand development. Without question, an awesome brand name may reassure clients that the new advertising originates from a genuine organization. However, they will just buy the new item or services in the case that it makes their lives less difficult, better, less expensive, and quicker and so on. Brand extending isn’t straightforward, and I unequivocally acknowledge its more workmanship than science.

What we do know is that phenomenal value recommends can prompt brand extensions that strengthen your long term brand an incentive as opposed to diluting or weakening it. For example, Yamaha moved from pianos to bicycles and marine motors with astonishing victory. Davidoff adequately moved from cigars to cognacs and perfumes. Sony went from rice cookers to televisions and the Walkman and is directly a key player in electronic cameras. Also, Mac moved from PCs to telephones, to music.

At the point when brand extension fail , it’s commonly on the grounds that organizations endeavor to obtain their brands, and additionally they fundamentally don’t pay adequate thought to making adequate new purchaser benefits. Consider flounders, for example, Bic moving from pens and shavers to perfumes and clothing, Colgate make pervasive toothpaste, yet when they propelled a scope of solidified arranged meals inside the 1980s it was a calamity. In reality Mac has had its offer of failures: think about the Newton tablet, the Lisa PC, the iMac USB mouse, the iPod Photograph and the iPod Hi Fi. Fortunately, customers regularly disregard the flops in the event that the failed items are rapidly taken out of the advertise.

Reason of failure:
Brand expansion may fail when it is exceptionally small or no brand awareness among the target client may due to low notice and another promotional instrument
Poor quality of item which isn’t competent sufficient to cater client needs
When the firm fails to highlight the parent brand as it were centers on expansion as parent brand will offer assistance to create trials and acceptance by the focused on client particularly when parent brand has great reputation.

Low demand by the client
Development of the parent brand picture coming about in perplexity
Over positioning or under positioning of new brand
Unbending completion; when companies are not able to defeat the competition which is basic for survival.

3.11 How consumers evaluate brand extension?Consumers’ assessments of brand extension are resolved basically by the quality of the parent brand and the fit between the initial and extension classifications. The quality of the parent brand might be a huge and basic pointer of how clients evaluate extensions. In extension, the most effects of fit are basic. Transferability and correlative appear to be moderately more basic indicators than sustainability; however this may reflect the large couple of developments that address genuine substitutes. It might well be hypothesized that a development does not require an extraordinary fit on various estimations of fit to be positively received.

Evaluation of brand expansions are encourage subordinate, but to a lesser extent, on
interactions of the quality of the parent brand with the complementarity
transferability of benefits and capacities between the underlying and expansion product classifications
the perceived trouble of making the expansion
Although generally few of the beta coefficients for the collaborations of quality and the three fit components were factually critical, the extent of positive connections was observed to be essentially distinctive from chance by sign tests for the intuitive of quality with supplement and trade. The astute of quality and substitute were lopsidedly negative, yet just at a level moving toward measurable significance.

Cultural distinction don’t change reality that the fundamental impacts of value and tit contribute essentially to assessments of brand expansion, yet they do affect the relative criticalness of these factors.

Chapter three: Brand personality4.1 DefinitionBrand personality is the way a brand talks and goes ahead. It suggests consigning human personality qualities/attributes to a brand in order to acknowledge partition. These qualities imply brand conduct through the two individuals addressing the brand (i.e. its laborers) and additionally through advancing, bundling, and so forth. At the point when brand image or brand personality is conveyed as far as human qualities, it is called brand personality.

The brand personality headway handle isn’t consistently the consequence of a perceptive exertion. It might gradually make thus with the particular uses and sorts of purchasers who start using the brand. The idea of brand personality is huge to organizations everything being equal and comes from the penchant of people to represent things. Brand personality is less tangible than different things concerning organizations –, for example, money related outcomes and item features. Understanding the human factors incorporated into mark identity can affect an organization’s prosperity. Customers are more ready to buy a brand if its personality is equivalent to theirs.

Though brand personality incorporates sentiments and human characteristics, brand substance reflects the picture an organization creates and uses to identify with customers – including, for instance, logos or colors. Meanwhile, brand esteem insinuates the seen estimation of a name, image or another identifier. The embodiment of a brand works as one with building a solid brand picture and brand value.

To help organizations illuminate the customer experience they give, advancing push the significance of organizations deliberately constructing their image, brand personality. Branding specialists use diverse strategies to recognize a brand’s personality. For outline, they may contrast an association with an auto, big name or creature. Another methodology is picking a delegate, for example, an open figure or anecdotal character, to speak to the brand.

Marketing specialists propose that organizations searching for to develop their brand identities evaluate the groups of audiences they address, the organizations on which they focus and where they are set out toward long term. This will enable staff to get it how to talk and act and offer help HR choose what to look for in forthcoming laborers. It’ll too affect advancing interchanges and the brand’s visual style.

4.2 Characteristics of brand personalityClients most likely buy the brand which they are having the same personality comparative as the brand. In an ongoing report, Jennifer Aaker (1997) considered the dimensional of brand personality in a great examination in the US. She found that brand identity incorporates five measurements:
Sincerity Matters: A brand personality outlines “sincerity” when purchasers think about it sensible, bona fide, veritable or bright. The brand doesn’t need every one of the qualities recognized inside the estimation, yet it should strongly recognize with no less than one. Brands that are shown as obvious may offer to customers who need to purchase things that vibe commonplace and agreeable. Campbell’s Soup, which has used the “Mmm, Mmm” trademark for more than thirty quite a while and regularly includes family scenes in its plugs, gives an awesome representation of a sincere brand personality.

Inciting Excitement: Customers consider brands that make “excitement” as brave, spirited, creative and cutting-edge. The energy brand personality requests to individuals who need to incorporate a feeling of enterprise to their lives or who effectively live empowering lifestyles. The ideal customer for a vitality identity may incorporate an energetic, courageous individual who considers himself to be outside and in front of the standard. Dos Equis beer plays to this personality by highlighting “the foremost curiously man inside the world,” a puzzling explorer who has done everything and been all finished, as a representative in an advancing arrangement of promotions and advertisements. His trademark exhortation, “Stay thirsty, my friends,” serves as an invitation to a more exciting and satisfying life.”
Competition: Brands known for “competency” make pictures of unwavering quality, insight, success, obligation, trustworthiness and adequacy. Organizations that publicize their brands as skilled can rival brands promoted for their energy by demonstrating an elective value. Inside the data innovation industry, organizations may compete a brand that ensures fervor and competency in the meantime. Microsoft advanced the surface tablet as a front line gadget that skillfully copied the elements of a tablet inside an energizing, streamlined arrangement.

Sophistication: Organizations that publicize a brand as “sophisticated” trust to demand to purchasers who need to feel enchanting, noteworthy, flawless and wistful. Brands in this classification, for example, Rolex or Harrods, may additionally show themselves as being strongly privileged. These are things for the well off, or, all the more especially, for the individuals who need to feel rich.

