Table Of Contents
TOC o "1-1" h u HYPERLINK l _Toc4198 Introduction of Diplomacy PAGEREF _Toc4198 3
HYPERLINK l _Toc19251 Diplomatic achievements of Pakistan PAGEREF _Toc19251 3
HYPERLINK l _Toc14481 Diplomatic Failures of Pakistan PAGEREF _Toc14481 3
HYPERLINK l _Toc24 Problems with Pakistan Diplomacy PAGEREF _Toc24 3
HYPERLINK l _Toc32723 Diplomatic achievements of India PAGEREF _Toc32723 3
HYPERLINK l _Toc11805 Diplomatic failure of India PAGEREF _Toc11805 3
HYPERLINK l _Toc18812 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc18812 3
India’s 70 years Diplomatic Achievements
1. First Kashmir war: 1947–48
The Pakistani irregular attackers suddenly attacked in Oct 1947 and were quickly coming near Srinagar and could have won the entire state if the raiders had pursued the king. Instead they indulged in rioting and pillage. The J;K armed forces couldn’t stop the Pakistani raiders. Hence the Maharaja approached India and signed the instrument of accession to get Indian support. Indian army was airlifted and they fought back. They recaptured most areas all over the state but the areas of control between India and Pakistan had settled to roughly two-thirds on India’s side and roughly one-thirds
in Pakistan’s side. Indian army had accomplished the best of what they could with the available resources and situation. With the winter setting in and logistics at that time both the armies couldn’t change borders much.
Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru approached UN only because Indian army couldn’t completely evict the Pakistani army and raiders from the Kashmir kingdom. Presently many people blame Mr. Nehru without understanding the context in which he did it. It was natural for Nehru to approach the world body for settlement of the dispute under the circumstances he was facing. India’s victory would have been complete if the government of the time had decided to fight the war till the end without relying on the United Nations and the International community to decide on the issue.
The terms of the ceasefire were laid at by the UN. They terms were sequential in order.
Firstly it required Pakistan to withdraw its forces, both regular and irregular.
Secondly it allowed India to maintain minimum strength to maintain peace in the state.
On compliance of the above two conditions in the said order, a plebiscite was supposed to take place to determine the future of the state.
2. 1971 war: When India won and Bangladesh got liberated
The War of 1971 resulted in the dismemberment of East Pakistan. Pakistan had lost almost 54% of its population and 93,000 of its soldiers and civilians were in Indian possession. Therefore, the new government’s initial challenges were to come out the state of emergency and resolve the matter of POW’s as soon as possible. The Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 is heralded as one of the most convincing victories of the annals of the military history and eventually leading up to the liberation of Bangladesh on December 16. India and Bangladesh, since then, celebrate Vijay Diwas, also known as Victory day, every year to mark both the countries’ military victory over Pakistan. "After this day, the birth of a new nation took place, which is now known as Bangladesh. This was the first time, in the 21st century, where India showed the whole world that it liberated a new country. Maybe this was the first after Second World War that a new country was born out of a war. All the army, all the commands that took part in that war, the veterans, who took part in this war, are also called in to join the celebration,"
3. The Simla Agreement (2nd of July, 1972)
India and Pakistan were in direct contact with each other through diplomatic channels after the War and both had realized the need to enter into the negotiations. From January 12, 1972 to April 30, 1972 both countries showed their inclination for dialogue through press statements and talks were opened at initial level. Finally, it was agreed that the talks between Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indra Gandhi would open on June 28, 1972. The summit conference between Bhutto and Indra Gandhi opened in Simla on the decided time. The summit conference was held from June 28 to July 2, 1972. The agreement sought to lay down the envisaged steps to be taken for the normalization of bilateral relations and to settle mutual disputes through peaceful means and bilateral negotiations. India wanted to settle all the problems in one package, so it proposed a treaty of friendship pledging the two countries to abjure the use of force in setting disputes, to refrain from interference in each other’s personal internal affairs, to desist from seeking third-party intervention in the settlement of their differences and to renounce military alliances directed against each other. Pakistan wished to concentrate on such immediate issues as the release of POW’s, the disengagement of troops, and the resumption of diplomatic relations. It objected to the Indian proposal on the ground that it would involve permanent acceptance of the division of Kashmir and the withdrawal of Kashmir dispute from the United Nations.
It was on 16th December, 1971 that Lieutenant General AAK Niazi, the commander of Pakistan Eastern Command signed the Instrument of Surrender in Dhaka. So basically, Pakistan lost the war against India (as always). The talks for a peace agreement were initiated in Simla in June, 1972. When the talks started, Pakistan intended to limit the talks to the release of almost 93,000 Pakistani POWs(Prisoner of War) and reclamation of about 5000 square-miles of Pakistani area captured by the Indian forces. India, on the other hand, was determined to include the Kashmir issue and settle it once and for all. The Indian demand, was that the then Line-of-Control in Kashmir be transformed to International border.
India had won the war against Pakistan (yet again!).
East Pakistan was transformed to Bangladesh.
Due to Pakistan’s embarrassing loss, Pakistani Army Chief Yahya Khan was forced to resign.
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto became the new President and the head of Pakistan state.
