MULTI PURPOSE AGRICULTURE VEHICLE
KUMHAR SANDIP R. 150343102014
PATEL BHUMIL V. 150343102025
PRAJAPATI PARTH B. 150343102036
RAJPUT JAGMOHAN SINGH B. 150343102038
YADAV NITUL S. 140340102095
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
Bachelor of Engineering
Narnarayan Shastri Institute of Technology, Jetalpur
Gujarat Technological University
Narnarayan Shastri Institute of Technology Jetalpur, Ahmedabad
This is to certify that the project report entitled as “MULTIPURPOSE AGRICULTURE VEHICLE ” has been carried out by KUMHAR SANDIP (150343102014), PATEL BHUMIL (150343102025), PRAJAPATI PARTH (150343102036),RAJPUT JAGMOHAN SINGH (150343102038), and YADAV NITUL (140340102095) under my guidance partially fulfillment of degree of “BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN AUOMOBILE ENGINEERING” 8th semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during academic year 2017-2018.These students have successfully completed activity under my guidance.
Guide: Mr. Jay P. Thakkar
Asst. Professor, Automobile
Head of Department Mr.Jaimin Bhrahmbhatt
The success and outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and we are extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of our project work. Whatever we have done is only due to such guidance and assistance and we would not forget to thank them.
I respect and thank to our project guide Mr. Jay Thakkar (Asst. Professor Automobile Dept.). We are grateful to his prolonged interested in our work and excellence guidance. He has been a constant source of motivation to us by providing us with suitable media performance, a platform to show our potential and a chance to prove our skills by the way of project development.
We heartily thank to Mr. Jaimin Bhrambhatt, HOD of Automobile Department for allowing us to take project. We are sincerely thankful to him for his time to time and valuable guidance.
KUMHAR SANDIP R. 150343102014
PATEL BHUMIL V. 150343102025
PRAJAPATI PARTH B. 150343102036
RAJPUT JAGMOHANSINGH B. 150343102038
YADAV NITUL S. 140340102095
India is an agriculture-based country in which 70% of people depends on the outcome of farming. In India farmers are very poor due to which they are unable to purchase tractors and other costly equipments instead of this they used traditional methods of farming. Basically, many farmers in India also use bullocks, horses and ox for farming operations. This will not satisfy need of energy requirement of the farming as compared to other countries in the world. Presently, small land holding farmers use work bulls mostly for land preparation. Their use can be increased and made more economical by using them for other farm operations such as Ploughing, harrowing, sowing, and weeding. Manual method of seed planting, results in low speed placement, low crop yield for the serious back ache for the farmers which limits the size of field that can be planted. Improved hand tools will also facilitate farm work.
So, we are thinking that human and animal efforts can be replaced by some automatic technology which will be suitable for small scale farmer from economical and effort point of view. As day by day the labor availability becomes the great concern for the farmers and labor cost is more, this vehicle will reduce the efforts and total cost of the sowing the seeds and fertilizer placement. Our purpose is to combine all the individual tools to provide farmers with multipurpose equipment which implements all the farming techniques and suitable for all type of seed to seed cultivation with as minimum cost as possible.
KEYWORDS: Ploughing, Seed Sowing, Harrowing, Leveling, Spraying.
