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Personal, social and emotional development Birth – 12 months Birth to one month;
? Sleeps a lot
? Likes to not be disturbed
? Depends on parents and carers
? Cries when hungry, unattended to or in pain
? Frightened of sudden noises
One to three months;
? Sleeps most of the time when not being fed or handled
? Cries for their needs to be attended
? Briefly looks at faces
? Turns to mother’s breasts
? Will quieten or smile in response to familiar voices
? Can grasp on to a finger if a hand is open and their palms are being touched
? Uses their five senses to explore
? Stops crying when picked up
? Follows faces when they move
? Smile and beginning to respond to others
? Able to sleep less during the day and more of the night time
? Beginning to tell the difference between objects and realising the difference between one face to another
Three to 6 months;
? Becomes more familiarised with their mother and other carers
? Looks at their mother’s or carers face when feeding
? Able to use sounds to interact socially and reaches out to faces
? Responds to friendly handling
? Smiles at most people even if there not their mother or carer
? Beginning to connect what they hear to what they see
? Able to show a wide range of feelings and responses such as; happiness, fear and excitement
? Have a little awareness of others feelings and emotions
? Like to play games such as peek a boo
? Smiles at their own reflection in mirrors
? Stops themselves from crying when communicated with
? Beginning to be a lot more reserved or afraid of unfamiliar people, who are not main carers
? Reaches out to familiar people to show their need to get picked up
? Looks at their own hands and feet with interest
Nine months;
? Beginning/or able to respond to their own name being called
? Beginning to show interest in familiar words
? Able to understand ‘No’ when said to them
? Shows fear of unfamiliar people and cling to familiar adults when around unfamiliar people for reassurance
? Cry for attention to their needs but also using the voice that they have found to attract people to them
? Copies hand clapping
? Able to put their own hands around a cup/or bottle during feeding time
Twelve months;
? May be shy around unfamiliar people
? Knows their own name
? Will wave goodbye to people when they leave
? Will obey simple instructions
? Able to copy a small range of actions and sounds that adults or other children make
? Does not like to not people able to hear or see a familiar adult.

One – Two years
(12-24 months) ? Shows an interest in other children
? Throws toys when they get angry
? Able to point to members of their family or familiar people
? Beginning to be able to distinguish between ‘you and me’.
? Gets jealous when adults they like show attention to other children
? Interested in unfamiliar people, but still wary
? Able to hold a cup and drink without any support
? Able to help adults with dressing and undressing themselves
? Shows curiosity
? Beginning to imitate what adults do
? Able to and enjoys helping with small tasks
? Shows care for others that are upset
? Will go and explore but return to a familiar adult when needed for reassurance and a cuddle

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Two – four years Two years;
? Have tantrums with angry and frustrated
? Shows care for others
? Likes to be independent
? Will ask for food if hungry
? Wants adults attention on demand
? Can point to and identify body parts
? Possessive over their own toys
? Play alongside and with other children
? Joins in with songs and stories
Three years;
? Beginning to join I with others play
? Can make believe independently and with others
? Can wait for their needs to be met, no longer on demand
? Feels safe and secure in an unknown place away from main carer
? Can share and take turns
? Like to be praised
? Shows an understanding of boundaries and beginning to co-operate
? Shows their own experiences through play
? May show signs of fears
Four – Six years Four years;
? Has a special friend
? Can play in a group
? Able to take turns, not constantly
? Very sociable
? Beginning to have a good sense of past and future
? Can be very confident
? Goes to an adult if they are upset, ill or hurt
Five years;
? Likes to get approval from adults
? Like to be competitive and to play competition games instead of team games
? Able to control emotions and shows this
? Enjoys being away from parents and carers for short periods of time
? Shows a desire to excel in areas
? Likes to boast and show off about things to others
? Develops a sense of shame
? Argues with parents
Six – Seven years Six years;
? May show signs and behaviour of being rebellious and aggressive
? Often get frustrated and obsessive over their own belongings
Seven years;
? More aware of gender
? Become more self-critical about their own work and annoyed if things don’t go how they wanted them to go
? May get annoyed about things and give up for short periods