Ruggedness: Purchasers who separate themselves as outdoorsy, outrageous and solid need items or services that will drive forward. They skim toward the useful, yet ask for more than fitness. These purchasers embrace brands they see as “tough.” The Timberland mark rouses pictures of outdoors and climbing, so purchasers think about their shoes as sturdy, for sure when the footwear is something as citified as a consolidate of Oxfords. That strength suggests more conspicuous wear, which deciphers into more blasts for the buck, a successful offering point.

4.3 Choosing brand personalityBrand personality should not be mistaken between the item and the picture of the brand. Brand personality influences an excited relationship inside the mind of the particular purchaser to gathering. Identity makes the acknowledgment of the brand inside the mind of the client tolerating that the brand is an advantage for the client and conveys nearly the thing point of interest. It is more basic for an organization to show and influences the constructive brand to picture with the confirmation to give the quality thing to the customers and bring the constructive picture through the brand personality.

Personality tips:
Be reasonable while picking an identity trademark. Try not to endeavor and trap your intended interest group, or yourself, by picking qualities that don’t truly reflect your brand.

Don’t picked attributes that are earned. You require attributes that you basically can develop at the essential touch. Several of our first brand customers require the identity trademark “Trustworthy”.Be competitive, yet remain legitimate. On the off chance that your main competitors incorporate an identity relative to your own, consider progressing distinctive identity attributes so you emerge. However, don’t surrender your image’s realness in this manner.

4.4 Why use brand personality?There has been extended interest for brand identity’ since it is described as “the arrangement of human attributes related with a brand”. A brand personality ties enthusiastic bondage between the purchasers and the brand substitutes and products offered by a brand.

Brand personality can permit the tremendous perspective of a brand inside the term of brand picture to enhance the quality of a brand with the photo. A brand must keep up reliable’ alluring’ and persisting identities to ensure the brand long haul achievement. A specific brand identity can offer help makes an arrangement of unique and ideal relationship in client’s memory and along these lines build and enhance brand value.

Brand personality bolsters the recognizing verification of the purchaser with his or her image and along these lines builds the individual importance of a brand for a person. The people seen the brands having the personalities could be a bit of self-idea realizing and outlining the brand acknowledgment with their have point of view and re-insisting the claim self-idea by their sentiments.

Enriching Understanding: The brand personality metaphor can offer help a central get a top to bottom comprehension of customer acknowledgments of and attitudes toward the brand. By inquisitive people to portray a brand character, slants and associations can be recognized that regularly give more understanding than is grabbed by inquiring around quality recognitions. The arrogant and competent personality credited by a couple to Microsoft, for instance, gives learning into the idea of the connection amongst Microsoft and its customers.

Contributing to a Separating Character: Deliberately, a brand identity, as segment of an inside or extended personality, can fill in as the establishment for critical partition, especially in settings where brands are similar as to thing characteristics. In truth, it can characterize not figuratively speaking the brand but rather the thing exercise context and experience.

Guiding The Communication Effort: the brand identity idea and vocabulary imparts the brand identity with wealth and surface to the individuals who must actualize the personality building effort. Reasonable decisions got the opportunity to be made nearly not figuratively speaking advancing but rather packaging, headways, which events to relate with, and the form of individual clever between the customer and the brand.

Creating Brand Equity: The ways a brand personality can make brand value are summarized by the three models appeared below. And it will be discussed after. (chapter four)
Creating brand personalityRegardless of whether a brand might be an item or an organization, the organization ought to pick what identity qualities the brand is to have. There are distinctive methods for making brand personality. One path is to facilitate the brand personality as nearly as possible to that of the customers or to an identity that they like. To make an extraordinary brand personality we ought to take after a few stages:
Plan for Personality: we should begin by uncovering the identity of your exchange. Consider how you depict your exchange to different people. What words ring a bell? Build an arrange around those catchphrases or expressions that offer help make the excited relationship of the brand. Your exchange wills likely drop into one of two character bunches :
Traditional and set up or current and high imperativeness. Its developed brands have a tendency to have a more formal identity and use strong hues, typefaces and symmetry to convey a message.

Modern and high-vitality brands have a tendency to use brighter hues, polished arrangement methods and have a light tone.

Create a Voice: Modern and high-vitality brands have a tendency to use brighter colors, trendy arrangement strategies and have a light tone. Those same words that you essentially used to decide your image identity will excessively offer help, making it impossible to make your voice. A brand voice is the way you converse with your customers. It should be solid over advancing interchanges, design and even the way mark your operators will deal with grievances. Make a rundown of catchphrases and use them intentionally in interchanges.

These interesting point could be from your statement of purpose or key organize and should be used in outside correspondences, for example, advancing material, your site, internet based life profiles and advancing. Your site may join a blog where this voice can successfully spring up and talk particularly to customers.

Chose a Set of Identifiers: Portion of personality and character goes in close vicinity to the arrangement procedure. Your organization symbol and site are the two biggest identifiers for generally customers. Color, typography, pictures and other arrangement parts influence brand identity.

A number of common plan associations incorporate:
Color: Warm colors are cheerful and fortifying; cool colors are more relaxed and quiet.

Typography: typefaces are formal and create; sans serifs (which are used on most sites) are all the more satisfying.

Images: Customers interface unequivocally with photographs that incorporate faces; scenes leave more space for customer interpretation.

Shape: Troublesome edges are more formal; round parts are easygoing.

Space: Open space seems inviting; firmly composed segments are chaotic.

Create a Style Guide: When you pick what your brand identity resembles, record it and influence a scrapbook of pictures that to interface with that identity. Influence a brand to form coordinate that purposes of interest everything about your trade tallying voice, pictures, color palette, typography options, duplicate and tone rules, and use rules. Each trade joins a character. Also, it’s shockingly easy to comprehend yours. Be solid and make your image promptly identifiable. Your extraordinary identity is the thing that influences your trade stand out.

4.6 Brand Personality as a Sustainable AdvantageA brand identity can offer help a brand in a couple of ways. In the first place, it can give a vehicle for customers to particular their own identity. Self-expression is conventionally more striking when the brand incorporates a solid character, since it could be a personality that is being imparted.

Second, a brand character analogy has any kind of effect prescribe the sort of relationship that customers have with the brand, a relationship that is designed according to individual to-individual connections.

Third, brand personality serve to address and flag utilitarian advantages and item traits effectively. In that capacity gives a successful vehicle to make an identity, a correspondence exertion, and in all actuality a sum advancing project.

Encourage, it is reasonable since it is astoundingly troublesome (and when in doubt inadequate) to copy an identity. Brands that have an identity should consider enhancing it making it a state of use inside the brand character. Those without identities are when in doubt helpless, revealed to assaults like stationary posts.

