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Investigation of Emulsification and Emission evaluation in CI Engine by using Diesel and Bio-Diesel Fuel
Harsh Kapadiaa , Hardik Brahmbhattb , Yuvrajsinh Dabhic [email protected],[email protected],[email protected] Mechanical Student , Gandhinagar Institute of Technology , Gandhinagar-382721 , Gujarat , India
The exhaust of diesel engine is a main significant Air pollution source which affect environment and human life. Number of researchers has contributed their valuable efforts from each and every prospective to reduce Air pollution. To change the properties of diesel it emulsified with water and made emulsion fuel as it remains the effective solution to meet the unbleached emission legislation for internal combustion engine due to its reducing capability of NOx and Particular Matter. The paper also covers the recent investigation which is carried out in the field of Alternative fuels. The different percentage of diesel, water and surfactant by volume is mixed to make an emulsion fuel by the emulsification process. The present work addresses the analysis on W/D emulsion fuel, emulsion fuel stability and effect of W/D fuel on combustion, performance and emission characteristic.

Keywords: Emulsification, Surfactants, water-in-diesel emulsion, water-in-biodiesel emulsion, micro-explosion, Reduction in Emission, Engine performance, Stability.

PM Particular Matter
HC Hydro Carbon
NOx Nitrogen Oxide
SOx Sulphur Oxide
W/O Water-in-Oil
O/W Oil-in-Water
HLB Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Balance
VCR Variable Compression Ratios
LPH Litters Per Hour
CO Carbon Monoxide
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CV Calorific value
PPM Parts Per Million
1. Introduction
Diesel Engine plays major role in many fields such as Agriculture, Marine transport, Automobile transport and Air transport 1. It also used in generation of power because of their better fuel economy and higher efficiency 2, 3, 4. There are number of advantages of CI (Compression Ignition) Engine over SI (Spark Ignition) Engine 3. The above all transports consume 1/3 of a world’s total energy consumption and they contribute for more than a quarter of world’s harmful pollutants such as CO2 , SOX , NOX , PM, CO, smoke 4,3,5,6. Now, the whole world facing a problem of climate change due to fast increase of greenhouse gases in Atmosphere thereby it also cause Acid rain and ozone depletion 2,7,6. Quicker evisceration of fossil fuels and strict emission regulation drive the explorer to detection for Renewable Energy such as Bio-Energy. Bio-Fuels in solid, liquid and gases forms have intensively produced and used over a last few decades 8, 9. Biodiesel (mono alkyl esters) is derived from many natural resources, renewable resources such as animal fats, plants, microorganisms and variety of edible and nonedible vegetable oils10,11,12. Biodiesel is produced from a variety of vegetable oils from Rapeseed, Jatropha, Sunflower, Mahua, Pongamia, Karanja 13 etc. through trans esterification process forming fatty esters 14 .Trans esterification is an most effective method of biodiesel production which is done in presence of catalyst such as sodium or potassium hydroxide in which straight vegetable oil is treated with methanol 15,16.Hence, Biodiesel produced by this method has most similar properties as Diesel fuel and it is engine friendly 15,17..Biodiesel stability can be affect by various parameters which includes the thermal, storage and oxidation stability 18. Biodiesel is used as a substitute of Diesel fuel for Automobile Engine especially in Compression Ignition (CI) Engines and it does not require any modification in existing engine 4, 3. The percentage of Oxygen is 10% to 15% by weight in Biodiesel which results in complete combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber 19, 17. Biodiesel produce less noxious emission then diesel fuel 2. There are mainly 3 ways minimize emission for CI Engine which are listed below 20, 21:-
(i) By modifying the design of engine.

(ii) Fuel modification.

(iii) Exhaust Gas treatment technique.