4. Pokhran I : India becomes 6th nation to set off Nuclear Device
Smiling Buddha was the assigned code name of India’s first successful nuclear bomb test on 18 May 1974.The bomb was detonated on the army base, Pokhran Test Range (PTR), in Rajasthan by the Indian Army under the supervision of several key Indian generals. It was also the first confirmed nuclear weapons test by a nation outside the five permanent members of the United Nation Security Council. With the Smiling Buddha, India became the world’s sixth nuclear power after the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France and China to successfully test out a nuclear bomb. With the Smiling Buddha, India became the world’s sixth nuclear power after the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France and China to successfully test out a nuclear bomb.
5. Pokhran II: India’s Nuclear Test
The Pokhran-II tests were a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army’s Pokhran Test Range in May 1998. It was the second instance of nuclear testing conducted by India; the first test, code-named Smiling Buddha, was conducted in May 1974. On the 11th and 13th May, India conducted a set of five nuclear tests, stunning the world. Those tests set India on a road that led to a global acknowledgement of India not merely a nuclear power. very simply, it helped to get the global high table to make space for India. India had three objectives. First was to validate new designs to ensure the credibility of the nuclear deterrent as the data set from the 1974 test was limited. Second was to declare that India was now a nuclear weapon state and modify the terms of our engagement with other states accordingly. Third was to generate an acceptance of India as a responsible state with an impeccable non proliferation record.
Diplomatic Failure Of India
Approaching ICJ In Case Of Jadhav India’s Diplomatic Failure
CPI-M General Secretary Sitaram Yechury on Thursday said approaching the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the case of alleged Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav indicated the Narendra Modi governments “diplomatic failure
Pakistan going to international court of justice ICJ indicated that diplomatic
Failure of India on sensitive issue for India spy sent by RAW he was involved in number of terrorist attacked on Pakistan that is why Pakistan alleged to India in ICJ. Yechury said that Pakistan should respect the decision of ICJ and he also said that this shows the India government diplomatic failure that’s why they still could not resolved this issue
Diplomatic Failure Led to India-China War
The India-China war of 1962 could have been dispel if these country had sat down the across the negotiation table and they could find the way to revive the punchsheel pact
But difficult was it India took the aggressive stand and refused the chines proposal to talk.India exposes the many other facts that the 1962 war was an act of treachery by china on a peace loving and gullible India .
The Sino-Indian boundary was never delineated, and India erred in unilaterally fixing her boundaries in 1954.But the dispute was not over just boundaries, as most indian believes and the actions of the army and paramilitary forces, which the Chines interpreted as unfriendly .
It was the failure of Indian diplomacy that had led to the war. Talks would have acted as venting valve for many distrust that had developed between these two countries which had never fought each other till the fateful autumn of 1962.
3)TAPI Pipeline diplomatic failure of India
Despite the importance of the so called TAPI pipeline from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan and Pakistan to India, no International
Firm is ready to finance the the the project. This failure occurs even though the U.S supports an expanded indian role in central Asia, and the american presence vastly enlarges the political , economics and military space available to India. inspite of American help India failed in diplomatic project of TAPI due to poor government diplomacy.
Pakistan and India went to War over Kashmir in 1999
Proving all claims and assessments wrong, a few hundred militants continue to control some of the most crucial mountainous positions in the Kargil-Dras region. As all attempts by the Indian ground and air forces to recapture the lost positions are frustrated by the well-equipped militants, the intensity in artillery duels between Indian and Pakistani troops along the Line of Control touches new heights.
The Indian government’s snub to Pakistan’s proposal for talks, and its refusal to hold any dialogue until the withdrawal of the "Islamabad-backed infiltrators" from Kargil, and Pakistan’s categorical rejection of its direct involvement, has led to a new level of jingoism in India. Pakistan has got the many area of kashmir due to the failure of india diplomatic Kashmir yet is the serious issue for both countries Pakistan and India Pakistan has the sentimental emotions with kashmir
Diplomatic achievements of Pakistan
Elected member IAEA board of Governor
Pakistan has once again been elected a member board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the next two years.
Pakistan has been elected 19 times to the board in the past and has played a crucial part in the formulation of the agency’s policies and programs .
A Pakistani delegation led by Chairman Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Muhammad Naeem attended the IAEA’s meeting in Vienna, Austria where the election was held.
The board consist of 35 members out of 11 members are elected to the board of governors every two years.being elected the member of IAEA board of governors is a big diplomatic achievements of pakistan.
It shows the country status as a responsible nuclear power state.
Pakistan , China and CPEC
Pakistan-China friendship undoubtedly has stood the test of time. Since 1963 when the two countries signed the border demarcation agreement, the friendship between the two countries has steadily grown in strength despite the vicissitudes of time and changes of governments on both sides. The secret of the steady growth of this friendship lies in policies of non-interference in each other’s internal affairs followed by the two countries, the convergence of their strategic interests, and mutual cooperation in strategic, political, security, economic, commercial, and technical fields. Pakistan-China friendship not only serves their best interests but also strengthens regional peace and stability.
China attaches high priority to its friendly relations with Pakistan. President Xi Jinping, during his visit to Pakistan in April 2015 to sign CPEC agreement, called Pakistan an ‘Iron Brother’ which means a friend who is firm and solid as iron. Calling a friend ‘Iron Brother’ is the highest praise and affection that can be expressed in Mandarin. The use of this phrase for Pakistan by President Xi Jinping simply shows that China attaches the highest importance to Pakistan-China friendship in the conduct of its foreign policy.China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) agreement, which envisages Chinese investment amounting to $62 billion in various sectors in Pakistan as part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), is both a reflection of the close ties between the two countries and an evidence of their determination to strengthen them further.This was the huge achievements of Pakistan diplomatic.