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Introduction to the topic
In the following session , we will discuss about the engineering practice in computers . Now , we define the engineering practice in computers as the standard (or methods) used by engineers to enhance the efficient utilization of computers.
Firstly , we start to discuss on our topic from the perspective of computer security .One of the good practices used by computer engineering sectors in using computer is the implementation of the computer data security management system , as described by the case study below :
Malaysian government agencies is trying to improve the implementation of paperless documentation strategies ,where the documentation process involving only data stored into the computers. In doing so , the government agencies realized that the documents stored in computer are mostly confidential .Therefore , Malaysian government agencies enhanced their document management system to avoid invasion and improve the security level for stored information.The major achievement in the document management system is the improving accessibility to data .All the data stored in computer can be easily accessed within few seconds compare to paper storing information.In addition , R&D has carried out to find the way for improving the security of the management system.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aci.2018.04.002”, “ISSN” : “2210-8327”, “abstract” : “Abstract Document management system is an essential approach that should be managed well to ensure an effective and faster overall working process in an organization. Hardcopy documents has been one of the items that most organizations need to manage in a safe and secure manner due to the high dependency on most of their working procedure especially in government organizations.Hence, we proposed a new framework to improve the weaknesses of the existing document management procedures in government organizations. Our proposed framework integrates the implementation of an {NFC} system in this research due to its secure short – range communication, and the peer-to-peer communication capability in most mobile devices. Besides that, most existing government organizations within Malaysia could easily implement such technology for their internal usage as this technology i s cost effective due to its availability on existing mobile devices on most Android based devices. “, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abidin”, “given” : “Siti Salbiah Zainal”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Husin”, “given” : “Mohd Heikal”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Applied Computing and Informatics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “-“, “publisher” : “King Saud University”, “title” : “Improving Accessibility and Security on Document Management System: A Malaysian Case Study”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=32f805c8-c996-46a5-b990-3e52c37c3fb9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “1”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “1”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “1” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }1
Another good engineering practice by industrial practitioner in using computer is the efficient implementation and utilization of various software and computer simulation to solve the real world problem without invading the copyright for the product holder(such as hacking or misuse of the software for criminal action or reuse the code that other company developed), which is described by the case studies as follow :
In Iran , a primary and reputable paint factory is trying to produce the high quality and premium paint to the customer . In doing so , the manager and engineers decide to use the computer to carry out computer simulation experiment for the production line of plastic paint ,industrial paint ,thinner ,etc.The achievement in utilizing the computer include finding out the source of inefficiency along the production line through simulation experiment.The engineer then try to eliminate the sources(failure time of machine,service rate of machine ,etc) which adversely affect the production line to increase their productivity.Furthermore , computer simulation experiment helps the engineer to identify the optimum condition for operation ,such as the selection for number of workers and the paint to be processed on machine with given service rate .This helps the company to save a lot of time and money in carrying out such ‘virtual’ experiment without the need to do it in real world by using the computer.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.jksues.2018.04.003”, “ISSN” : “1018-3639”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zahraee”, “given” : “Seyed Mojib”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rohani”, “given” : “Jafri Mohd”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wong”, “given” : “Kuan Yew”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher” : “King Saud University”, “title” : “Application of Computer Simulation Experiment and Response Surface Methodology for Productivity Improveme ….”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d05fbc44-4706-4d8f-a910-4705d31cadb3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “2”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “2”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “2” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }2
A company is planning to produce the microfluidic circuits with computer aided design(CAD) tools .This microfluidic circuits play a major role in 3D printing.In doing so ,software program in computer such as Autocad is utilized to design the circuit and design .The achievement in this case study is that by the use of CAD , the company developed an algorithm where the design time for the microfluidic circuits can be reduced spatially,allowing the increase in productivity of the products,showing the computer engineer professionalism in utilizing software.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.cad.2017.12.004”, “ISSN” : “00104485”, “abstract” : “Microfluidic circuits, a sub class of lab-on-a-chip systems, are rapidly expanding into biological, chemical and physical research. Resistance microfluidic circuits are particularly useful for precise control of tempo-spatial conditions at a Nano-liter scale. The current design process of resistance microfluidic circuits starts with system specifications and concludes with a geometric realization of a topological graph that describes a 2-dimensional network of mechanical micro-scale channels. This design paradigm often relies on manual design and drawing. Moreover, since fabrication of microfluidic circuits is dominantly based on soft-lithography, the design-to-production transition often requires manual intervention. In this work, we present an automatic design process for resistance microfluidic circuits that outputs a fabrication-ready circuit model following a given set of specifications. We exploit the hydraulicu2013electric circuit analogy to define an abstract specification of microfluidic circuits. Based on this abstract specification, we defined an algorithm that uses fabrication-related constraint propagation and an optimization protocol to suggest a spatially optimized design for the proposed circuit. Finally, we automatically generate a vector-graphics model for 3D printing. Our approach can significantly reduce the design time of resistance microfluidic circuits, allowing a seamless computer-aided transition from concept to production.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tsur”, “given” : “Elishai Ezra”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shamir”, “given” : “Ariel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “CAD Computer Aided Design”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “12-23”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Computer-aided design of resistance micro-fluidic circuits for 3D printing”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “98” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ddeee92b-f08f-46dc-b868-8b2105829373” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
Another case study showing the inefficient utilization of software in rockets blowing up ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/FIE.1997.644926”, “ISBN” : “0-7803-4086-8”, “ISSN” : “0190-5848”, “abstract” : “Case studies can be an effective part of an ethics and computing\ncourse. However, it is often time-consuming for the instructor to build\na list of good case studies. This is especially true if the instructor\nwants to use real-life incidents for the cases. Even for the instructor\nwho prefers to use “anonymized” or “synthetic”\ncase studies, a compilation of real incidents provides a good starting\npoint for creating realistic cases. This paper provides brief\ndescriptions of real case study incidents which have been\nclassroom-tested in an undergraduate “ethics and computing”\ncourse. Special effort is made to include incidents with themes that are\nsometimes given less coverage relative to, for example, hacking or\nsoftware piracy”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bowyer”, “given” : “K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings Frontiers in Education 1997 27th Annual Conference. Teaching and Learning in an Era of Change”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Case study resources for an ethics and computing course”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c913cf20-e69f-4f03-983c-692e2fdb0ff9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “4”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “4” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }4for comparing with case study (b) and (c) is described below :
The European Space Agency’s Ariane 5 was destructed after 30s of its flight.The reason was due to a glaring software implementation error.The problem is that the software carried over Ariane 4 rocket to Ariane 5 rocket without efficient software testing and modification.There was no human life lost but the economic lost was estimated $500,000,000 ,showing the great importance of software utilization.