Water emulsified Diesel gives better outcome in terms of reducing the NOX , slightly increase in brake power and brake thermal efficiency due to micro explosion phenomenon 20, 22, 23, 24. So To reduce the smoke and NOX emission water-diesel emulsification technique is widely used 20, 25. For producing fuel emulsion there is a fundamental method in which the first step is to bring the different components such as diesel, water and surfactants together in the container and mixed them by mechanical homogenizing machine. This machine stirs up the mixture continuously in the presence of surfactant 26, 16.Surfactant is a substance which contains both polar and non-polar molecules. There are two types of surfactants namely hydrophilic surfactant and lipophilic surfactant. Hydrophilic surfactants are more soluble in polar liquids such as water, whereas lipophilic surfactant have more attraction towards non-polar liquids such as oil 2, 26.
2. Types of Emulsion
An emulsion is defined as a colloidal suspension of water in diesel fuel by adding emulsifying surfactants 2. Mechanical stirrer machine is used to produce emulsified fuel in the industries for preparation of the emulsion 27, 17. Stability of the emulsion is mainly rely on the surfactant and its percentage 28 and its decrease with adding more and more water 12. Adding more water content in the water-diesel emulsion reduces the CV of the petroleum fuel 24.

Table. 1 Different types of Emulsion with HLB values 29, 30
<10.00 Liquid Soluble (Water insoluble)
>10.00 Water Soluble
4.00 to 8.00 Antifoaming agent
7.00 to 11.00 Water in Oil emulsifier
12.00 to 16.00 Oil in Water emulsifier
11.00 to 14.00 Wetting agent
12.00 to 15.00 Detergents
16.00 to 20.00 Solubilise Hydro trope
There are three types of emulsion according to number of phases available in it 2.
2.1 Primary emulsion
Primary emulsion is also known as two-phase emulsion. It consist of two phases continuous phase and dispersed phase. When Water act as dispersed phase in oil which is a continuous phase in emulsion is called water-in- oil emulsion and when oil act as a dispersed phase in water which is a continuous phase in emulsion is called oil-in- water. These phases are found in our daily life as butter, margarine mayonnaise 2, 31.
Water-in-oil emulsion
Oil-in-water emulsion
Fig.1 Two phase (water in oil) and (oil in water) emulsion 60, 3, 32
2.2 Secondary emulsion
Secondary emulsion is also called as three-phase emulsion. If there is one continuous phase and two or more dispersed phases in emulsion then it is called secondary emulsion 2, 31. It is further classified as-
Oil-in-water-in-oil emulsion
027686000Water-in-oil-in-water emulsion
Fig.2 Three phase (oil in water in oil) and (water in oil in water) emulsion 60 ,3,32
2.3 Multi-phase emulsion
Multiple or double emulsion are represented by either W1/O/W2 or O1/W/O2. Here W1 , O1 and W2, O2 represent the most external phase and internal one respectively. Bi-emulsions are emulsions that contains two different internal phase droplets which are either same in nature or different but are different in size 33.

Fig.3 Multi-phase emulsion 33
3. Surfactant
Surfactant which is also known as surface-active agent, basically it is a substance that includes groups of polar and nonpolar in their molecules 26 .The requirement of surfactant is to produce W/D emulsion to reduce the interfacial tension and to avoid coalescence between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase to stabilize the water droplet phase within the diesel fuel phase. The stability of W/D depends on surfactant around the surface droplets and coalescence mechanism 26, 7.

Surfactant is classified in two types which are Hydrophilic surfactant and Lipophilic surfactant .Hydrophilic surfactant have more attraction to polar liquids like water and lipophilic surfactants are more soluble in nonpolar liquids like oil but when they are combined as emulsion lipophilic absorb the oil phase and hydrophilic absorbs the water phase 27, 2, 25 .The mixture of both surfactants in optimum compositions will produce the balance of HLB value 27. The surfactant quantity in the emulsion is varies from 0.5% to 2% of total volume, with the increases in surfactant the stability of emulsion will goes down because of the rapid coalescence 34.Acording to Kajitani the optimum HLB value to make a two phase emulsion fuels is falls into the range of 3.50 to 6.00 35 .But according to Lin the surfactant mixture of Span 80 and Tween 80 with HLB value 13.00 gives higher emulsification stability as compared to HLB value 636.

