Stage A – Needs of People Requiring Care
John is 67 years old. He has no family but has a close friend who visits occasionally. John lives in the country as he prefers the peace and quiet. John has had type 1 diabetes, but unfortunately 6 years ago had his right leg amputated due to his diabetes, forcing him to walk with a frame. Since then, John doesn’t go out the house, had to sell his car which he loved, and finds it hard to get about the house. He tries to shower and dress himself but finds it exhausting and difficult. He also struggles to cook for himself. 5 years ago, John had an incident where his blood sugars were too low, and he collapsed on a radiator. Luckily, he was found that day and was admitted to hospital with severe burns. John has arranged for everyday care and is relieved and excited to receive some help as well as interact with people again.
Every individual has basic human needs that must be met in order to survive. These needs are social, physical, emotional, cognitive and cultural needs (SPECC). For example, a physical need that needs to be met in order for humans to survive is food, water and sleep. An individual may require care in order to help meet their basic needs. Care in itself, depending on the health of the person, can be a need.
As John is a type 1 diabetic, he has a physical need of having his blood sugars monitored three times daily. If his blood sugars become too low, this can be life threatening. This need can be met by support workers supervising and prompting John to regularly check his sugars and, if too low, to take action, for example, prompt John to drink a sugary drink such as Lucozade. In relation to the brief and this need, John would be better cared for in a care home as it would be safer for him; he can be monitored for a larger portion of time, and if anything were to happen, he can receive help quickly, whereas at home, he could be left for hours.
John has a social need for interaction. He has this need because he is cut off from the world as he stays out in the country, he is unable to drive, doesn’t have any family and is unable to leave the house due to his condition. This need can be met whilst receiving care at home. Arranging support workers to visit John daily can make him feel as if he still has a connection to the outside world. For example, support workers telling John about their day and what’s happening around the area.
John also has the emotional need for support. He has this need because he struggles with his condition and what his condition has done to him on a daily basis; not just physically but in all aspects of his SPECC. He is constantly reminded of it whilst performing the simplest of tasks such as walking. It can be argued that both being cared for at home or within a care home can help to support John and meet his need. For him staying at home, having a carer come in daily would benefit John by speaking about his concerns to them. Once the carer is gone, John has time to himself to reflect. Within a care home, John would have support whenever he needs it, at any time. Being care for at home and in a care home have advantages to support his emotional need.
Stage B – Human Development
Katie is 8 years old and lives with her parents. Her father has been physically abusive to her mother since she can remember. He has now started verbally abusing Katie when she comes home from school.
Human development is a gradual process of social, physical, emotional, cognitive and cultural development throughout an individual’s life span. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 90)
Emotional development relates to the development of feelings, how individuals cope with these feelings, gaining self-esteem and developing a sense of the individuals own identity. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 91)
In Katie’s situation at home, witnessing her father’s physical abuse towards her mother can have a negative effect on her emotional development throughout her lifespan. This can have an impact on Katie’s future relationships because she may think this is how men should treat women; being physically violent and verbally abusive, leading her to accept this as the norm when she does get to the stage of dating. (RC PSYCH, 2018) Katie is now being subjected to emotional abuse, which can lower her self-esteem and her self-worth, as she may believe what her father is telling her is the truth. Even though Katie is not being subjected to physical abuse, witnessing the violence to her mother as well as being emotionally abused can have a long-lasting affect. The abuse can also have an impact on Katie’s education and mental health. (Hidden Hurt, No date)
Removing Katie from this hostile environment and placing her in either a children’s home or a in foster care can improve her life chances significantly. Being removed from a harmful and emotionally damaging situation and being put into a children’s home can give Katie the safety she needs to feel; that she will not be harmed physically or verbally. She may receive emotional support from the support workers in the home as well. Being in care can also help Katie do the best she can in education and could develop new friendships or relationships. These are the positive experiences she can go through whilst in care. (https://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/research-reports/promoting-wellbeing-children-in-care-messages-from-research.pdf) page 26
