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The media is a technology that carries messages to a large number of people as newspaper carries printed word and radio conveys the sound of music and news just like television/film conveys both sound and vision. It is subdivided into traditional and new media. The traditional media consists of Broadcast (Radio/Television/film) and print (newspaper, magazine, books etc). The new media called as Internet, that is related to all the traditional media. All these forms of media function to gather, process and disseminate information or messages of different things to their respective audience that are scattered, and anonymous. They educate,enlighten, socialize, mobilize and correlate.
Moreover, the media do not supply just facts and data but also explanations and interpretation of events and situations. Media offer various explanations correlating and interpreting information to make the reality clear. Unlike normal reporting, interpretation functions provide knowledge. News analysis, commentaries, editorials, and columns are some examples of interpretative contents. Basically, such types of interpretative contents are prepared by those journalists who have a vast knowledge of background information and strong analytical ability.
Malaysia is composed of thirteen states, eleven of which are located on the peninsula that extends south from Thailand, with the South China Sea to its east and the Indian Ocean to its west. Singapore lies at the southern tip of peninsular Malaysia. Two states, Sabah and Sarawak, are located on the island of Borneo and are known as “East Malaysia.”
Furthermore, the Malaysian television viewing options include over-the-air, or “free-to-air,” signals from both government-owned (Radio-Television Malaysia, or RTM) and privately owned stations, subscription signals distributed by microwave, and satellite signals distributed by direct broadcast satellite. Free-to-air television signals include those from RTM’sTV-1and TV-2, and signals from the privately owned TV-3, Metrovision, and NCTV-7. Signals fromall these stations are available throughout peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia via Translator transmitters that rebroadcast the signals.
In media contains of media conglomarates which means a corporation that is made up of a number of different, seemingly unrelated businesses. In a conglomerate, one company owns a controlling stake in a number of smaller companies, which conduct business separately. Media conglomerations have two integration which is vertical and horizontal.
There are four types pattern of media ownership. Which is the state or government, families, private and corporations and public or others.
Media is considered as fourth pillar of democracy because it provides information, source of entertainment, debates and discussions, virtual classes, patform to express views and opinions. The pattern and distribution of ownership and use of lands greatly affects the ability to sustain natural resources. Management options, resource demand and ecological processes are affected by how the land is managed, fragmented, and patterned. Successful sustainable management depends upon the degree of functional connectivity across ownerships, boundaries, and landscapes. In Malaysia, there are four pattern of media ownership which is state or government, families, private and corporations and public or others.
State and government media are owned by the state or the government of the day (and financed out of public money) and directly controlled by it. It may perform a public service function or it may be a propaganda instrument of the state or government. State and government media is also generally not-for-profit. On average, the state controls approximately 29 percent of news-papers and 60 percent of television stations. The state owns a huge share 72 percen of the top radio stations. On the basis of these findings, for the remaining analysis we classify ownership into three categories. First, state or private (which is the sum of the family, widely held, and employee categories), and other. Television has significantly higher levels of state ownership than newspapers.
Another pattern of media ownership are private and corporations. Private and corporations means a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company’s stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are unquoted company and unlisted company. In media of Malaysia, one of the private companies is Media Prima. Media Prima Berhad, Malaysia’s largest integrated media group is acquiring 100% of REV Asia Holdings, one of Southeast Asia’s leading digital media groups. The strategic acquisition of REV Asia Holdings demonstrates the firm’s commitment to capitalise on the growing demand for digital content amongst consumers. The acquisition is expected to result in the growth of revenue contributions from Media Prima’s digital platform exponentially. In political aspects, media Malaysia currently has about 13.6 million Facebook users . This is 48% of the population. It also has the highest Twitter usage in the world. And with such an audience, it is understandable that social media would become an extremely important part of the political sphere. There has been a mass scale digitisation of the ASEAN countries and in the next few decades this population will adopt more digital services to meet their needs. Apart from digitisation, the other important trend is urbanisation. This will create more access to social media, technology and the internet. For example, Facebook helped build a community around the response to the crisis, providing minute-by-minute information and thus mobilising communities.
Third, public or others is one of the pattern of media ownership. Its means that employee organizations, trade unions, political parties, the church, community, not-for-profit foundations, and business associations. Public media have two types which is public service broadcasting (PSB) which is focused on the public good and is independent; and state-owned media which is controlled and funded by the state (tax-payers) and may be more or less focused on the public good, but is sometimes simply a mouthpiece for the government of the day. The example of public or others is UNESCO defines Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) as “broadcasting made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. PSBs are neither commercial nor state-owned; they are liberate from political interference and pressure from commercial forces. Through PSBs, citizens are informed, educated and also entertained. When guaranteed with pluralism, programming diversity, editorial independence, appropriate funding, accountability and transparency, public service broadcasting can serve as a cornerstone of democracy.
Lastly, families. Families means the family firms of ownership structure in Malaysia. The main features of Malaysian-listed firms is the high caliber of ownership concentration by a family and significant participant of controlling family shareholders in a management. The family shareholders have the impulse to abuse funds at the investment of minority shareholders. Its also cause conflict of interest between family shareholders and minority shareholders. Based on Emerging Markets Committee, 31% of Malaysia’s market capitalisation is accounted by foreign institutional unvestors’ investment in 2010.

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