Table.2 Some common Surfactant With HLB value29,30
Sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) 1.80
Sorbitan monooleate , NF , (Span 80) 4.30
Sorbitan monostearate , NF , (Span 60) 4.70
Sorbitan monopaimitate , NF , (Span 40) 6.70
Sorbitan monolaurate , NF , (Span 20) 8.60
Polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate ,
(Tween 85) 11.00
Polysorbate 60 , NF , (Tween 60) 14.90
Polysorbate 80 , NF , (Tween 80) 15.00
Polysorbate 40 , NF , (Tween 40) 15.60
Polysorbate 20 , NF , (Tween 20) 16.70
Following equation can be used for finding HLB of mixture of the surfactant 27, 37:
HLBS = HLB value for Span 80
WS = Weight of Span 80
HLBT = HLB value for Tween 80
WT = Weight of Tween 80
Span80, Tween80 and Triton X-100 are Non-Ionic surfactant whose physiochemical properties are described in below table.

Table.3 physiochemical properties of Span 80, tween 80, triton x-100 surfactant3,34,38,39,6
Sr No. Properties Span 80
Sorbitan monooleate Tween 80
Polyoxyethylene monooleate Triton X-100
Polyoxyethylene octyl phenyl ether
1 Appearance Brown viscous liquid Amber sticky liquid Viscous colourless liquid
2 M. wt.% 428.61 1310.00 6.25
3 Density (g/ml at 20?) 0.99 1.08 1.02
4 HLB 4.30 15.00 13.40
5 Chemical Formula C24H44O6C64H124O26C14H22O(C2H40)n6 Chemical Structure -65405377532 -296002609850 -4572026987500
Fig.4 Surfactant used for preparing a emulsion fuel 3
3.1 Behaviour of Surfactant-water- oil Systems
The absorption is a spontaneous process in which a molecule comes from the group of molecules of particular solution to place itself at the interface with specific orientation and its characteristic of amphiphilic molecules 33.

Fig.5 Surfactants Properties 33
(a) Adsorption at the Water Surface,
(b) Adsorption at the Water-Oil Interface,
(c) Adsorption at a Nonpolar Solid Surface,
(d) Adsorption at a Polar Solid Surface
(e) Spherical Micelle in Aqueous Phase,
(f) Spherical Inverse Micelle in Oily Phase
4. Preparation of Water in Diesel emulsion fuel
Rajwinder Singh reported that water-diesel emulsion fuel was prepared by dispersing water into diesel and for that surfactant mixture of two surfactant was prepared to get the desired value of hydrophilic and lipophilic balance with the help of mechanical agitator and after that the sample was placed in an ultrasonicator for half an hour to get higher stability of water-diesel emulsion fuel 3.