Chapter four: Creating brand equity
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: How Brand Personality Creates Brand Equity?5.1 The Self-Expression ModelThe present of the self-expression demonstrate is that for specific groups of customers, a couple of brands move toward becoming vehicles to exact a bit of their self-personality. This self-expression can be their actual identity or an ideal self which they may desire. People express their have or glorified personality in a grouping of courses, for example, work decision, companions, states of mind, assessments, activities, and lifestyles. Brands that people like, acknowledge, talk about, buy, and use likewise give a vehicle for self-¬expression.A brand can be used for expression even in the case that it needs a solid identity. An individual can express thriftiness by purchasing a shoddy brand, for sure one with a feeble identity. Appending to be sure a cushioned identity to a brand, be that as it may, usually gives learning into how that brand is being used for self-articulation. In the event that the brand includes a strong identity, for example, Harley David youngsters, the personality can be theorized to have a key impact inside the self-expression process.

5.2 The Relationship Basis ModelA couple of people may never endeavor to have the character of an equipped pioneer however might want to have an association with one, especially in the event that they require a banker or a lawyer. A reliable, tried and true, traditionalist identity could be exhausting yet may regardless reflect qualities regarded in a money related specialist, a grass benefit, or without a doubt an auto consider the Volvo mark identity. The idea of a connection between a brand and an individual (nearly looking like to that between two people) gives an alternate perspective on how brand personality may function.

5.3 The Functional Benefit Representation ModelThe self-expression display and the relationship premise show give settings in which brand identity can be the reason for a brand procedure and an associate with the customer. A brand personality can besides have a more backhanded influence by being a vehicle for speaking to and relieving practical advantages and brand properties. When it works best, it can catch the offer driving a brand approach, as the outlines beneath propose
The Harley-Davidson personality of a rough, macho, flexibility ¬seeking individual suggests that the thing could be a great, freeing vehicle. The thing attributes would be considerably less inducing without the identity behind them.

Hallmark as an individual is sincere, warm, veritable, and enduring. This strong identity helps establish the connection that a Hallmark card will achieve beneficiaries at an emotional level.

The Benetton brand personality, which is stylish, provocative, and innovative, impacts individuals’ acknowledgments of Benetton and its stores.

Chapter five: Methodology6.1 Overview of methodologiesResearch methodology could be an approach to reliably take care of the analysis issue. Research system not exclusively depicts the investigation strategies anyway furthermore considers the logic behind the techniques that zone unit used with regards to the analysis.

The following section discusses the various types of research methods that can be used in the thesis. There are numerous forms that can be taken, either one, or more, including mixed methods.
Inductive approach: In relate inductive approach to deal with research, an agent starts by gathering learning that is pertinent to his or her theme of interest. Once significant amounts of learning are gathered, the agent would then be able to grab a seat from information collection, venturing back to prompt a superior perspective of her data. At this stage, the agent appearance for designs inside the learning, working to build up a hypothesis that may present a defense for those examples. Along these lines once scientists adopt relate inductive strategy, they start with an accumulation of perceptions then they move from those particular encounters to a considerable measure of general arrangement of recommendations in regards to those encounters.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Inductive approachDeductive approach: make the strides spoke to before for inductive research and invert their request. They start with a social hypothesis that they see convincing so check its suggestions with data. That is, they move from an extra broad level to an extra particular one. A deductive way to deal with examination is that the one that people more often than not run together with logical examination. The man of science contemplates what others have done, peruses existing speculations of regardless of improvement he or she is discovering, so tests speculations that rise up out of those hypotheses.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Deductive approachComplementary Approach: While inductive and deductive ways to deal with investigation show up totally extraordinary, they will truly be fairly reciprocal. Sometimes, analyzers can set up for his or her examination to join different parts, one inductive and in this way the option deductive. In elective cases, an examiner may start an investigation with the choose to exclusively lead either inductive or deductive examination, then again of course he or she finds on the implies that the other approach is required to help illuminate discoveries.
6.2 Quantitative Research
We don’t simply imply that the paper can draw on quantitative investigation procedures or factual examination strategies. Quantitative examination adopts a chose strategy to hypothesis, responsive investigation questions or potentially theories, fitting an exploration methodology, making conclusions from results, and after that forward.
6.3 Qualitative researchRegion unit regularly identified with subjective examination procedures like unstructured meetings, center groups and member perception. While they are doing utilize a gathering of investigation methodologies that don’t appear to be utilized in quantitative expositions, subjective examination is path over an option between examination techniques.

Qualitative analysis adopts a particular strategy towards the examination technique, the setting of examination addresses, the occasion and utilization of hypothesis, the choice of examination procedure, the technique that discoveries are given and said, and after that forward. By and large, subjective expositions will be very surprising in approach, wagering on the genuine course that you essentially receive (e.g., contextual analysis investigation contrasted with ethnographies).

6.4 Mixed methods ResearchMixed between qualitative and quantitative ways to deal with analysis. While they’re dynamically utilized and have increased more noteworthy authenticity, considerably less has been composed with respect to their components parts.

6.5 Research designIn spite of the fact that research is imperative in both business and academic exercises, there is no agreement in the writing with respect to how it ought to be characterized. As indicated by Amaratunga et al. (2002), explore speaks to different things to various individuals. To them, inquire about is an efficient and methodical procedure of inquiry what’s more, examination, which increases information and knowledge.

Research might be ordered into two distinct types: qualitative and quantitative.

In order to know the relation between the brand extension and the brand personality, and the impact of brand extension on brand personality it is important to use an instrument through which the client feeling with respect to the brands being referred to can be analyzed. Both qualitative interview and a quantitative survey were directed so as to pick up the pertinent connections between’s various factors to answer the research question.

Primary and secondary data collection
Diverse choices speculations with respect to the survey strategy are contrasted all together with locate the best appropriate solution. The qualitative interview is done at the case organization. The quantitative survey was finished by talking 120 respondents who live in Zahle region to pick up the essential information. The said mentioned geographical were picked as for the likelihood of the time and economic resources conceded for this research.

In planning the surveys, the brand identity characteristics chose determined in a general sense from brand personality portrayed by Aaker (1997) and we included a few extra characteristics by counseling with the case organization keeping in mind the end goal to get the most ideal rundown of personalities.

? Chapter six: Almaza Beer7.1 Overview about Almaza BeerLess than a century ago, five men anchored by fraternity and relationship cruised on a voyage to mix Lebanon’s first brewage ever; Michael Jabre, Antoine Comaty, Asaad Jabre and Panayoti Anghelopoulo. Next to no did they comprehend that the product of their companionship would be thereafter shared and appreciated by numerous companions.

It is inside the mid 60’s that the Bottling works’ actual development started. Driven by enthusiasm and in mission of magnificence, Michael Jabre made a beeline for capital of The Netherlands (Amsterdam) in 1962 to fulfill with Amstel-later purchased by Heineken. He offered them a tenth share in the company, equally for his or her specialized administration of the get together technique. After two years, Jaber organized the essential stone into Almaza’s expanding base camp, developing the bottling works to its present size-conveying a genuine change to the distillery’s tasks and methodology.

