Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

This literature review discuses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and how it is identified and assessed on learners at school level. It will be organized starting with defining ADHD, followed by definition of terms related to ADHD, characteristics, causes, prevalence and lastly diagnosis.
Definition of Terms
(Barkley, 2011) Defines Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a brain disorder characterized by manifestations of core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that interferes with the normal functioning and development of a person. ADHD causes behavioral problems that makes an individual to be disorganized and unable to focus.
ADHD indications can show up as early as between the ages of 3 and 6 and can continue through adolescent and adulthood. Signs of ADHD can be blend up for excited or disciplinary issues or missed completely in calm, well-behaved children, driving to a delay in determination. (Dupaul et al., 2006) Adults with undiscovered ADHD may have a history of poor academic execution, issues at work, or troublesome or dysfunctional relationships.
ADHD indications can alter over time as an individual ages. In youthful children with ADHD, hyperactivity-impulsivity is the most foremost transcendent side effect. As a child reaches elementary school, the indications of carelessness may end up be more noticeable and cause the child to struggle academically. (Castle et al., 2007). In adolescence, hyperactivity appears to reduce and may appear more regular as sentiments of fidgeting, but inattention and impulsivity may remain. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors. Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood.

Characteristics of ADHD

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. Some people with ADHD only have problems with one of the behaviors, while others have both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Most children have the combined type of ADHD. In preschool, the most common ADHD symptom is hyperactivity. It is normal to have some inattention, unfocused motor activity and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe, occur more often and interfere with or reduce the quality of how they functions socially, at school, or in a job. (DeNoon, D. 2007)
Inattention
Inattention can be defined as a reduced mental concentration that lead to a learner being disorganized and persistently getting off task. In a classroom setup, a learner who is inattentive may not follow instructions, doesn’t finish work or schoolwork which may lead to making thoughtless mistakes in schoolwork due to forgetfulness, failure to organize thoughts and tasks, loss of concentration and initiative when directly spoken to experience problems in maintaining attention during tasks. (Oosterlaan, 2014)
People with symptoms of inattention may often overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities. They have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading. They do not seem to listen when spoken to directly neither do they follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace or start tasks but quickly lose focus and get easily sidetracked. (DeNoon, 2007) People with ADHD have problems organizing tasks and activities, such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, having messy work and poor time management, and failing to meet deadlines.
These people avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers. They also tend to lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones
People with symptoms of inattention may often overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities. They have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading. They do not seem to listen when spoken to directly neither do they follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace or start tasks but quickly lose focus and get easily sidetracked. (DeNoon, 2007) People with ADHD have problems organizing tasks and activities, such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, having messy work and poor time management, and failing to meet deadlines.
These people avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers. They also tend to lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones

Hyperactivity and Impulsivity
Hyperactivity is a condition that involves an impulse behavior in which an individual appears to move about continually, combining with improper movements that include excessive taps, fidget and impulsively squirms in addiction the child may even appear restless. (Cherney, 2014)
Children with hyperactivity disorder display a robust behavior that include impatience and disturbing conversations while people are talking , endless talking and untimely uttering out comments, unable to sit still and attempting to tasks quietly, running around and driving objects such as phones and rulers, Constantly leaving his seat, jumping or climbing on furniture and other inappropriate places
Impulsivity implies a person makes hasty activities and actions instantly which can be harmful to an individual and others without first thinking about them. A person who is impulsive may be extremely interruptive and socially intrusive to others. Impulsivity is characterized by fine and cross motor difficulties such as clumsiness, Extreme excitement, Fearlessness, endangering self or others and reduced level of frustration tolerance. (Oosterlaan, 2014)
People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or in the office. Run or dash around or climb in situations where it is inappropriate or, in teens and adults, often feel restless. (Castle et al., 2007). Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly. Be constantly in motion or “on the go,” or act as if “driven by a motor”. Talk nonstop and blurt out an answer before a question has been completed, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in conversation.

Causes of ADHD
Like numerous other ailments, a number of variables can contribute to ADHD, such as: Genes, Cigarette smoking, alcohol and or drug intake during pregnancy, exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy such as high levels of lead, at a young age, low birth weight among others.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Researchers have found an association between mothers who smoked tobacco products or used alcohol during their pregnancy and the development of behavior and learning problems in their children. A similar association between lead exposure and hyperactivity has been found, especially when the lead exposure occurs in the first three years. Nicotine, alcohol, and lead can be toxic to developing brain tissue and may have sustained effects on the behavior of the children exposed to these substances at early ages. However, it is unlikely that such exposure accounts for differences in brain development in the vast majority of children and adolescents with ADHD.
Injury to the Brain from Trauma, Brain Tumors, Strokes or Disease
Damage to the brain can be the result of injury for example blow to the head, brain tumor or stroke. These variables can cause issues with carelessness and poor control of locomotive movements and motivations. Whereas such conditions can result in a determination of ADHD, the event of such is atypical.

Diagnosis
Diagnosis of ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician, such as a pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist with expertise in ADHD. For a person to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity must be chronic or long-lasting, impair the person’s functioning, and cause the person to fall behind normal development for his or her age.. Most children with ADHD receive a diagnosis during the elementary school years. For an adolescent or adult to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms need to have been present prior to age 12.

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Avery

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out