Fig.6 surfactant mixture 3 Fig.7 water-diesel emulsion 3
Table 4 : Properties of Fuels59,15,9,40,27,25,41,42,43,17
Sr No. Properties Unit Diesel Water emulsified Diesel JB 10 B20 Lemon Oil
1 Density(@ 15 ?) kgm3830 847.5 832 845 853
2 Kinetic Viscosity(@ 40 ?) cSt 3.8 3.56 3.45 4.514 1.06
3 Cetane Number – 47 59.2 49 78.2 15
4 Cloud Point ?-15 to 5 1 NA 16 <-3
5 Flash Point ?60 58 83 110 54
6 Fire Point ?63 NA NA NA 64
7 Carbon Residue – 0.0 NA NA NA 0.02
8 Heating Value kJkg42800 NA 45114 NA NA
9 Acid Number mg KOHg0.01 NA 0.222 0.02 NA
10 Calorific Value kJkg43200 33670 40850 42198 41000
11 Pour Point ?-20 -3 NA -7 NA
Table 5 : Mixture of Diesel , Water and Surfactant in different composition at different Speed as well as different Mixing time to get maximum Stability44,30,45,20,4,46,47,48,29,49,50,51,3,39,52,53,54,37,57,58
Sr No. Author’s Name Diesel (%) Water (%) Surfactant (%) Surfactant Name Speed (RPM) Mixing Time
(Minute) Stability
1 Abdelhalim I. A. Mohamed et al. 24-29.5 70 0.5-6 Fluorosurfactant-1 and Glycolic Acid Ethoxylate-2 Ether 2000 5 12 Hours
2 Debasis Dani et al. 94 5 1 Tween 20 1500 10-15 1 Hour
15- 1-Penthanol 5 20 Tween 80 1000-1800 10 1 Month
3 Hastinatun Mukayat et al. 55-Diesel
15- 1-Penthanol 10 20 Tween 80 1000-1800 10 1 Month
15- 1-Penthanol 15 20 Tween 80 1000-1800 10 1 Month
4 J. Sadhik Basha et al. 83 15 2 Span 80
Tween 80 2500 15 5 Days
80 20 0.3 Salt Sugar NA 240 16 Days
5 Khaleel I. Abass 80 20 0.4 Salt Sugar NA 240 32 Days
80 20 0.5 Salt Sugar NA 240 32 Days
68.25 30 1.75 Span 80
Tween 80
Glycerine 20000 30 1 Week 49 Rakhi N. Mehta et al. 99 1 0.1 Span 80
Triton X-100 6500 30 More than 12 Hours
90 10 0.2 Span 80
Tween 80 15000 2 4 Weeks
6 Kiran Raj Bukkarapu 80 20 0.2 Span 80
Tween 80 15000 2 10 Days
70 30 0.2 Span 80
Tween 80 15000 2 5 Hours
60 40 0.2 Span 80
Tween 80 15000 2 5 Hours
50 50 0.2 Span 80
Tween 80 15000 2 5 Hours
7 Luca Salmaso 90 10 0.2 NA 15000 2 4 Weeks
80 20 0.2 NA 15000 2 10 Days
90 10 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 4 Weeks
80 20 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 10 Days
70 30 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 5 Hours
60 40 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 5 Hours
50 50 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 5 Hours
33 67 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 3.8 Days
80 20 0.2 Triton X-100 5000-15000 2 6.5 Hours
80 20 1 Triton X-100 15000 10 4 Weeks
8 M.T.Ghannam et al. 68 32 1 Triton X-100 15000 10 1 Week
70 30 1 Triton X-100 15000 20 8.5 Hours
89 11 1 Triton X-100 15000 20 1 Week
70 30 1.75 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Week
60 40 0.25 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Hour
55 45 0.25 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Week
60 40 2 Triton X-100 20000 30 4 Hours
90 10 2 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Week
90 10 0.2 Triton X-100 30000 30 4 Weeks
50 50 2 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Hour
9 Mayur Dubey et al. 90 10 4 Span 80
Tween 80 2000 15-20 1 Week
70 30 4 Span 80
Tween 80 2000 15-20 4 Weeks
10 Ming Huo et al. 88 10 2 Span 80
Tween 80 10000 5 14 Days
90 10 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 4 Weeks
80 20 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 10 10 Days
80 20 1 Triton X-100 15000 10 4 Weeks
70 30 1.7 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Week
11 Mohamed Y. E. Selim et al. 60 40 2 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Hour
50 50 2 Triton X-100 20000 30 1 Hour
70 30 0.2 Triton X-100 5000 6 4 Weeks
90 10 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 4 Weeks
80 20 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 10 10 Days
50 50 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 10 3.8 Days
12 Nirajkumar et al. 80 20 0.9 Span 80
Tween 80 2200 15 NA
13 Rajwinder singh et al. NA 5-40 5 Span 80
Tween 80 3000-8000 5-30 30 Days
NA 10 0.2 Span 80
Tween 80 1080-2040 2 4 Weeks
14 Rakhi N. Mehta et al. 99 1 0.1 Span 80
Triton X-100 6500 30 More than 12 Hours
15 Sayel M. Fayyad et al. 75 25 2.5 NA 1000-3000 35 31 Days
16 Souleyman A. Issaka et al. 80 20 0.5 Span 80
Tween 80 1600 NA 25 Days
80 20 0.2 Triton X-100 15000 2 10 Days
80 20 1 Span 20
Tween 20 NA 45 13-14 Days
17 Vishal Borkar et al. 88 10 2 Tween 80
Span 80 In starting 400-500 than 25000 10-15 NA
Table 6 : Mixture of Bio-Diesel, Water and Surfactant in different composition at different Speed as well as different Mixing time to get maximum Stability 55, 9, 22, 20
Sr No. Author’s Name Bio-Diesel
(%) Water
(%) Surfactant
(%) Surfactant Name Speed
(RPM) Mixing Time
(Minute) Stability
1 Eliezer Ahmed Melo-Espinosa et al. 70 Waste Cooking Oil 15 5 Span 80 NA NA 2 Weeks
10 Jatropha
90 HSD 10 0.5 Span 80
Tween 80
HLB 5 2000 15 72 Hours
2 H. Raheman et al. 10
90 HSD 15 1 Span 80
Tween 80
HLB 4.3 2500 15 24 Hours
10 Jatropha
90 HSD 20 2 Span 80
Tween 80
HLB 6 3000 15 48 Hours
3 Harshal Patil et al. 84 15 1 Span 80
Tween 80 5000 20 4 Days
92 5 3 Span 80
Tween 80
HLB 9 5000 20 4 Days
4 J. Sadhik Basha et al. 93 Jatropha Methyl ester 5 2 Span 80
Tween 80 3000 30 5 Days
Table 7 : Mixture of Lemon Oil, Water and Surfactant in different composition at different Speed as well as different Mixing time to get maximum Stability 25
Sr No. Author’s Name Bio Oil
(%) Water
(%) Surfactant
(%) Surfactant Name Speed
(RPM) Mixing Time
(Minute) Stability
93.5 Lemon Oil 5 1.5 Span 80
HLB 4.3 1500 15 7 Days
86 Lemon Oil 10 2
2 Span 80
Methyl-dihydroxy Proyl –imidazolium
HLB 6.32 1500 15 7 Days
1 Vishal Subhash Randive et al. 93 Lemon Oil 5 2 Span 20
HLB 4.3 1500 15 7 Days
92 Lemon Oil 5 2
1 Span 80
Methyl-dihydroxy Proyl imidazolium
HLB 6.3 1500 15 7 Days
92 Lemon Oil 5 3 Span 80
HLB 4.3 1500 15 7 Days
87.5 Lemon Oil 10 2.5 Span 80
HLB 4.3
1500 15 7 Days
87 Lemon Oil 10 3 Span 80
HLB 4.3
1500 15 7 Days
86.5 Lemon Oil 10 2.5 Span 80
HLB 4.3
1500 15 7 Days
5 Engine specification and evaluation of its performance characteristics
For evaluation of the performance of CI engine a four stroke, single cylinder and variable compression ratio engine was used. Measurement of airflow , fuel flow , temperature and load were arranged in setup for experimental work .A panel box has been provided in setup which contains separate assembly of different components like air box , fuel tank , manometer , transmitters for air , fuel measuring unit and fuel flow measurements , engine indicator and process indicator .Flow of water was governed by rota meter through calorimeter and interconnected water jackets around cylinder block and head .Load on an eddy current dynamometer which is coupled to the engine was controlled by load cell sensor . Figure represents the pictorial view of VCR engine setup and figure shows the block diagram of the experimental setup 3. The engine specifications are given in table.
487149207837 Fig.8 single cylinder, 4 stroke, VCR engine 3
Fig.9 Schematic diagram of experimental set up Author
1) Exhaust Gas Temperature 8) Fuel Control Valve
2) Exhaust Gas Analyser 9) Loading Device
3) Air Filter 10) Burette
4) Diesel Tank 11) Manometer
5) Emulsion tank 12) Alternator
6) Surge Tank 13) VCR Diesel Engine
7) Data Control System
-791111297951Table 8: Specification of Engine 3