List of Content
List of Content 5
List of figures 7
CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 9
1.2 Purpose 10
1.3 Objectives 10
1.4 Main features of Indian Agriculture 11
1.5 Major Challenges faced by Indian Agriculture 12
1.6 Problem Statement 12
1.7 Advantage and Disadvantage 12
CHAPTER – 2 Review of Related Literature
2.1 Literature Review 13
2.2 Tools and equipment 13
2.2.1 Welding Machine 13
2.2.2 Grinding machine 14
2.2.3 Drilling Machine 14
2.2.4 Cutting Machine 15
2.2.5 Wrenches 15
2.3 Materials Components required 16
2.3.1 Pedestal 16
2.3.2 Water Pump 16
2.3.3 Cultivator 17
2.3.4 Nozzles 17
2.4 Comparison between Present Technologies of Farming 19
2.5 Features of Our Equipment 19
CHAPTER – 3
3.1 Plan of Work 20
3.2 List of Operation 20
3.2.1 Ploughing 21
3.2.2 Sowing 22
3.2.3 Fertilizer Spraying 23
3.3 Project Application 23
3.4 Approximate Project Cost 24
3.5 Project Photo 24
3.6 Implementation of our Project in actual life 24
4.1 Future Scope 25
4.2 Scope of Project 25
CHAPTER – 5
5.1 Outcomes 26
5.2 Conclusion 26
BMC CANVAS 27
List of Figures
No Name Page no
1 Welding machines 13
2 Grinding Machines 14
3 Drilling Machines 14
4 Cutting Machines 15
5 Pedestal 16
6 Water Pump 16
7 Cultivator 17
8 Nozzles 17
9 Ploughing 21
10 Sowing 22
11 Fertilizer Spraying 23
12 Project Photo 24
13 BMC CANVAS 27
List of Table
SR no Name Page no
1 Materials Components Required 17
2 Comparison between technologies of Farming 19
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
The history of Agriculture in India back to Indus Valley Civilization Era and even before that in some parts of Southern India. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. The special vehicles play a key role in various fields such as industrial, medical, military applications etc., The special vehicle field are gradually increasing its productivity in agriculture field. Some of the major problems in the Indian agricultural are rising of input costs, availability of skilled labors, lack of water resources and crop monitoring. To overcome these problems, the automation technologies were used in agriculture. The automation in the agriculture could help farmers to reduce their efforts. All these functions have not yet performed using a single vehicle. These functions can be integrated into a single vehicle and then performed. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy and it will continue to remain so for a long time. India ranks second worldwide in farm output. “A man without food for three days will quarrel, for a week will fight and for a month or so at last will die”. Agriculture is the science and art of farming including cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising livestock. It is the most important enterprise in the world. Over the years, agricultural practices have been carried out by small holder cultivating between 2 to 3 hectare using human labor and traditional tools such as wooden plough, yoke, leveler, harrow, mallot, spade, big sikle etc. These tools are used in land preparation, for sowing of seeds, weeding and harvesting. Some of the major’s problems in Indian agriculture are rising of input costs, availability of skilled lobar, lake of water resource a crops monitoring. Modern agricultural techniques and equipments are not used by small land holders because this equipment is too expensive and difficult acquire. The use of hand tools for land cultivation is still predominant in India because tractor required resource that many Indian farmers do not have easy access.
The need for agricultural mechanization in India must therefore be assessed with a deeper understanding of the small holder farmer’s activities. There is huge gap in technology adoption and implement used with small and marginal farmers. Sustainable improvement in the livelihoods of poor farmers in developing countries depends largely on the adoption of improved resource conserving cropping systems. While most of the necessary components already exist, information on the availability and performance of equipment is lacking and effective communication between farmers and agricultural research and development department is unsuccessful.
To overcome these problems, the automation technologies were used in agriculture. The automation in the agriculture could help farmers to reduce their efforts. The vehicles are being developed for the processes for Ploughing, seed sowing, leveling, Spraying. All of these functions have not yet performed using a single vehicle. The proposed idea implements the seed sowing, mud leveling, water spraying. These functions can be integrated into a single vehicle and then performed.
To reduce human effort in the agriculture field with the use of agriculture vehicle.
To perform many operations at single time, hence increases production and save time.
To remove backpack and foot spraying techniques.
To decrease the operational cost by using new mechanism.
To decreases labor cost by advancing the spraying method.
To increase the productivity of the crops.
To complete large amount of work in less time.
Farmer can use and operate this vehicle easily.
To save the time of the farmers.
To easier the operation of spraying.
To reduce the labor cost and time required for
Planting and cultivation of seeds
1.4 Main features of Indian Agriculture
1. Source of livelihood:
Agriculture is the main occupation. It provides employment to nearly 61% persons of total population. It contributes 25% to national income.