Almaza was becoming bigger. Beginning 1969, Jaber set up the essential deals group; distribution channel and appropriation organize which came about amid a more extensive scope of the Lebanese domain and a fresher lager for everyone. Guided by their vision and helped by the experience of a popular Blend Ace from Pilsen-a town inside the Czech-Republic wherever the true pilsner lager was created the organizers had sufficient energy, the will, the persistence and even the tad of fortunes required to plan what might later turn into Lebanon’s best brewage. Each fixing and every system was totally analyzed to return up with the correct recipe, one that’s, till these days, saved and repeated to the detail with each new bunch.

Brasserie Almaza stepped up with regards to empty generous measures of capital into the bottling works in order to empower the expectation and certainty that Lebanese Republic persistently remained for and to arrange new establishments for a home-developed product that the Lebanese people may perpetually feel pleased to call their own.

Today, brasserie Almaza has earned its title as Lebanon’s most loved brewer and remains conveyance a style of Lebanese inventiveness to the globe.

7.2 Name of Almaza BeerDespite the fact that it’s an idea of men, “Almaza” was allowed its name by a lady, Antoine Comaty’s significant other. Smoothly, she strolled in light of the fact that the accomplices assembled to come back with notoriety for the newly revealed brewage and flashed a jewel ring on her finger saying: “Almaza”. This name totally outlined the perfection and individuation of the Almaza brewage.
The brand’s logo was a characteristic side-effect from the name “Almaza”, relating “jewel” in Arabic. The red seal came as a stamp of certainty and furthermore the gold grain wig as a proceeding with indication of genuine quality.

7.3 SWOT Analysis of Almaza BeerSWOT analysis could be a framework wont to judge a company’s competitive position by distinctive its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Specifically, SWOT analysis could be a foundational assessment model that measures what a corporation will and can’t do, and its potential opportunities and threats.

Strengths:The company has undertaken numerous advertising and promotional initiatives, which have improved its brand equity.

Acquired by Heineken
Strong brand portfolio helps the corporate to form a good image within the market and ensures stable revenues.

Almaza have the largest market share
Strong network of breweries helps the corporate boost client satisfaction and cut back prices
Excellent branding and high of the mind recall due to advertising and support initiatives
WeaknessesHigh prices comparing to others beer in the market, because of the high cost of production
The organization has not having the capacity to handle the difficulties show by the new entrants in the portion and has lost little piece of the overall industry in the specialty classifications. Almaza needs to fabricate inside criticism system straightforwardly from deals group on ground to counter these difficulties.

OpportunitiesExpand line of merchandise – for brand new areas and to accommodate changes in style and preference.

Innovations contribute to the top-line growth and to the strength of the Almaza whole specially.

Integration forwards and backward.

Driving top-line growth by winning customers at the purpose of purchase has been the key explanation behind the roll-out of Almaza additional Cold program.

Falling trade and ownership rules in foreign countries.

ThreatsA progressively negative perception in society towards alcohol may prompt legislators to restrictive measures.

Legal problems handling underage drinking – retailer’s license could also be revoked or suspended.

Almaza has several operations in mature brew markets wherever the attractiveness of the brew class is being challenged by different drinkable classes.

Changing client taste and preference
Input prices (including transportation and energy) have accelerated to new levels within the past few years.

7.4 Different types of Almaza BeerAlmaza Pilsener 330 ml 4.2% alc.

Almaza Pilsener 500 ml 4.2% alc.

Almaza Pure Malt 330 ml 6% alc. (malt beer)
Almaza Light 330 ml 2.7% alc.

Almaza Radler (beer & lemon) 330 ml 2.0% alc
7.5 Marketing ReviewAfter done a few examines and after conducting a meeting with the promoting administration in Almaza Mr. Fouad Mrad we found some basic information about Almaza and its opponents in the market. The most basic thing we saw is that Almaza has 85% of the market, which is a colossal number. One reason may be a result of the manner in which that Almaza uses Mass Advertising, concentrating on all pieces in the Lebanese market. Like some other thing, Almaza has contenders, and the simply more new contenders are entering the market, the more it is affecting its arrangements. Consequently, attempting to keep or augmentation its bit of the pie (market and deals), Almaza needs to stay cognizant and find new systems to shield itself from contenders, and this is the reason Almaza is giving new blend flavors.

7.6 Product PositioningWhen we consider situating, we should think about the showing of planning ‘Almaza’s’ advancing and picture in order to include a specific place in the goal market’s mind. Thus, the last result of situating is the powerful making of a market-centered regard enunciation, a persuading inspiration driving why the objective market should buy the thing. Arranging is your primary concern to the mind of the prospect. Without a doubt comprehended item generally hold a specific position in customer’s mind; ‘Almaza’ as have been taught promptly by the advancing executive that its things can’t be judged or even assessed before being moved into the concentrated on target market.

7.7 Product differentiator, unique selling point or competitive advantageBased on my visit took off at Almaza that upgrades are being made inside because it has starting late been sold to an outside organization, along these lines new machine, and new methods are being joined in the general methodology. The taste is delectable as outdated, the technique for gathering and bundling the brews up ’til now the same yet at that point, passing on and conveying the best idea of refreshment to the unmistakable parts in the Lebanese market. We see likewise the new advancing exertion pushed starting late Almaza, creatively on various sheets. These are found in various districts in Lebanon, setting Almaza in a specific and exceptional picture in association with other centered brands. Almaza is being isolated by a refined strategy of including a course of action of imperative and regarded contrasts whether in taste, quality, and compartment… to perceive the association’s advancing from those of the contenders’ contributions. All things considered, being essential with regarded points of interest, indisputable, dominating, preemptive, direct and besides helpful is a significant potential for partition. Moreover, we can find Almaza brew in an extensive variety of spots, as a rule stores and additionally in little markets in any area districts whether in a Lebanese town or in the noteworthy urban zones, for instance, Beirut, Tripoli or Zahle. Almaza do cover and accomplish viably various parts.