Engine Type Single Cylinder, 4-Stroke, Water Cooled, VCR Engine
Make Type Kirlosker
Bore 87.50 mm
Stroke 110.00 mm
Length of Connecting Rod 234.00 mm
Rated Power 3.75 kW at 1500 RPM
Compression ratio In between 12.00 to 18.00
Orifice diameter 20.00 mm
Dynamometer arm length 145.00 mm
Cooling media Water cooled
Load indicator In between 0.00 to 50.00 Kgf , Digital
Load sensor Strain gauge, In between 0.00 to 50.00 Kgf
Loading device Eddy current dynamometer
Rotameter Engine cooling 40-400 LPH; Calorimeter 25-250 LPH
Temperature sensor Thermocouple, Type K
Speed indicator Digital with non-contact type speed sensor
6. Engine exhaust characteristic
6.1 Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Due to incomplete combustion of carbon and water at high temperature there is emission of Carbon Monoxide. For all the fuels used in engine as the load increase emission of CO increases. It can be seen in emulsion that the volume of water increases then emission of CO increase because water decrease the temperature inside the cylinder and the rate of combustion of carbon which results in incomplete combustion 30.For specific biodiesel such as canola the emission of CO is lower than diesel fuel. This happens because of reduction in oxidation time for converting CO into CO2 as CO is poisonous gas which is harmful for health 15.