2. Dependence on monsoon:
Agriculture in India mainly depends on the monsoon. If monsoon is good, the production will more and if monsoon is less than average then the crops fail. As the irrigation facilities are quite inadequate, the agriculture depends on monsoon.
3. Labor intensive cultivation:
Due to increase in population the pressure on land holding increased. Land holding gets fragmented and subdivided and become uneconomical. machinery and equipments cannot be used on such farms.
4. Under employment:
Due to inadequate irrigation facilities and uncertain rainfall, the production of agriculture is less, farmers find work a few months in the year. Their capacity of work cannot be properly utilized. In agriculture there is under employment as well as disguised unemployment.
5. Traditional methods of production:
In India methods of production of crops with equipment are traditional. It is due to poverty and illiteracy of people. Traditional technology is the main cause of low production.
1.5 Major challenges faced by Indian agriculture
1. Stagnation in production of major crops: Production of some of the major staple food crops like rice and wheat has been stagnating for quite some time. This is a situation which is worrying our agriculture scientists, planners and policy makers. If this trend continues, there would be a huge gap between the demand of ever growing population and the production.
2. High cost of farm inputs: Over the years rates of farm inputs have increased. Farm inputs include fertilizer, insecticides, HYV seed, farm labor cost etc. Such an increase puts low and medium land holding farmers at a disadvantage.
3. Soil Exhaustion: Soil exhaustion means loss of nutrients in the soil from farming the same crop over and again. This usually happens in the rain forest.
4. Depletion of fresh ground water: Most of the irrigation in dry areas of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh was carried out by excessive use of ground water. Design and fabrication of Multipurpose Agricultural Equipment 2017 Department of Mechanical Engineering, CEC, Bangalore. Today fresh ground water situation in these states is alarming. in the coming few years if this type of farming practice continues, these states are going to face water famine.
5. Adverse impact of global climatic change: Among various challenges, global climatic changes are the recent one. It is predicted that due to climate change, temperature would increase from 2`C to 3`C, there would be increases in sea level, more intense cyclones, unpredictable rainfall etc these changes would adversely affect the production of crops.
6. Impact of Globalization: You can see the effect of globalization on the farm sector in India. All developing countries have been affected by it. The most evident effect is the squeeze on farmer’s income and the threat to the viability of cultivation in India. This is due to the rising input costs and falling output prices. This reflects the combination of reduced subsidy and protection to farmers.
7. Providing Food Security: Before the introduction of green revolution in India, we were not self sufficient in terms of our food grain production. With the introduction of green revolution, production of food grains increased substantially, and India became self sufficient. However, during the last one decade the total production has became stagnant. On the other hand, we have added another 16 to 18 million populations over this period. Although India has became self sufficient in good it is yet to ensure food security which is dependent upon accessibility, affordability as well nutritional value of the food available. One of the biggest challenges facing India is providing food security its population.
8. Farmers Suicide: Every suicide has a multiple of causes but when you have nearly 200,000 of the, it makes sense to seek broad common factors within that group. The suicides appear concentrated in regions of high commercialization of agriculture and very high pleasant debt. Cash crop farmers seemed far more vulnerable to suicide than those growing food crops.
1.6 Problem Statement:
Lack of mechanization in farming.
Required excess efforts for different process.
Required more man power.
Excess time consumption for performing individual process.
Includes scientific forming techniques. Sequence spacing seed sowing machine has more advantages than regular seed sowing machine.
Involves precision forming and fool proofing technology. By using this machine, a single seed can be placed in the desired spacing, so that the wastage of the seeds will be reduced. This will reduce the thinning operation during the germination time.
Suitable for all types of seed to seed forming.
Low cost, it’s the lowest price multipurpose equipment ever built.
Multitasking both sowing and fertilizing is done simultaneously.
Initial investment is less and maintenance free.
Reduce labors because of automation.
Reduce time consumption, since it is a three-row operated equipment.
Easy to operate.
Reduce human effort.
It does not create air pollution.
It produces less noise.
Easy to maintain.
Increased the efficiency of spraying than manual.
Not ergonomically design for human comfort.