We can find it in le Charcutier, Bou Khalil, and Spinneys, Carrefour… Or on the other hand as said above, it could be obtained from minimal market shops near our homes. Almaza has an upper hand over its opponents in the market in such a noteworthy number of different and outstanding ways; it has constantly been with an abnormal state of value! Thusly advancing overseers at this firm are socially capable in light of the way that in any case they ensure serving the premiums of the concentrated on business areas and what’s more the organization. We found in our firm visit the movements and consistent spread of improvement, clearly an impressive measure ought to be upgraded, yet Almaza is inside the surge of new thoughts. The redesign of the bottling works incorporates an aggregate course of action of hardware, for instance, maturation, tanks and bundling line. It is the only a solitary so far working in Lebanon and it is affirmed under the name ISO 9002 for quality. Almaza can be found in Lebanon and in addition in: Canada, United States, England, France and the Gulf countries and so on…
7.8 Customers
Exactly when the promoting chief was tended to with this following inquiry: where are the customers found and how might you contact them? He essentially cleared up that customers are being come to carefully in each and every coveted area; in like manner the arrangements are made with no foreordained concentrated on places. In any case, we prescribed that following the association’s objectives and resources the firm ought to ask whether a potential part has the required traits such assize, improvement, benefit and profitability. It looks good for Almaza to consider these before focusing on, yet we understood that they are the pioneers and strong brand esteem has quite recently been existed some time previously. Almaza is starting at now using the full market scope which endeavors to serve all customer packs with each one of the things required. Tremendous changes are always required to accomplish the objectives and the mission of the firm. Advancing innovativeness as saw on announcements is a decent instance of Almaza accomplished various Lebanese in a clever, new and attractive way. Additionally, people buy Almaza for a few reasons; some get it in light of the fact that their folks used to drink it on various occasions, others are utilized to drink it at some point before any foreign lager entered the neighborhood showcases in conclusion, and who doesn’t saw the nearness of Almaza bottle on any standard Lebanese lunch or supper?
7.9 Market research plan and usability testingThe showcasing manager uncovered to us that Almaza after its things dispatch in the market, they use the trial of “center gathering” remembering the ultimate objective to assess and increment new contemplation concerning its mix, for instance, evaluating, racking and advancement. Focus group happens when a middle person meets with the closeness of a particular number of customers, for around 10 or 12; truly it depends upon the thing and the organization. The arbitrator has the required capacities that enable him to trigger the discoursed among everybody; answers are reviewed upon shown standards set by the association. Clearly, various data is discovered in the midst of this social event and these help to make the basic therapeutic exercises whether in the thing or the strategies. As it has been told, the expenses are commendable by a considerable number individuals since they are not costly. Almaza is a leader in the Lebanese market it doesn’t have to joint with any firm anyway in any occasion it can endlessly improve its inner method, systems, methodologies and apparatus. Moreover, setting up its specialists and urging them how to be more viable in conveying top notch blend, as ensured in the association’s focal objective to each one of its partners.

7.10 Almaza best advertising experienceAlmaza is the first in Lebanese creative advancing efforts, persistently going with new creative thought that copy the Lebanese individuals minds in an incredibly brilliant route, and starting late joined the web based life by their Facebook page and Twitter account and amazingly well talking with their gathering of people. Almaza plays it the smart path by making their intriguing notices with an immaterial style in visual outlines including a to a great degree creative message, acting with mix bottle as a Lebanese Multi-Character which makes their experience a human advancing one, criticizing negative personal conduct standards or substances amusingly, maintaining each and every national event, to be one of a kind publicizing learning, with the slogan: “Hayda Jawna.. Hayda Ne7na” and the sub slogan: “Eshraba b mas2ouliyi” (Drink it responsibly).

most people know the promotions that they made for their 75th recognition, propelling the offer of the free brew mug with every 6 bottles: “Ta Tenzakar, w Ten3ad” (To Be Remembered and Repeated) revamping the renowned proverb (Tenzakar wma Ten3ad).
One of the fights interfacing with the overall population was the one made at the Lebanese parliament decisions season, setting the Almaza bottle in the place of every applicant supporters, this campaign was a total accomplishment and got gigantic positive feedback.

The social Feedback moved Almaza’s commercials to be a care campaign by dropping a huge message in every promotion, such the one about dawra’s roadway activity “2awlkon 3aj2et el dawra bsabai??” (You believe dawra’s trafficis a result of me??) And the one: “Shou Bterghi” with a twofold messages (she’s much talkative) and (its froths a considerable measure).

The promotion crusade as of late made was incredible!! They attract the audience by the brilliant slogans, let’s start with the one about jeita grotto “Mesh Tale3 Sawti… 3ayto la Jeita” (I can’t shout out… Shout to Jetia) supporting the grotto in the new seven marvels rivalry. Also, the battle made upon the unforgettable win of Lebanon football group against Korea in world glass capabilities: ” 2-1 w Kess El 3alam” which signifies “world container” and “cheers” in the Lebanese inflection in a similar time, the second commercial was “El Kouri Ma Bidayen” (Korean can’t hold much) with respect to the popular sentence about Korean cars and their extras that are a terrible quality in Lebanon.

And finally we should not forget the best Almaza ad: “Kel Lebnen M3ala2 Fiya” (All Lebanon is attached to it) where we quit talking and give Almaza the full credit.

Chapter Seven: Beirut Beer8.1 Overview about Beirut BeerBeirut Brew is something other than a normal beer. An excellent Pilsner brew, smooth and adjusted, and this announcement isn’t a metaphor. After 10 years of planning, Kassatly Chtaura assembled a portion of the best beer specialists and makers in a best in class bottling works in Chtaura to make its Brew. Holding an extraordinary love for Beirut, Kassatly Chtaura named their beer after it, glad for the way that it is a 100% Lebanese Brew, possessed and made in Lebanon by and for its kin. Beirut Beer has a preference for change, a cutting edge and hopeful brew, having indistinguishable characteristics from its people. At the turn of the thousand years, Kassatly Chtaura discharged reviving, prepared to-drink vodka refreshment, Buzz. It was before long taken after by non-alcoholic carbonated natural product refreshment, Freez. The two items introduced new drinking pattern the world over.

8.2 SWOT analysis of Beirut BeerStrength
Kassatly Chtaura has been in the alcoholic drinks business for quite a long time.

Strong brand image and strong market share.

Strong communication skills.

Knowing the need and wants of the consumer.

Relying on Germany experts.

Weaknesses
Absence of brand awareness in the host country.

Low control over the distribution of beer.

Low level of exportation.

Low level of marketing and advertising.

Opportunities
Work on new, funny and fancy packaging for the new generation.

Work more on the technologies.

Threats
High brand image and more control from competitors.

Customer can shift to other brand.

8.3 Different types of Beirut BeerThe heavy weight champ 500 ml
The familiar grip 330 ml
Cousin muscle 250 ml
Beirut Beer 150 ml
Cheerleader 250 ml (Light Beer)
The chug master 250 ml (Can Beer)
The household must the draught KEG 5L
8.4 Beirut Beer launchedBeirut Beer was launched by food and beverages manufactured Kassatly Chtaura. The association in Chtaura will center on the local market, and Syria, Jordan, and African countries. Nayef Kassatly, CEO of Kassatly Chtaura, expressed: “Despite the way that the market is directed by one brand, this new packaging works will make a forceful space. We would like to get 20 percent of the market of the general business in the midst of the principal year.” He said that this piece of the overall industry won’t be taken from various brands yet through growing the market. Other than the best offering Almaza, another local beer, 961, has been conveyed and displayed on a confined scale in the midst of the latest couple of years.