Fig.10 Carbon monoxide emission vs. brake power 30
EM1= 94 % diesel + 5% water + 1% tween 20
EM2= 94 % diesel + 5% water + 1% span 20
6.2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Change in emission of CO2 according to engine load for JB10 and its emulsified fuel as well as HSD have been plotted in figure. It is observed from the figure emission of CO2 generally increase with increase in engine load. As increase in load, fuel consumption in combustion increases and because of complete combustion of fuel temperature of cylinder increases. Performance of the engine improved at elevated temperature with relatively better burning of the fuel as result of this emission of CO2 becomes higher. It is observed from the figure that emission of CO2 remains same at all loading condition and in all fuels. Higher loses and same combustion behaviour of tested fuels may be the reason for same emission of CO29.

Fig.11 Carbon dioxide emission vs. engine load 9
6.3 Hydrocarbon (HC)
The combustion chamber of CI engine emits gases which comprises 100ppm of hydrocarbon. In combustion chamber reaction takes place in which large molecules are transformed into small non equilibrium molecules. For diesel it can be seen that up to certain load emission of HC increases and then it start to decrease while in emulsion as the load increases HC emission increases 21. In lower load condition emission of HC for emulsion is less than diesel and for higher load condition its vice versa 30.

Fig.12 hydro carbon emission vs brake power 30
6.4 Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) Exhaust gases contains 2000 ppm of nitrogen oxide. In exhaust, nitrogen monoxide is more in content and also there is small amount of dioxide 30. For Diesel and other fuels, NOx emission increases with rise in engine load 23. NOx emission from water-diesel emulsified fuel were less than diesel fuel 56 .It occurs due to water emulsified diesel that enters the cylinder. In cylinder because of high temperature and high pressure water is transformed into steam, which absorb the heat from the combustion chamber and lower down the temperature of cylinder. As a result emission of NOx reduces 30.

Fig.13 Nitrogen oxides emission vs. brake power 30
7. Acknowledgement
Author expresses his heartfelt thanks to Mr. Sajan Chaurasia , Assistant Professor , Department of Mechanical Engineering , Gandhinagar Institute of Technology .

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