Takes more time due to having multifunctional operation
Chapter 2 Review of related literature
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
kalyan et al (2011): The need for system that make agricultural easier and more sustainable has increased within the past few years. The ability to conserve two of the most important resources farmers, water and time, has been the latest challenge a system that provide this ability.
Yethhiraj et al (2012): There is growing number of application of data mining techniques in agriculture and a growing amount of data that are currently available from many resources. This is relatively a novel research field and it is expected to grow in future. There is a lot of work to be done on this emerging and interesting research field. The multidisciplinary approach of integrating computer science with agriculture will help in for casting/managing agricultural crop effectively.
Sami et al (2014): The Indian farmer and those who are working for their welfare need to be – powered to face the emerging scenario of complete or partial deregulation and reduction in government protection, opening of agricultural markets, fluctuations in agricultural environment and to exploit possible opportunities for export. The quality of rural life can also be improved by quality information inputs which provides better decision-making abilities.
2.2 Tools and equipment-
2.2.1 Welding machine:
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in binding of metals. It is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC), and consumable or non-consumable electrodes.
Figure no 2.1 Welding machine
2.2.2 Grinding machine
A grinding machine is a tool used for grinding. Which is a type of machining using in abrasive wheel as the cutting tools. Grinding is used to finish work pieces that must shown high surface quality and high accuracy of shape and dimension. There are some roughing applications in which grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly.
Figure no 2.2 Grinding machine
2.2.3 Drilling machine
A drilling is a tool fitted with a driving tool attachment. Usually a drill bit used for boring holes in various material or fastening materials together. Drills are commonly used in woodworking, metalworking, construction. Drills are available with a wide variety of performance characteristics, such as power and capacity.
Figure no 2.3 Drilling Machine
2.2.4 Cutting Machine
A cutting tool or cutter is a tool that used to remove material from the work piece. Cutting tool materials must be harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal cutting process.
Figure no 2.4 Cutting Machine
A wrench is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turns object- usually rotary fasteners and bolts- or keep them from turning.
Figure no 2.5 Wrenches
2.3 Material Components Required-
Parts or Components Material used Reason for selection Resources
Frame Iron Corrosion resistance, High strength, Rigidity. Local stores or shops
Shaft Iron Corrosion resistance, High Strength, Rigidity Local stores or shop
Linkages Iron Corrosion resistance, High strength, Rigidity Local stores or shop
Flywheel Iron Corrosion resistance, High strength, Rigidity Local stores or shop
Cultivator Iron Corrosion resistance, High strength, Rigidity Local stores or shop
Pipes Metal Good strength, rigidity. Local Hardware shops
Water pump Plastic Strength Scrap shops
Pedestal Metal Good strength, rigidity Local stores or shop.
Table no 2.1
The Bearing is machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion and reduces friction between moving parts. Rotary bearings hold rotating components such as shafts or axles within mechanical systems, and transfer axial and radial loads from the source of the load to the structure supporting it. The simplest form of bearing, the plain bearing, consists of a shaft rotating in a hole.
Figure No 2.6 Pedestal
2.3.2 Water Pump:
A sprayer is a device used to spray a liquid. In agriculture, a sprayer is a piece of equipment that spray nozzles to apply pesticides, and fertilizers to the crop.
Figure no 2.7 Water pump
A cultivator is any of several types of farm implement used for secondary tillage. Cultivators of the toothed type are often similar in form to chisel plows, but their goals are different. Cultivator teeth work near the surface, usually for weed control. Small toothed cultivators pushed or pulled by a single person are used as garden tools for small- scale gardening. Similar sized rotary tillers combine the functions of harrow and cultivator into one multipurpose machine.
Figure no 2.8 Cultivator
A spray nozzle is a precision device that facilities dispersion of liquid into a spray. Nozzles are used for three purposes: to distribute a liquid over an area, to increase liquid surface area, and create impact force on a solid surface.
Figure no 2.9 Nozzle
2.4 Comparison between present technologies of farming
Steps involved in agriculture and features of the mechanization Primitive method with manual workers and bullock equipment Multipurpose agricultural equipment
Crops selection All types of crops can be cultivated. Suitable for all types of seed to seed cultivation.