The brewery works have a generation farthest point of 20 million liters yearly. Brew usage accomplishes five liters for each capital locally. It outperforms 100 liters in Europe. Kassatly Chtaura plans to expand brew use to ten liters for each capital inside five years. Beirut Brew, a pilsner, is available in four sizes of bottles and cans “Beirut mark has a substitute taste from those in the local advertises,” he said. The association coordinated a tremendous advancing exertion on televisions and billboards. Kassatly said that the demand is solid, “as customers need to taste something new.” A current 2,000 square meter stockroom was changed over into a creation line. The new office made around 45 occupations, including promoting and sales positions. Kassatly said the expense of venture came to $13 million, including machines and tools. The association benefitted from a $6 million credit supported by the National Bank (BDL). Kassatly Chtaura used the remote ability for the endeavor. Kassatly said they brought the machines, the planning technique, and know-how from Germany.

8.5 First Advertising for Beirut BeerThe Lebanese beer industry has been stored for whatever long of time, 80 years by one brand, Almaza. To position the new Beirut Brew as a “genuine, serious player”, we anticipated that would address Almaza with a prompt message, without attacking the valued brand. Along these lines, we insist individuals to ‘Take try SOMETHING NEW’, by actually using a Lebanese-saying, communicated when exhausted with life’s routines: “Does it have to be Mjadra every day?” Mjdara being an old traditional dish regularly in Lebanon. Whenever propelled, the film got quick reaction, getting individuals via web-based networking media talking about and dissecting the “Mjadra” examination, with “Mjadra” turning into Almaza’s epithet and referral. A tremendous offline and online campaign took subsequent to, asking people to part from their customary affinities and try something new. Beirut Beer bargains extended 145% over the season of the fight and now stays at 18% in the total ale promote. Nevertheless, most importantly, Beirut Brew expanded the nation over affirmation.

Amid the first week, they amassed in excess of 20K perspectives on Facebook and YouTube alone, with people through online systems administration media separating the promotion, giving their evaluation, and partaking in exchanges around the “Mjadra” examination. The notice was even a subject on the most-saw Lebanese syndicated program and television show. Beirut Beer instantly chose a fan-base on Facebook, with fans extending by 300% after the film’s discharge, and people sharing their photos on Instagram and Facebook as an assistance and proof of trying something new.

In reality, even the people who expected to vindicate their worship and loyalty for Almaza, started suggesting it as “Mjadra” while worshipping it, with Almaza re-tweeting the “Mjadra” posts. Arrangements also extended 145% over the season of the campaign and Beirut ale by and by stays at 18% in the total blend publicize.

Almaza versus Beirut Beer9.1 Brief comparisonFor around 80 years, Almaza governed over the Lebanese mix advertise. Set up in 1933, the organization asked for the particular supervision of Heineken’s at a beginning time and quickly advanced toward getting to be connected with a segment of the best advancing case of genuine brilliance in the district. It was a recipe for business accomplishment. In 2013, CNN Travel named Almaza the “king of Lebanese brews.” They situated it No. 1 in the zone.

So when the gathering ran their latest TV commercial, they passed on the mantle of Lebanese patriotism as they about constantly has in their seasons of publicizing. With some false 35 mm tape, interleaved with photos of your ordinary family get-together in the excellent Mount Lebanon and folkloric national music beyond anyone’s ability to see, Almaza needs to remind the Lebanese that the blend has been with them through everything. Fitting for Lebanon’s most outstanding brand, no? Not precisely.

Their young and feisty competition isn’t letting this kind of informing fly, anymore. They are a social affair of developing local brew makers, and they have a comment about this: enough with Almaza’s sentimentality, enough with the corporate energetic shakedown, and an extensive part of all… enough with envisioning that Almaza is a nearby thing when it was obtained by huge Dutch blend association, Heineken, years prior.

Here is Beirut Brew’s biting response to Almaza’s TV plug. Beirut Beer’s ad was discharged two weeks after Almaza’s 38-second business. Beirut beer never names its significant adversary, yet the references to the 38 second video are plain to see.

It’s an excellent takedown of Almaza’s long legacy of co-choosing Lebanese patriotism, as the potbellied storyteller strolls through film sets and makes other not by any stretch of the imagination subtle references to the declared stratagem, everything thought of it as, closes with Beirut Brew’s trademark: “Now is the perfect time.” Time to encourage local makers; we’re tolerating, and additionally the little and inventive ones. We tend to agree, especially when those little producers finish an exceptional action at shaking up tired banalities.

9.2 Comparing the 4P’s of Beirut Beer versus AlmazaProduct: It’s irrefutably not a top quality beer concerning taste. Especially while everything that they do suggests that they’re out there to get bits of the piece of the pie (market) and not make loyalty.

Promotion: They’re involved with describing themselves in regard to Almaza… Their advancements imply too much to the opposition… which backs up my imagined story toward the beginning of the article! They don’t for the most part examine thing quality or any point related to their noteworthy identity (okay they don’t for the most part have a unique character)…
They are proud to be 100% Lebanese Beer (comparing themselves to Almaza Beer)
“Sar Wa2ta” trademark (converted into “finally, it is about time”), insinuating the way that it’s chance that another brew got to know the market, which has been administered by Almaza for so long time.

A large number of ads they frequently exchange on the web, with stories and mottos, suggest that they’re using Almaza’s dialect of “Hayda Jawna, Hayad Ne7na” battle. The notices and trademarks are not excessively fun, but rather they keep electronic online networking running and possessed, and they’re concentrating on their right assembling of individuals.

Price: They are cheaper than Almaza Beer but with low quality and taste. Anyway they do hit the spot when a price sensitive consumer will get a Beirut Beer bottle or 6 pack, rather than an Almaza. There likely lies their great offering methodology. I’m assuming they’re penetrating on various sections, age gatherings and social/word related status groups. But Almaza have launching “Al Rayess” to compete with Beirut Beer.

Place: The entire Brew in Lebanon Share the same Market and they have the same customers.

9.3 Compare the price and size of the BrewsTypes/Sizes of the bottles Price of Almaza Price of Beirut Beer
Glass Bottle 150 ml 0 750 L.L
Glass Bottle 250 ml 1.250 L.L 1.150 L.L
Can Bottle 250 ml 0 1.000 L.L
Glass Bottle 330 ml 1.750 L.L 1.350 L.L
Glass light Bottle 330 ml 1.650 L.L 1.100 L.L
Pure Malt Glass Bottle 330 ml 1.760 L.L 0
Glass Bottle 500 ml 1.999 L.L 1.750 L.L
Can Bottle 500 ml 0 1.500 L.L
Radler Glass Bottle 330 ml 1.513 L.L 0
Gallon 5Liters 0 25.000 L.L
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Comparing the price and size of the brewsAccording to the table above, you can find that Almaza and Beirut Beer are always in a continuous competition.
First we should focus that when Kassatly Chtaura launched her Beer – Beirut Beer- Almaza didn’t take it as a direct competition to her but as indirect competition, they launched Al Rayess Beer to face them. But after the advertising of Beirut Beer (Mjadra and Khayak l kbir), Almaza was their first competition and not Al Rayess Beer.