Physical Development
Birth – 12months ? Gains more control over their head and being able to hold it up.
? Able to move their body by rolling over.
? Explores with their hand and feet.
? Starts to reach out for toys and hold objects.
? Uses furniture for support to cruise around
? Beginning to crawl, roll and bottom shuffle across the floor
? Able to balance and stand on own for a couple of moments
? Can rise to standing without using people or furniture as support
? Points to objects that they are interested in
? Uses fingers and thumb to pick up small objects
? Drops and throws toys deliberately

One – Two years ? Takes first few steps independently.
? Passes toys from one hand to another.
? Uses a palmer grasp to hold crayons.
? Beginning to make mark in sand, paint and other materials
? Being able to walk independently
? Crawls upstairs and may be able to go downstairs backwards
? Can hold a cup using two hands and can bring towards their mouth
? Looks through a book and turns several pages at once.
? Builds a tower of a couple of cubes.
? Kneels upright with a little support
? Squats down and can stand up without support from an adult

Two – Four years ? Push and pull large wheeled toys
? Can balance many blocks one on top of another to build a big tower
? Kicks large balls
? Walks up and downstairs, both feet to each step
? Beginning to run safely by avoiding obstacles
? Beginning to runs with confidence
? Can throw a ball, but not yet catch
? Can jump with two feet together but not always steady
? Draws lines and circles using drawing tools
? Starts to show preference to dominant hand
? Picks up objects using pincer grip
? Can ride a tricycle using pedals
? Cuts paper using scissors
? Uses tripod grip
Four – Six years ? Balances on one foot for a short period of time
? Can move in many different ways such as; walking, running, skipping and jumping
? Gains good balance and able to walk a long straight lines (Balancing beam)
? Can catch, kick and throw a ball
? Uses alternative feet when climbing play equipment such as; stairs
? Shows good co-ordination
? Runs with great confidence
? Runs with increased agility and avoiding all obstacles along their way
? Can build a tower of ten or more bricks
? Able to thread small beads onto a lace or string
? Holds and uses a pencil using a tripod grip continuously
? Has good control when using one handed tools
? Draws a humans body parts, such as; head, nose, eyes, mouth, body, legs and arms.
? Counts fingers on hands using their index finger
? Can copy and trace some letter, normally from their name to start from

Six – Seven years ? Accurately throws and catches large balls
? Skips in time with music using alternative feet
? Rides a two-wheeled bike with stabilisers to start off (6 years)
? Gains strength and ability. Jumps off of school apparatus with beaming confidence
? Can adjust speed when running
? Expert at riding a two wheeled bike no longer needing stabilisers. (7 years)
? Good stamina
? Catches balls skilfully with one hand (7 years)
? Can write numerous letters in a similar size
? Can write their first and last name with no support
? Can build tall and straight towers with blocks
Communication Development Birth-12 months Birth to 3 months;
? Smiles in response to peoples face’s
? Recognises main carer’s voice
? Makes coo and gurgle noises when happy
? Recognises different tones in peoples voices
? Cries to communicate their need for being hungry, tired and distressed
Six months;
? Coo’s and babbles
? Babbles sounds such as; ‘dada’ and ‘mama’
? Laughs, chuckles and squeals
? Cries to communicate their distressed
? Beginning to understand emotion in their parent/or carer’s voice
? Beginning to enjoy music
Nine months;
? Recognises own name
? Continues to babble
? Starts to imitate simple words that they hear regularly
? Beginning to point at objects to communicate their needs and wants
? May understand simple single words such as; bye-bye
Twelve months;
? Babbling becomes more tuneful and inventive
? Makes repetitive sounds
? Uses body gestures to ask for things they want
? Enjoys games such as; Peek-a-boo
? Able to understand more than they can say
? Beginning to understand and respond to simple instructions. ‘come here’ ‘Clap hands’