Field operation Oxen ploughing – 3times Oxen ploughing – 3 times
Fertilizer application Single worker and one day is enough Seed sowing and fertilizer application takes place at a time
Sowing Single worker is enough No need of additional workers
Weeding Extra workers required depends on the area of the land Weeding is mechanized here and no need of extra workers
Implementation of scientific method and precision farming.
Quality and yield of crops.
Numbers of workers involved High Low
Time consumed for working More Moderate
Flexible for multipurpose operation Yes Yes
Worker condition Unskilled can do the job Required skilled workers
Initial investment Very low Very low
Table no 2.2
2.5 Features of our equipment
Multipurpose, can perform cultivations operations such as Ploughing, cloud breaking,
Sowing of seed, fertilizing, leveling, weeding, weedicide application.
Multitasking, in one assembly of the equipment it performs sowing, fertilizing and
leveling. In another assembly it performs weeding and weedicide application.
Automated, the equipment can be animal powered or tractor powered just pulling of the equipment is enough and rest of the actions is automated.
The Successful implement of scientific farming with our equipment will lead to higher yield and better quality of crop.
Applicable for all type of seed to seed cultivation.
Sequential spacing of seeds will reduce the wastage of seeds and helps in the best
utilization of the field and reduces the thinning and filling effort.
Number of workers required is reduced excessively, which in turn reduces labor charges.
Variable with dimensions and farming specifications
Adopted scientific farming and Precision forming technology.
Our equipment is completely flexible for easy assembly and disassembly.
CHAPTER-3 Multipurpose Agriculture Vehicle
3.1 Plan of work:
Concept to design a project for small farmers. And in one machine multi functions can be performed with cheap cost as compared to other agriculture machine. For this concept not essential to skilled person. Mechanism of the machine should be very simple. So, that for gardening and small-scale farming, design this concept.
3.2 List of operation
Sowing of seed
Leveling of soil
This is the mechanism used in all the agricultural fields to maintain the fertility of land, due to forward movement of the equipment the Ploughed is attached to the front of the equipment with predesigned number of teeth and teeth depth.
Figure no 3.1 Plough
It helps in loosening of the soil.
It helps in uprooting weeds.
It helps in proper mixing of manure in the soil.
Ploughing improves the water retaining capacity of the soil.
It improves air circulation so that roots can respire easily.
It also helps in leveling of the soil.
It helps in increasing the fertility of the soil.
Soil ploughing requires lots of time.
Ploughing of wet soils can lead to a smearing of the plough sole.
It requires lots of money, and energy.
Can damage the soil structures if done when soil conditions are not suitable, or by using heavy machinery.
Moisture may be lost from the soil.
As the equipment moves the ploughing process takes place, the chain sprocket is attached to the rolling wheel and this is directly connected to the shaft which in turn connected to the storage box, the shaft has teeth which revolve due to rotary motion produced in previous attachments. Hence seeds are sowed via pipes connected which are aligned to the ploughing teeth.
Seeding or sowing is an art of placing seeds in the soil to have good germination in the
field. A perfect seeding gives
a. Correct amount of seed per unit area.
b. Correct depth at which seed is placed in the soil.
c. Correct spacing between row-to-row and plant-to-plant
Figure no 3.2 Sowing
Quickest and cheapest method.
Skilled labor is not required.
implement is not required.
followed in moist condition.
seed requirement is more.
crop is not uniform.
result in gap germination and defective wherever the adequate moisture is no present in the soil.
spacing is not maintained within row and lines, hence inter culturing is difficult.
3.2.3 Fertilizer Spraying:
A sprayer is a device used to spray a liquid. In agriculture, a sprayer is piece of equipment that spray nozzles to apply herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers to agricultural crops. Spraying of fertilizer is accomplished by help of a storage tank provided with stirrer and nozzle attached to it.