Social development relates to how we interact with other people, how we take on social roles and how we develop relationships. Socialisation builds a solid foundation of individuals social development. It helps people to develop the quality, skills, knowledge and attitudes to not only acquire successful relationships, but to be able to function efficiently in our multi-cultural and multi-racial society. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 91)
The abuse that is taken place would damage Katie’s social development and could have an ongoing negative impact on her life. Usually, children of abuse, or witnessing abuse, feel isolated and vulnerable. This is because the father is typically consumed with controlling everyone, and with the mother struggling to survive in such a hostile environment, physically and emotionally, the children are then starved of the attention, approval and affection they need growing up. (Domestic Violence Roundtable, 2008)
After witnessing such violence, Katie could start to show signs of her behaviour becoming more aggressive and take on the role of being a bully, copying what she is seeing at home. Studies suggest that some children find it hard to make friends because they are confused and feel social discomfort in situations, because they are unsure of what is acceptable and normal behaviour. https://www.unicef.org/media/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf P 7 leaflet
Removing Katie from this hostile environment and placing her in a children’s or foster home can improve her life chances significantly. Being removed from a harmful and emotionally damaging situation and being put into a children’s home can give Katie the safety she needs to feel; that she will not be harmed physically or verbally. With Katie being put into a safe environment, this could help her to realise that she is safe and the people around her will not harm her. This could then lead Katie to open up and start trusting people. When this happens, she could feel more comfortable socialising with other children and support staff, taking her out of isolation. (HOW ACTION FOR CHILDREN WORKS, 2017)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow came up with the idea that every individual has a number of complex needs and believed that, since birth, we constantly strived towards fulling these needs. These needs are structured as a hierarchy. He suggests that you cannot go up the hierarchy unless the one below has been achieved. There are four needs before reaching self-actualisation; Physiological, safety, love and belongingness, and esteem needs. Once each stage of needs has been met, the person can then move up towards the highest point; self-actualisation. (P167) This theory has been based on the humanistic approach, which is associated with the work of Carl Rogers. The humanistic approach assumes that all humans are self-determining and that they are always striving to develop and grow, and that we have an inherent need to develop to our fullest potential. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 156)
Maslow’s theory has had a significant impact towards individuals understanding of motivation and the designing of meeting the service user’s needs. (UKESSAYS, 2015) The structure of the theory is good for identifying the service user’s needs; this is very important for the care planning process which can be done at home and in a care home. Undertaking an effective assessment and creating a care plan can help service users towards fulfilling these needs. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 170)
However, a weakness in his theory concerns his assumption that the lower needs must be fulfilled before an individual can achieve self-actualisation. This is not always the case, which means that some aspects of the theory have been falsified. Another weakness to his theory is that, although the basic needs may get the most attention when you don’t have them, you don’t need to achieve them in order to get benefits from the others. For example, even when someone is going hungry, they can still feel happy when with friends or family. In relation to the brief, service users’ needs would be more satisfied in a care home where they know that they will get regular meals, encouraged to be independent and support them to reach their goals. (McLeod, 2017)
Ideally, it would not be better for Katie to be cared for at home. She would be better cared for in a residential home as some of her needs are not being met because of her father’s violence. Her need for safety will not be achieved staying at home, meaning she may not reach the point of self-actualisation. It could also be said that if Katie’s mother is too concerned with what is happening with her partner than looking after her daughter, Katie’s basic physiological needs such as food, drink and warmth will not be fulfilled, meaning she may not be able to reach her full potential. Within a children’s home, Katie would be safe from any potentially dangerous situations and also be given the nutrition she needs.