Almaza continues to produce Al Rayess Beer and they compete with Beirut Beer with two brand name.

Based to the table we can consider that Almaza have the highest prices and Beirut Beer always focuses on the lowest prices.

Almaza Beer work always on the glass bottles and focus on producing different flavor not only the ordinary and light one but also the pure matte and Radler.

Beirut Beer work on different sizes and shapes of the bottles they have the glass, can and gallon beer. And this expansion related to the client wants and needs.

Beirut Beer was the first that have introduce 250 ml beer to the market, Almaza follow her steps and make the same size of bottle and introduce it to the market, so Beirut Beer have introduce 150 ml beer to the market. All people did not know why they introduce this bottle to the market because it is too small and no benefit from it because when you buy beer it is because of gathering and chilling with friends or family so no benefit from 150 ml of beer.

Beirut Beer also has introduce to the market the gallon beer which have a positive impact on people because when they have event or chilling with family and friends they can buy the gallon beer with an affordable price and can everyone drink it.
In our interview with the marketing manager in almaza if they will introduce the gallon beer to the market, they said that the best taste for our beer you get it when you drink it directly from the glass bottle, not from can or even from a gallon.

Results and AnalysisThis chapter illustrates the statistical facts that have been obtained through both the interviews and the survey made to complete the research.
10.1 Analysis of the interviewWe have visited both company Almaza Beer and Beirut Beer. And we conduct an interview with their marketing manager to ask them some question related to their expansion in the brew market and to complete our research.

The two companies have the similar ideas and knowledge about the brand expansion and his impact on brand personality.

The first question was about what is the more beneficial brand expansion or brand creation, both companies said that brand expansion is cheaper than brand creation because the company can use the same image of existing brand and less risky, easier to communicate with retailers and negotiate with them to put brand that excite than negotiate to put new brand in their shops.

The second question was related to the advantage and disadvantage of the brand extension. Almaza Beer said that brand extension can enhance the existing brand and also can lead to enhance the existing brand if we use it in wrong way and in wrong time. Beirut Beer said that the brand extension is more profitable in short- run but more disadvantageous in long- run, the company should take in consideration that at the first stage brand extension save money compared to launch a new brand but in long- run the company should pay attention do not make too much extension and not to extent their brand to some areas too far from their business line.

The third question about the successful brand extension , and both have the same opinion “image synergy” all the product should have the same taste and quality but they only differ in the size of the bottles.

Their answer on the forth question concerning the reaction of their competitors when they do an extension, Almaza said that she is the leader in the market and all other brands follow what she does, Beirut Beer knows that she is new in the market but they took a portion of the market and sometime they come with new idea and Almaza follow her such as the new head of the bottle and the new size 250 ml when Beirut Beer created Almaza follow their steps.

Does the brand image favor the brand extension? Almaza and Beirut Beer agree that brand image favor the brand extension because when customer are loyal to parent brand the brand extension will not fail and will create a fruitful success.

Does brand extension fit with the parent brand? They define the similarity between the brand extension and parent brand by using three components.
Brand image: the image of extension should be similar to the parent brand
Product Features: the same physical features of the parent brand
Consumer Goals: same benefit when using extension brand
10.2 Analysis of the surveyAfter I distribute 200 papers of my survey on supermarkets located in Bekaa region (eco-market, msaed market, 8to late market, jarouj market), 120 peoples have completed the survey. After I collect the papers and analyzed them these are the results: -825503514725
Interpretation: this chart shows us the percentage of gender of the customer that has completed our survey.
And according to the data collected 70% of people are male and 30% of people are female.

leftbottom00
Interpretation: this chart shows the age of the population chosen in the survey.
Based on the data 40% of people are between 18-25 years old, 30% of population are between 26-35 years old, 19% of the population between 36-45 years old, 9% of people are between 46-55 years old and finally 2% of the population are more than 56 years old.

lefttop0
Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of population that enjoys drinking.
According to the data collected 85% of the population enjoy drinking, 15% do not enjoy drinking.

-24320529368750
Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of the population that drinks Beer.

90% of the populations drink beer and 10% of the populations do not drink beer.

leftbottomInterpretation: This chart shows the percentage of drinking per week.

According to the data collected, 15% of the population drink beer less than once per week, 25% of the population drink between once or twice per week, 30% of the population drink beer between three and four time per week beer, 20% of the population drink between five to six time in one week, and 10% of the population drink everyday beer.

lefttopInterpretation: This Chart shows the most likely brand by our population.

45% of the populations like Almaza Beer, 40% of the populations like Beirut Beer, 5% of the populations like Heineken Beer and 10% of the populations like Al Rayess Beer.

-63533534350
Interpretation: This chart shows the best kind of beer liked by our population.

60% of the populations like the ordinary beer, 10% of the populations like the pure malt beer, and 15% of the population like the light beer and 5% of the population like the Radler beer.

-13017561937900Interpretation: This chart shows why the population like the chosen brand.40% of the populations like the beer because of the taste, 30% of the populations like the beer because of the price, 20% of the population buy specific brand because of the shape and the size of the bottle, 5% of the population their purchases related to a friend recommendation and the other 5% because of other reason such as their parents used to buy a specific brand
lefttop00Interpretation: This chart shows how the population rate Almaza Beer based on some characteristics.

Almaza focus on the quality and the taste of her brew. And when customer buys almaza they do not focus on the prices because they search on the best taste of brew. And also Almaza has more flavor such as Radler beer, beer with lemon. They do not take into consideration too much the appearance of the bottle because the entire brew has the same shape and glassware.

leftcenter
Interpretation: This chart shows how the population rate Beirut Beer based on some characteristics.

Beirut Beer has the best price but with low quality the taste of Beirut Beer not tasty likes Almaza Beer, but they have highest percentage of alcohol than Almaza beer, Beirut Beer focus always on the size and shapes of the bottles but they do not create new flavors to compete with they only focus on the original taste of beer.

leftbottom0
Interpretation: This chart shows how much the design of the bottle is important when we make the decision to buy Beer.

According to the data collected 10% of people think that design is not important and 15% of the populations think that design is very important.

lefttopInterpretation: This chart shows how much the population takes into consideration the price when they buy beer.

People take into consideration the price when they buy beer. 50% of the population said that price is important but also 55% they are on the average they take into consideration the taste and the quality when they make a purchase decision.

leftcenter0
Interpretation: This chart shows how much the percentage of the alcohol in the brew affects the buy decision of the population.

35% of people do not take into consideration the percentage of alcohol when they make any buy decision, most of people do not look to the percentage of the alcohol that one bottle contain. 10% of the populations focus on the percentage of alcohol in the brew when they buy it.

leftbottomInterpretation: This chart shows how much is important the size of the bottles to the population when they buy beer.

According to the data collected 80% said that the size of the bottle is important and this percentage is high because they all agree that when they buy beer they take into consideration WHY they buy it. If there is a huge event or if they buy only two bottle to drink it in the car.