In summary , the common things among all case study is that the time can be reduced significantly through efficient utilisation of computers through the implementation of software/system.The difference in all three case study could be their area of application .For case study (a) ,the computer practice apply on government agencies ,and (b) and (c) involve paint industry and electrical industry.
Issues and challenges
In this section , we discuss the challenges faced in the implementation of good engineering practices . From the case study (a) ,in fact there are still many government departments using the physical documentation(or paper) to store the information instead of using the computer .The main reason for this is that the government facing a challenge poor security system for data storage and management. The malware or viruses available widely in the computer network can be easily invaded into the data management system and retrieve the information stored.

For case study (b) , the difficulty faced in using the computer simulation experiment would be to choose the appropriate production factors , levels and the response variables for testing .Choosing the appropriate production factor(for example ,human resource) to do simulation is important to improve the productivity.

Apart from that , the topic of intellectual property becomes an issue in good engineering practice for computer.This is because the digitizing content like movies,e-books and software can be copied or shared easily via internet at negligible cost.Therefore ,the patent or copyright of the product holder is easily invaded.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.im.2014.01.001”, “ISBN” : “0378-7206”, “ISSN” : “03787206”, “abstract” : “The discourse concerning computer ethics qualifies as a reference discourse for ethics-related IS research. Theories, topics and approaches of computer ethics are reflected in IS. The paper argues that there is currently a broader development in the area of research governance, which is referred to as ‘responsible research and innovation’ (RRI). RRI applied to information and communication technology (ICT) addresses some of the limitations of computer ethics and points toward a broader approach to the governance of science, technology and innovation. Taking this development into account will help IS increase its relevance and make optimal use of its established strengths. u00a9 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stahl”, “given” : “Bernd Carsten”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eden”, “given” : “Grace”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jirotka”, “given” : “Marina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Coeckelbergh”, “given” : “Mark”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Information and Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “810-818”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “From computer ethics to responsible research and innovation in ICT: The transition of reference discourses informing ethics-related research in information systems”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “51” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2327a099-16e3-4934-8692-3bc13dd241ac” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “5”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “5”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “5” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }5
Finally , three types of motivations present for unethical behaviour – obligation, opportunity and intent.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hussein”, “given” : “Ramlah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “25-36”, “title” : “An Ethical Assessment of Computer Ethics Using”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e3a4b55f-7040-43ed-b95c-3f24f6b82f33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “6”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “6”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “4” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }6.For the example of intention(of unethical behaviour),the hackers have their mind’s thinking like “I am superior than anyone” motivates them from hacking others computer to prove that they are superior than others in computer aspects.However , this unethical motivation leading them to criminal actions .