Attachment is an emotionally deep bond that connects one individual to another. It can be one-sided, as one individual may not share the same attachment bond as the other. John Bowlby, one of the first theorists to examine this area, suggests it is characterised by particular behaviours in children, such as searching for a closeness to the attachment figure when they feel threatened or are upset. Attachments can occur at any time in an individual’s life, but psychologists are particularly interested in bonds that are first formed in a child’s life, as they are considered important for healthy development. These bonds that are developed during infancy and childhood are seen to be the foundation of the individual’s future attachments to others. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 174)
Bowlby suggested that maternal deprivation was the cause of children’s failure to form relationships in the future. Having this concept in mind, and in relation to the brief, Katie would be better cared for at home to maintain that bond and connection with her family. Taking her away from her family could do more damage to her development than putting her being cared for at home as she could lose contact with her mother and father. Katie and her family can receive support from social workers in the comforts of their own home. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 176)
Adams, Hayes and Hopson created a model in 1976 which attempts to explain the impact of transitions on individuals. The model has seven stages that try to illustrate how the experience of transition can affect someone’s self-esteem. They believed that the feelings were ‘normal’ and that they pass in time but believe that the person can have some control over what happens to them. Adam et al suggest that the stages signify a cycle of undergoing a change and that they may feel depressed as they move through the transition. The individual’s self-esteem level may vary through each stage, but all seven stages would have to be worked through to manage the transition effectively. Some people may never move beyond the earlier stages.
Having an understanding of this. Although this theory can be useful to understand feelings, it can be hard to identify which stage the person is at and they could go back and forth in the stages. This isn’t as clear when trying to identify which stage a person is at. (Miller, et al., 2007, p. 179)
In relation to the brief, it would be better for Katie to be cared for and be given support at home as being put into care and into a different environment could be too big of a transition for her. For example, being moved into care would mean living with new people, having to change her normal routine to a new one and also having to live by new rules could be too much for her to take on at such a young age. Even though being put into care could take her out of an unhealthy environment, a lot of changes occur when being taken out of your own home and being placed into new surroundings with strangers.
The actions, reactions, and thoughts of an individual are influenced by other people or groups. Social influence may be represented by peer pressure, persuasion, marketing, sales, and conformity. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/social-influence.html
Social influence is the change in behavior that one person causes in another, intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the way the changed person perceives themselves in relationship to the influencer, other people and society in general http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_influence.htm
The main function of the media is to provide information and news to society. This can influence the mass on the decisions they make and the opinions they form. The media has expanded in the last two decades to social media which also has an influence on society. http://thedailyjournalist.com/pen-and-pad/mass-media-and-its-influence-on-society/ Although there is a vast amount of negative influences of media, such as newspaper articles of the elderly being abused and neglected in care http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2064957/Elderly-people-abused-carers-Neglect-bad-pensioners-wanted-die.html, there is also a lot of positive influences, like advertising legislation such as the nation care standards, educating people about what their rights are. With the media advertising the rights that people have, whether they are being cared for at home or in a care home, can have a huge impact on their decision on what they would rather do. If someone wanted to stay at home instead of going into a care home after hearing or seeing any negative articles or news broadcasts, once seeing that all standards should be at the same level no matter where the care is being provided at, can influence or encourage them to make the decision to arrange to be cared for at home. This can have an impact on their life positively, keeping them in the comforts of their own home, which they wanted; meaning they would be better cared for at home.
Four decades ago, adults would have looked after their elderly parents instead of arranging other means of support for their mother or father. It was expected that the child would look after their parents when the time came that they could no longer look after their self. Since then, this area has evolved. With mothers now going to work as well as look after the family, having to provide care and support to their elderly parents extends to their responsibilities they already have. https://myageingparent.com/life/coping-life/issues-facing-family-carers-of-elderly/ Now, it is the norm for caring organisations to help support the elderly in their home or to go into a care home. In regard to the brief, the family can have an impact or influence on the individual’s decision on whether to be cared for at home or not. NOT DONE
Within Scotland, everyone over the age of 65 is entitled to free personal care of an allowance up to £174 per week who have been assessed by the local social work services department as needing it. Free nursing is also available to anyone at any age who have been assessed and requires nursing services. If an individual has been through the assessment process and needs nursing and personal care, they will receive the care regardless of their income, what assets they have, or their marriage status. Within a residential care home, individuals may have to contribute towards paying the remaining accommodation costs. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Health/Support-Social-Care/Support/Adult-Social-Care/Free-Personal-Nursing-Care In relation to the brief, people would be better cared for at home because the impact, cost wise, to live in a care home has risen over the last twenty years to expensive degrees. This encourages people to be cared for at home. Individuals receiving free care are also in the comforts of their own home, but mainly its cost efficient for them as a lot of people do not have big pensions. Being cared for at home can also have a positive impact on the individual’s degree of independence.