DiscussionAfter I collect the data from the interview and the survey and analyze them we find that customer buys more almaza than Beirut Beer when it is related to the quality of the beer, and they buy Beirut Beer when they focus on the prices.
In addition the extensions of almaza focus on new flavor such as Pure Malt and the Radler beer. But the extensions of Beirut Beer focus on the size and shape of bottle rather than the new flavor.

Customers buy Beirut Beer more when they have events because they can buy one gallon of beer 5 Liter and it’s will be less costly than Almaza,(if they buy a bottles of almaza) in addition Almaza do not have the gallon yet.
We should pay attention that Beirut Beer was the first beer that have change the head of the bottle and make it easier to the client to open it, and almaza follows her steps.

The extension that the companies do in the market has a positive impact on the market. The clients have many choices when they do a purchase decision.

The two companies always make expansion in their product, new shapes, new taste, and new design. Because they see that the expansion has a positive impact on their brand and on the personality of the brand and how consumers see their products in the market.

The extension in the brand has a positive impact on customers, sales and the profits of the company. As I have seen in my research the client are happy in the competition between the two brand because they make new product with affordable price and because the monopolistic of Almaza has disappear in the market.

RecommendationThus suggest that in order for the organization to keep up item brand picture after an extension, organizations should center on their image correspondence for expansion quality. Where expansion quality is essential to buyers, vertical brand expansion are suggested. In such circumstances, advertisers are urged to utilize a sub-brand or an alternate brand name through in request to keep the parent brand being negatively influenced. Isolate brand promotional methodologies for new items could likewise be conveyed.

When in doubt, associations need to emphasize quality inside brand correspondence frameworks for developments and ought to go for a fit between the extension and parent brand. Where higher thing brand picture is clear, potential points of interest must legitimize the movement and fit should be as close as would be reasonable.

The achievement and the disappointment of brand extension it is identified with the client mental picture to the organization. A solid brand picture will vary one brand to another. Additionally brand loyalty is capable to oversee brand with brand image. Organizations ought to dependably enhance her image picture since clients can move to other brand due to the prefers their image picture.

After 5 months work on the research, you can find that the two brands have their position in the market and in the mind of the consumers. And the competition in the brew Lebanese market is between Almaza Beer and Beirut Beer.

And the expansion in this two brands have a positive impact to the market, they make the market always in action and dynamic position and customers are the first beneficiary from this competition because they can get their wants or needs from two different brand with the affordable price, taste that they likes.

ConclusionThe result of the research indicates that the brand expansion has a positive impact on the brand personality. Consumer evaluates the expansion based on how it is similar to the parent brand. The importance of brands in an extremely forceful part of high-volume things will continue to increase and the survival will be possible only for those brands that are sufficiently strong and satisfactorily isolated from the restriction.

An association’s crucial to advance is to make sense of what makes its picture so one of a kind in connection to the restriction and to continue with its focal objective as viably later on too. A brand that has quality and is entrenched ensures a high ground accessible and, meanwhile, requires incredible organization and treatment of its character. A basic part amid the procedure in mark administration is brand extension.
The investigation in this exhibited the brand extension system impacts brand image. The quality seen by the client in connection to the original brand, client nature with the parent brand and the client’s attitude towards this brand contribute positively to the last brand picture after expansion, regardless of whether it is the general brand or product image.

Additionally, the fit between the first and extended product classification advantage the general brand image after expansion. Disposition toward brand expansion, brand picture fit and last brand image are among the variables being affected by introductory brand image. The significance of focusing on introductory brand image totally, since absence of regard for this variable can prompt disappointment of new item and tremendous costs incurred by the organization.

The outcomes likewise demonstrated that the client’s enthusiasm for the unique item classification can be influenced adversely after expansion, demonstrating that the weakening impact of augmentation spreads to the stretched out brand as well as to its whole classification. It is apparent that an unsuccessful brand extension would hurt a whole classification and it is conceivable that this unsuccessful expansion hurts future launchings.

ReferencesAaker, D.A. and Keller, K.L. (1990), “Consumer evaluations of brand extensions”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, pp. 27-41
Aaker, D.A. (2008), Brand Portfolio Strategy: Creating Relevance, Differentiation, Energy, Leverage and Clarity, Free Press, New York, NY,
Bhat, S. and Reddy, S.K. (2001), “The impact of parent brand attribute associations and affect on brand extension evaluation”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 53 No.3, pp. 111-122
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Broniarczyk, S.M. and Alba, J.W. (2004), “The importance of the brand in brand extension”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31, May, pp. 214-28.

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Czellar, S. (2003), Consumer attitude toward brand extensions: An integrative model and research propositions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(1), 97-115.

Dacin, P.A., and Smith, D.C. (2004), “The effect of brand portfolio characteristics on consumer evaluations of brand extensions”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.31 No.May, pp.229-42
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Appendix15.1 Interview1.Brand extension is considered as more advantageous than new brand creation. What do you think about this statement?
2.What are the advantages and disadvantages of brand extension strategy?
3.What are your advices to obtain a successful brand extensions strategy?
4.How did the competition react to your brand extension?
5.Does the Brand Image Favor a Brand Extension?
6.Does the Brand Extension “Fit” with the Parent Brand?

15.2 SurveyPlease Select your gender
Male
Female
Please select your range of age
18-25 years
26-35 years
36-45 years
46-55 years
56 and up
Do you enjoy drinking?
Yes
No
Do you Drink Beer?
Yes
No
How often do you drink the beer?
Less than once a week
1-2 times a week
3-4 times a week
5-6 times a week
Almost everyday
Which brands of the beer do you like the most?
Almaza Beer
Beirut Beer
Colonel Beer
961 Beer
Corona Beer
Heineken Beer
Almest Beer
Al Rayess Beer
Stella Artois Beer
Efes Beer
Which kinds of the beer do you like the most?
Ordinary
Pure Malt
Light
Radler
Why you like this Brand?
Taste
Price
Shape
Friends’ recommendations
18580611022100Others:
Rate the following characteristics based on your opinion for Almaza Beer from 1 to 5
(1: less important…5: very important)
Quality
Price
Different Flavor
Percentage of alcohol
Appearance (Glassware, Color, Clarity, head;head retention)
Rate the following characteristics based on your opinion for Beirut Beer from 1 to 5
(1: less important…5: very important)
Quality
Price
Different Flavor
Percentage of alcohol
Appearance (Glassware, color, clarity, Head; head retention)
How strongly do you think “design” is an important factor when buying beer?
1 (Not important)
2
3
4
5 (very important)
How strongly do you think “Price” is an important factor when buying Beer?
1 (Not important)
2
3
4
5 (Very important)
How strongly do you think “% of alcohol” is important factor when buying beer?
1 (not important)
2
3
4
5 (Very important)
Do you think the sizes of the beer affect your purchase? And why?
Yes
No
596265295275005918202349500
Thank you for your time to complete the survey

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