The improvement of good engineering practices in computer include :The implementation for various cyber laws and policies to prevent the people from cybercrime such as theft and protect the copyright of the product holder.

Research and development (R&D) for finding out the effective network security technology to counter the hackers’ attack or invasion to obtain the information.

The computer simulation analysis could help the engineer to identify the necessary productivity factors to consider by giving the computer program a set of constraints in order to save the time for identifying the main production factor.

Deliverables:
One interesting contributions of computer engineering in promoting the professional ethics is relating to the environmental issues – The Green Information and Technology(Green ICT).ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.1802”, “ISSN” : “24058963”, “abstract” : “ICT is a growing economic sector proposing new products and new services every day for more and more people in the worldwide. In addition, with the recent expansion of connected objects, the communications and services are not limited to exchanges between people, between people and machines, but also between machines themselves. The consequence of the communicating system multiplication is ICT sector uses more and more earth resources and rare earth to design new ICT products. Another issue is that ICT products used for transmitting, processing and storing (big) data consume a lot of energy impacting on greenhouse gas and on climate change. ICT Engineers have then to consider this new problematic increasing their daily workload. One interesting question is to know if Green ICT is a real additional workload for ICT Engineers. This paper presents a simple example based on network installation showing that a traditional Engineering of ICT system with the objective to optimize its time performance can conduct to an environmental-friendly ICT solution minimizing the energy use.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rondeau”, “given” : “Eric”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Georges”, “given” : “Jean Philippe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hossain”, “given” : “Md Mohaimenul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Habibullah”, “given” : “Khan Mohammad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “IFAC-PapersOnLine”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “12962-12967”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Is Green Networking a new workload for ICT engineers? A network topology example”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “50” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d4baef9-e77f-47ce-ac23-a30cedfa8c7e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “7”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “7”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “6” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }7They have realized that storing large amount of data generate a lot of carbon dioxide which causes greenhouse effect.Therefore , they planned to implement Green ICT concept to reconcile with global greenhouse effect issue ,showing their professional concern and contribution on environmental issues.

In addition , the computer engineer successfully promote their professional ethics in terms of cyber security issue.A new type of modelling called multi-paradigm modelling approach is designed by software engineer and incorporated into the software design.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.jss.2018.03.031”, “ISSN” : “01641212”, “abstract” : “Security-critical systems demand multiple well-balanced mechanisms to detect ill-intentioned actions and protect valuable assets from damage while keeping costs in acceptable levels. The use of deception to enhance security has been studied for more than two decades. However, deception is still included in the software development process in an ad-hoc fashion, typically realized as single tools or entire solutions repackaged as honeypot machines. We propose a multi-paradigm modeling approach to specify deception tactics during the software development process so that conflicts and risks can be found in the initial phases of the development, reducing costs of ill-planned decisions. We describe a metamodel containing deception concepts that integrates other models, such as a goal-oriented model, feature model, and behavioral UML models to specify static and dynamic aspects of a deception operation. The outcome of this process is a set of deception tactics that is realized by a set of deception components integrated with the system components. The feasibility of this multi-paradigm approach is shown by designing deception defense strategies for a studentsu2019 presence control system for the Faculty of Science and Technology of Universidade NOVA de Lisboa.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Faveri”, “given” : “Cristiano”, “non-dropping-particle” : “De”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moreira”, “given” : “Ana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amaral”, “given” : “Vasco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Systems and Software”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “32-51”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Multi-paradigm deception modeling for cyber defense”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “141” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9120edf2-1459-4a25-875a-c004d171c707” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “8”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “8”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “7” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }8 The efficient use of this modelling enhances the possibility of preventing deception into software to improve the security level in software usage.

