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Mekelle University

College of Natural and Computational Sciences
Department of Chemistry
MSc Research
Titles: Assessments of the Impact of Industrial Waste on Water Quality in Debre birehan (in case Beressa River) North Shewa, Ethiopia
By
Ayele Mamushet
Submitted
To
Dr.Kebede Nigussie

November 2017
Mekelle
?
Acknowledgements

Second, I would like to thank my advisor Dr.Kebede Nigussie, for his valuable advice and consistent guidance throughout the research period. This work would not have been completed in the present form without the help and cooperation of different institutions and individuals. Among others the most important ones are Ezana Analytical Laboratory in Mekelle and Geo chemistry laboratory. I greatly appreciate the support of Dr.Abreha G/kidan, Abadi Romha, and Robel Dawit

Table of Contents
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………….iii
Abbreviations ……………………………………………………………….iv
Abstract……………………………………………….………………………….. ..V
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………….VI
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………….Viii
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………….ix
Chapter One Introduction
1.1. Introduction and Background…………………………………………………1
1.2. Background …………………………………………………………………..2
1.3. Problem of statement …………………………………………………………3
1.4. Research Questions……………………………………………………………3
1, 5. Objectivesof the study………………………………………………………..3
1.6. Research hypothesis…………………………………………………………..4
1.7. Significance of the study………………………………………………………4

Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1. Environmental pollution………………………………………………………5
2.2. Industrial effluents…………………………………………………………….6
2.3. Industrial Wastewater Characteristics…………………………………………7
2.3.1. Composition of Brewery Effluent…………………………………………..7
2.3.2. Tannery effluent……………………………………………………………………8
2.4. Physicochemical parameters of water quality……………………………………….8
2.4.1. Total Suspended Solids (TSS)…………………………………………………….9
2.4.2. Total dissolved solid (TDS)……………………………………………………….9
2.4.3 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)…………………………………………………….10
2.4.4 Alkalinity.…………………………………………………………………………10
2.4.5 Dissolved oxygen (DO)……………………………………………………….…..11
2.4.6. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)…………………………………….……..11
2.4.7. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)……………………………………………….11
2.4.8. Electrical Conductivity (EC)……………………………………………………..12
2.4.9. Hardness………………………………………………………………………. …13
2.4.10. Nitrate……………………………………………………………………………14
2.4.11. Phosphorus………………………………………………………………………15
2.4.12. PH and Alkalinity………………………………………………………………..15
2.4.13. Sodium (Na)……………………………………………………………………..15
2.4.14. Magnesium (Mg)…………………………………………………………………16
2.4.15. Potassium (K)……………………………………………………………………16
2.4.16. Temperature…………………………………………………………..: ………..16
2.5. Heavy metals………………………………………………………………………..17
2.5.1. Chromium (Cr)……………………………………………………….,,,…,,,……..18
2.5.2. Lead (Pb)……………………………………………………………………………..18
2.5.3. Cadmium………………………………………………………………….……….19
Chapter Three Materials and Methods
3.1. Study area……………………………………………………………………………20
3.2. Sampling Locations and Collection ………………………………………..………..21
3. 3. Sample analysis…………………………………………………………………22
3.4. Data analysis…………………………………………………………………….23
Chapter 4 Result and Dissociation
4.1. Result of physico chemical analysis……………………………………….…..24
4.1.1. Total Suspended Solids (TSS)………………………………………………….27
4.1.2. Phosphate………………………………………………………………………27
4.1.3. Potassium……………………………………………………………………….28
4.1.4. Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)……………………………………………………28
4.4.5. Conductivity………………………………………………………………. ….29
4.1.6. Total Hardness……………………………………………………………. …..30
4.1.7. Calcium and Magnesium……………………………………………………….30
4.1.8. pH……………………………………………………………………………….31
4.1.9 Sodium……………………………………………………………………………31
4.1.10. Nitrate……………………………………………………………………….….32.
4.1.11. Total Alkalinity………………………………………………………………. …32
4.1.12. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)…………………………………………………………33
4.1.13. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)……………………………………………..34
4.1. 14. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)………………………………………………35
4,2 heavy metals………………………………………………………………………….36
Chapter 5 conclusions and Recommendations
5.1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….37
5.2. Recommendation……………………………………………………………………..38
Reference……………………………………………………………………………….39

Abbreviations
BOD- Biological Oxygen Demand
COD -Chemical Oxygen Demand
EIA -Environmental Impact Assessment
EMIA -Ethiopian Manufacturing Industries’ Association
EPA -Environmental Protection Agency (Ghana)
UNEP -United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO -United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
FEPA -Federal Environment Protection Agency
DO -Dissolved Oxygen
EC -Electrical Conductivity
pH- Potentiality of Hydrogen
Ppm- Parts per millions
SPSS- Statistical Packages for Social Sciences
TSS- Total Suspended Solids
WHO- World Health Organization

List of figure
Figure 4.1: TSS, PO4, K Trend along the site: ……………….……………………………29.
Figure 4.2: TDS, TH, EC Trend along the site ….………………………………………….31.
Figure 4.3: PH. Na, NO3 Trend along the site ……………………………….…………….33
Figure 4.4: Ca, Mg, alkality Trend along the site …………….…………………….………35
Figure 4.5: Trend along the site …………………………………………………………….36

List of Tables
Table 3.1: sample location ……………………………………………………………………23
Table 4.1: MEAN ± SD results of physico chemical parameter ………………………………27
Table 4.2: MEAN ± SD results of physico chemical parameter ………….………………….28
Table 4, 3: MEAN ± SD results of physico chemical parameter……………………………..38

ABSTRACT
This study involves assessment of physico-chemical parameters and trace metals of water samples in Beressa River at Tebasie Sub-town and rural area. A study was carried out in Beressa River to assess the extent of chemical pollution in a receiving river as affected by industrial effluents. Water at selected points in the river were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, nitrate, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate and heavy metals(Pb, Cu. Cr, Cd Ni). Parameters such pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, nitrate were investigated using standard analytical procedures. The level of the studied heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) was determined using the AAS.
The pH of the water ranged from 6.82 to 7.69, EC of all collected water samples were within the range of 290 to 1241 µS cm-1. The DO was within the range of 2.49 to 5.16mg/L. Total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 53.68 to 267.05 mg/L. Considering TDS, all the samples were rated as fresh water (

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