When the handle is pushed the sprayers, vehicles moves forward rotating the wheels, hence the spur pinion makes the crank gear to rotate. The crank gear acts like the crank which in turn drives the connecting rod and makes the connecting link to oscillate about the boom hinge. The connecting link is engaged to shaft of the sprayer pump which moves forward and backward to give pump action and increase pressure inside the pump which is further used to spray the pesticides when the valve is open on the sprayer pipe.
Figure no 3.3 Spraying
To increase the efficiency of spraying.
To remove the backpack and food spraying techniques.
To decrease the operational cost by using new mechanism.
To decrease labor cost by advancing the spraying method.
To increase the productivity of the crops.
To save the time of the farmers.
To easier the operation spraying.
Advantages of agricultural sprayer
Human effort in pumping is saved.
Less tiresome as compared to the conventional sprayer as the tank is carried on vehicle.
Increases the capacity of the spraying.
Cost effective as compared to automatic sprayers.
Stability is less.
Time consumption is more.
only operated with respect to the direction of the wind.
3.3 Project Application:
3.4 Approx. Project Cost:
Water Pump Cost : 600 rs.
Pedestal : 1260 rs.
wheel : 600 rs.
Metal Pipe : 1300 rs.
Shaft : 600 rs.
Cultivator : 400 rs.
Other Cost : 300 rs.
Sowing : 200 rs.
3.5 Project Photo:
3.6 Implementation of our project in actual life:
Concept to design a project for small scale farmers. And in one machine multifunction can be performed with cheap cost as compared to other agriculture machines. For this concept not essential to skilled person. Mechanism of the machine should be very simple. So, that for gardening and small-scale farming, design this concept. After the manufacturing and trial on the “Multipurpose Agricultural Automobile (Farm machine)” Conclusion which we made are as follows:
Based on the overall performance of the machine we can definitely say that the project will satisfy the need of small scale farmer, because they are not able to purchase costly agricultural equipment.
The machine required less man power and less time compared to traditional methods, so if we manufacture it on a large scale its cost gets significantly reduced and we hope this will satisfy the partial thrust of Indian agricultural.
So, in this way we solve the labor problem that is the need of today’s farming in India.
CHAPTER – 4 Future scope
4.1 Future scope
This equipment can be made self propelled by attaching an IC engine to it, further improvement in design of wheels and individual end effectors will make this equipment more efficient and effective such as:
Hardening of required end effectors.
More precise mechanism for seed sowing and fertilizing such as cam shaft arrangement or spring and plate arrangement.
Involving hydraulics in the working of ploughs.
Size of the machine must be increased to use it in large field areas.
4.2 Scope of the project
Multifunctional agricultural vehicle mainly focuses on the basic problem faced by fellow farmers i.e. Seed sowing, fertilizer spraying, cultivation and digging. We are looking this project as revolution in small farms in India, which is most uncovered area in this sector is cost and more efficient way.
So, we are thinking that human and animal efforts can be replace by some advanced mechanization which will be suitable for small scale farmer from economical and effort point of view. So, we will decide to produce component or mechanism which will satisfy all this point and to solve labour problem.
Significant reduction in no of labor (skilled/unskilled).
Gradual decrease in time consumed.
Very economical as compared to conventional methods.
Flexibility in defining the depth of plantation/sowing.
Avoiding human efforts in spraying of chemical fertilizers.
After the manufacturing and trail on the “Multipurpose Agriculture Automobile (Farm machines)” conclusion which we are made are as follows:
Based on the overall performance of the machine we can say that the project will satisfy the need of small scale farmer, because they are not able to purchase costly agricultural equipment.
The machine required less man power and less time compared to traditional methods, so if we manufacture it on a large scale its cost gets significantly reduce and we hope this will satisfy the partial thrust of Indian agriculture.
So, in this way we solve the labor problem that is the need of today farming in India.
Multipurpose equipment is designed and fabricated with low cost, easy to use and effective equipment for agriculture.
Since seeds and fertilizers are placed in a sowing box over wastage of the same is eliminated, thus it will reduce the cost in planting.
By providing a balanced mechanism for various objectives in a single machine signifies the technological improvement in agricultural sector.
Single equipment performing more objectives with flexibility in changing the operation will motivate the farmers.