Life chances is an idea ‘for a happy, healthy childhood, as well as a protected and fulfilling adulthood’ (CPAG, 2016). Norozi, S. and Moen, T. (2016) states that childhood is socially constructed which means it is created and defined by society. The meaning of childhood differs between various times, places and cultures. There is a variation in people in different societies that think about what children should and should not be doing at certain ages and how they should be socialised. Improving children and young people’s life chances during their childhood stage enhances their quality of life for when they become an adult. Children and young people’s life chances can be decreased or improved by many factors whether it be due to their social class or ethnicity. This essay will explore the economic factors which are material deprivation and cultural deprivation, cultural factors such as language, parenting styles and the treatment from schools, and finally the social factors which are mental health and misuse of alcohol and drugs. The essay will evaluate how the factors affect the life chances of children and young people.