To summarize , we note that a computer profession engineer must be able to develop a user friendly programme without disclosing the confidential information of customer.Furthermore ,network security must be placed at topmost priority when designing a programme as one of the topmost ethics.Beside , the computer profession engineer concern about the environmental issue by implementing Green ICT concept to reduce carbon dioxide emission and prevent global warming effect.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.1802”, “ISSN” : “24058963”, “abstract” : “ICT is a growing economic sector proposing new products and new services every day for more and more people in the worldwide. In addition, with the recent expansion of connected objects, the communications and services are not limited to exchanges between people, between people and machines, but also between machines themselves. The consequence of the communicating system multiplication is ICT sector uses more and more earth resources and rare earth to design new ICT products. Another issue is that ICT products used for transmitting, processing and storing (big) data consume a lot of energy impacting on greenhouse gas and on climate change. ICT Engineers have then to consider this new problematic increasing their daily workload. One interesting question is to know if Green ICT is a real additional workload for ICT Engineers. This paper presents a simple example based on network installation showing that a traditional Engineering of ICT system with the objective to optimize its time performance can conduct to an environmental-friendly ICT solution minimizing the energy use.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rondeau”, “given” : “Eric”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Georges”, “given” : “Jean Philippe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hossain”, “given” : “Md Mohaimenul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Habibullah”, “given” : “Khan Mohammad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “IFAC-PapersOnLine”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “12962-12967”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Is Green Networking a new workload for ICT engineers? A network topology example”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “50” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d4baef9-e77f-47ce-ac23-a30cedfa8c7e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “7”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “7”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “6” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }7
The topics on ethical practice by computer profession engineer is important to our society development .This is because we are living in technology era and dependent much especially computer and the application program.In this case , the computer professional engineer must have ethical in producing the software so that the user can use it without specific concern and further protected by various cyber laws. If the computer engineer intended to do the unethical approach in their career for personal reason only , a lot of the user would become victims because almost everyone of us have a computer in hand and much depending on computer in daily life.

Discussion:
The two major laws governing the good engineering practice in computer are the Copyright Act 1987 and The Computer Crime Act 1997.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.clsr.2012.11.005”, “ISBN” : “0267-3649”, “ISSN” : “02673649”, “abstract” : “Cybercrimes are increasing in Malaysia. According to a report the crimes jumped by 88 per cent in 2011 with 15,218 cases compared with 8090 in 2010. This report has caused a lot of concern from the Government and the public. At a glance, these crimes are like ‘diseases’ spreading throughout the country and causing damage to people, the economy and the country. Although various efforts have been taken and some are still ongoing, total prevention of cybercrime is very difficult. Combating the threat is very challenging since Malaysia is still lacking in many of the tools required including manpower and technology. But the efforts will continue. This paper discusses some of the efforts taken by the Government and other organisations to deal with these problems followed by an analysis on the application of cyberlaws and how these measures work together with the traditional law in tackling cybercrime cases. u00a9 2013 Bristows. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohamed”, “given” : “Duryana Binti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Computer Law and Security Review”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “66-76”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Combating the threats of cybercrimes in Malaysia: The efforts, the cyberlaws and the traditional laws”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bfd8874f-20cd-4c47-b9d0-be14c63fc393” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “9”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “9”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “8” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }9These two acts serve as primary rule for all computer professionals to obey such as computer software engineer.The main professional right and codes of ethics used by computer software engineer include the followingADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/S0168-1699(00)00158-7”, “ISBN” : “1250363063”, “ISSN” : “01681699”, “PMID” : “4212”, “abstract” : “Over the past 20 years, computer software has become integral and commonplace for operational and management tasks throughout agricultural and natural resource disciplines. During this software infusion, however, little thought has been afforded human impacts, both good and bad. This paper examines current ethical issues of software system design and development in relation to privacy, accuracy, property, accessibility, and effects on quality of life. These issues are explored in the context of simulation models, databases, geographic information systems and artificial intelligence programs, especially expert systems. New approaches to system development place a much higher emphasis on the effects of system deployment within a complex human environment. Software design decisions often depend on more than one ethical issue, possibly conflicting, where the appropriate ethical choice is not always clear cut. Professional codes of ethics do little to change peoples’ behavior; rather, incentives for using an ethical approach to software development may lie in significantly increased likelihood of system success. Crown copyright u00a9 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Thomson”, “given” : “Alan J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schmoldt”, “given” : “Daniel L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Computers and Electronics in Agriculture”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1-3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2001” }, “page” : “85-102”, “title” : “Ethics in computer software design and development”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “30” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c64b1762-ffd8-4079-8319-dd2bb45f57bc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “10”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “10”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “9” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }10:
The computer profession engineer have their full responsibility in the software/program created and must be user-friendly.