One – Two years ? Have up to a ten word vocabulary which carer’s can understand
? Words can mean more than one thing
? Pointing is accompanied by a single word
? Puts two words together; ‘More milk’
? Talks about people that are not present ‘Mumma work’
? Can learn 10-30 words in a month
? Repeats words and sentences
? Points and names objects
Two – Four years Two years;
? Rapidly learns new words
? Uses plurals ‘Cats’
? Asks some questions ‘What’ and ‘Why’
? Uses simple sentences
? Makes word errors while communicating ‘I drawed’
Three years;
? Speech is now understood by others rather than just carers
? Talking and understanding more complex sentences
? Knows and sings nursery rhymes
? Talks to themselves and others during paly
? Enjoys asking many questions ‘Who’ ‘What’ ‘when’ ‘Where’ ‘Why’
? Pronouns are used correctly
Four – Six years Four years;
? Have a huge vocabulary
? Uses a lot longer and more complex sentences in conversations
? Able to narrate long stories, including sequence of events
? Play involved running commentaries
? Uses their language to shar toys, solve problems and argue
? Uses vocabulary to express their own and others feelings
Five years;
? Uses correct structure in sentences but sometimes incorrect grammar can still be used
? Pronunciation exceeds, sometimes still not correct
? Has a wide vocabulary and uses appropriately in communicating
? Uses shapes, colours and numbers in vocabulary
? Questions become more precise
? Gives own opinions
Six – Seven years Six years;
? Understands up to 13,000 words
? Understands opposites
? Uses all pronouns correctly in sentences
? Classifies according to form, colour and use.
Seven years;
? Understands up to 26,000 words
? Understands time and seasons of the year
? Becomes aware of mistakes other people say in there speech.

Intellectual and Cognitive Development Birth – 12 months One month;
? Identifies most important and main carer by using actions and smiles to answer them
? Enjoys to look at actions such as; Bright moving light toys against a wall
? Behaves in a certain way when adults hold them face to face, looking, listening, moving arms and legs and using vocals.
Three months;
? Has interest in their environment, looks around a lot
? Laughs and uses vocals with increasing tone
? Cries loudly when expressing an emotional need
? Has increasing attention to play toys and objects
Six months;
? Realises the meanings for some words such as; ‘Mama’ ‘Dada’ ‘Bye-bye’
? Likes to investigate using both hands and feet
? Shows an understanding to some emotional states of voices
? Makes shaped and high pitched sounds
? Enjoys playing with stacking cups and bricks
Nine months;
? Looks in the direction for fallen toys
? Looks at toys being hidden and then uses his eyes to direct to it (Knows a objects are around even if out of sight)
? Plays alone for periods of time
? Enjoys making noises by banging toys
? Prefers to play with empty cardboard boxes
? Identifies familiar objects
Twelve months;
? Gradually using their mouth less to investigate toys
? Hands toys to adults when asked to
? Beginning to use and treat toys in the correct way
? Copies others around them
? Enjoys playing with bricks and containers, fills containers with some bricks
? Likes to look at pictures
? Enjoys hearing sounds and plays with new sound toys

Two – Four years Two years;
? Starting to realise the importance of others
? Shows care when others cry
? Shares songs and rhymes more often
? Joins in with more role pay games
? Plays alone and watches others
? Plays alongside children
? Uses objects as a mean for something else ‘Pretend play’
Three years;
? Matches two or three primary colours
? Begins to have a general idea of time, past and future events
? Shows fear and asks ‘why’ before they do something
? Able to group objects into categories
? Sings some songs and nursery Rhymes
? Understands ‘One’ and ‘Lots’
? Can count up to 10 independently by using their memory

Four – Six years Four years;
? Can and enjoys counting up to twenty
? Recognises numbers 1-5
? Sorts objects into groups
? Mixes up events with pretend stories
? Able to sing songs and nursery rhymes independently, with few mistakes
? Gained memory skills, can retell past events, sometimes from months ago
? Gives reasons and answers to problems
? Makes drawings detailed and gives meaning to them
? Uses puppets to express stories
? Becomes a lot more talkative and friends during role play games
? Expresses feeling during role play
Five years;
? Draws pictures with more information and stories behind them
? Can identify their own name and write own name
? Expresses ideas on past, present and future events and has more understanding of the occasion
? Speaks in a good manner and speak grammatically correct
? Enjoys listening to stories with increasing attention and can recall stories later on either independently or with others
? Enjoys jokes and riddles
? Can make own choices and decisions for craft activities
? Can play independently or with others
? Likes to extend role play games
Six – Seven years ? Drawing people in much detail, including eyebrows, eyelashes and clothes
? Starting to behave in a much more co-ordinated way
? Grows understanding of quantities, measurements, distance, weight and time
? Has an understanding of reality and fantasy, but still becomes afraid of supernatural things they see on tv or in books
? Assigns roles to others during role play

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