Only approving the software that they belief is safe to the user and meet the specifications of designing the software .Never use the software that is obtained either illegally or in an unethical manner for any criminal purposes.

Keep all the confidential information regarding their client and software private.

The main ethical assessment method on computer include ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hussein”, “given” : “Ramlah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “25-36”, “title” : “An Ethical Assessment of Computer Ethics Using”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e3a4b55f-7040-43ed-b95c-3f24f6b82f33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “6”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “6”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “4” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }6: intellectual property , obtaining resource for personal use , illegal copying to support non-profit activities,obtaining resources to earn profit .However ,the aspects covered on the ethical assessment might not be well-rounded.It would be better if the assessment scope cover on the knowledge and the responsibility of the computer engineer himself to the society.For example , assessment on the importance of computer engineer for the benefit and development of society could help the computer engineer to realize their importance in society and contribute their best into development of the society in ethical approach .
The accountability of engineer in developing the ethical engineering professionalism is rather important in order to serve the public with morality.For example , the computer software engineer could develop a social software that enable people to communicate to each other .However ,the computer software engineer does not have the right to know the users’ chatting record without their permission .In doing this , the computer engineer is subjected to legal action under Computer Crime Act ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.clsr.2012.11.005”, “ISBN” : “0267-3649”, “ISSN” : “02673649”, “abstract” : “Cybercrimes are increasing in Malaysia. According to a report the crimes jumped by 88 per cent in 2011 with 15,218 cases compared with 8090 in 2010. This report has caused a lot of concern from the Government and the public. At a glance, these crimes are like ‘diseases’ spreading throughout the country and causing damage to people, the economy and the country. Although various efforts have been taken and some are still ongoing, total prevention of cybercrime is very difficult. Combating the threat is very challenging since Malaysia is still lacking in many of the tools required including manpower and technology. But the efforts will continue. This paper discusses some of the efforts taken by the Government and other organisations to deal with these problems followed by an analysis on the application of cyberlaws and how these measures work together with the traditional law in tackling cybercrime cases. u00a9 2013 Bristows. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohamed”, “given” : “Duryana Binti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Computer Law and Security Review”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “66-76”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Combating the threats of cybercrimes in Malaysia: The efforts, the cyberlaws and the traditional laws”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bfd8874f-20cd-4c47-b9d0-be14c63fc393” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “9”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “9”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “8” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }9.Therefore , it is important to provide such education about legislation aspect to let the computer profession engineer know their right and ethical professionalism clearly.

Conclusion:
In conclusion , the two main good practices for computer engineer are to enhance the network security and the efficient utilization of software for solving problem (as it save times)without involving copyright issue.The bad motivation involve selfish thinking and the challenges include inefficient network security.In promoting professional ethics , the computer engineer has used the concept of green ICT to take care of environment and improve network security.Finally , Copyright Act 1987 and Computer Crime Act 1997 as well as some assessment criteria are implemented to nurture the ethical and professional engineer in computer sector.

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4K. Bowyer, “Case study resources for an ethics and computing course,” Proc. Front. Educ. 1997 27th Annu. Conf. Teach. Learn. an Era Chang., vol. 1, 2014.

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7E. Rondeau, J. P. Georges, M. M. Hossain, and K. M. Habibullah, “Is Green Networking a new workload for ICT engineers? A network topology example,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 12962–12967, 2017.

8C. De Faveri, A. Moreira, and V. Amaral, “Multi-paradigm deception modeling for cyber defense,” J. Syst. Softw., vol. 141, pp. 32–51, 2018.

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10A. J. Thomson and D. L. Schmoldt, “Ethics in computer software design and development,” Comput. Electron. Agric., vol. 30, no. 1–3, pp. 85–102, 2015.

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