Technology has revolutionized all aspects of life and education is not out of this. Teaching and learning English has confronted changes in strategies as well as techniques due to this advance. It is a globally recognized fact that twenty first century students are digital individuals whose concept of learning is a combination of ICT (Information and Communication Technology), multimedia, interaction, practicality, discovery and pleasure .Therefore, it is central to introduce in the classroom not only blackboards as visual resource, but also other audio-visual aids as videos to obtain meaningful and enjoyable learning.In fact, with the use of them ,it has become easier for teachers to transmit knowledge and for learners to acquire it. Videos of all sorts have the capacity to act as a supplementary tool for students to develop their language skills as well as to comprehend the content deeply Authentic videos such as movies, songs and documentaries are valuable source to assure learners centeredness; autonomy, interaction and connectivity to a particular subject.Besides, video clips may serve as a motivational technique for learners in and outside the classroom to gain responsibility and directness towards their learning.
The fundamental aim of this chapter spotlight on the importance of authentic videos, and how it can be a very effective strategy in a foreign language teaching and learning. First ,I introduce some background about the concept ICT(information and communication technology).Then, we give an overview of authentic learning and authentic videos. After that , we identify the different types of authentic videos, and we show the reasons of why it should be integrated in EFL teaching/learning context. Finally, it deals with some problems and challenges that hinder teachers for using such authentic material as a learning tool in a classroom setting.
Information communication and technology( ICT)
Definition of authentic videos
In recent years, a great tendency towards the use of technology and its integration into the curriculum has gained a great importance. Specially, the use of video material in foreign language teaching has grown rapidly (Canning-Wilson, 2000; ÇAKIR, 2006; Meskill, 1996; & Hemei, 1997). Canning-Wilson (2000, p.1) defined video “As the selection and sequence of messages in an audio-visual context”. She also described video, at the most basic level of instruction, is a form of communication and it can be achieved without the help of language, since we often interact by gesture, eye contact and facial expression to convey meaning. Çakir (2006, p. 67) stated, “It is a well-known fact that audio-visual materials are a great help in stimulating and facilitating the learning of a foreign language”. It is considered as more prominent, more powerful and more comprehensible than any other media used in teaching SL (Meskill, 1996).
Based on the definition above, video is moving picture which can be played on special machine and it is used as an aid for teaching and learning. Video is means of communication that holds some information. This information is in the form of picture, image, and action. Videos can facilitate language teaching in various ways. The classroom becomes more interesting eliminating the monotony of the learners .Moreover, it aids the learners to generate ideas for discussion. It makes the class more interactive.
Çakir (2006) reported that use of video in language teaching ensures authentic language input to the learners. Moreover, using content related videos helps the learners to conceptualize the ideas and get in depth thought on that topic. Besides, learners can concentrate on the use of contextual language in the videos along with non-verbal features of language that helps them to have better understanding of the target language use (p. 67).
Types of authentic videos
The use of educational video is an effective strategy to improve students’ level of comprehension. Videos contain a certain verbal clues such as as body movement, gestures, facial expressions that would be a helpful for students in enhancing their language skills. Within this part, we shall focus on some different types of authentic videos.
Movies are a good example of authentic videos that can be used in language teaching to make the learning process more entertaining, more enjoyable and possibly even easier. In his unpublished Master dissertation, using movies in EFL teaching: Virve Ruusunen discussed three main advantages concerning the implementation of movies in learning.Firstly, movies can be considered as authentic material and they provide the learners with genuine input (Mishan 2004: 216). The genuine input helps the pupils to understand that there is a connection between the more traditional classroom teaching and the real world and that the foreign language is used in real everyday situations outside the classroom (Gebhard 1996: 89-109). Moreover, as Krashen (1985: 4) points out, a natural input helps the learners to acquire language without necessarily even noticing that they are hearing or reading a foreign language. Secondly, it has been studied that films enhance English language skill development since they bring variety, reality, authenticity and flexibility into the EFL classroom and before anything, diversify the curriculum (Stoller 1988: 1). Thirdly, using movies can motivate the students to study English and the visuality of the film may also help the weaker students to understand since it offers another channel of understanding in addition to just listening to the language (Champoux 1999, Allan 1985: 48-65, Stoller 1988).
2/Songs Current studies showed that students’ motivation and interest are among the most important concerns for the learning of a foreign language. There are several resources to enhance the teaching process and to raise students interest and motivation .Songs are common to teachers and students and they have proved to be, in most cases, very effective because they are strongly related to everyday life. (M. Papa, G. Iantorno, p. 7)
Song videos are the most common way of learning vocabulary outside the classroom. Using this kind of video in the classroom is entertaining and enjoyable technique.Songs have a place in the classroom for helping create that friendly and co-operative atmosphere so important for language learning, but they can offer much more”, claims D. T
Music videos are a kind of a short film that usually provides images to interpret the meaning of a popular song. The teacher select music videos to be applied in the teaching and learning of vocabulary as it may contain some elements, which can help the students to realize the meaning of new words in different contexts .Some of those elements is the lyrics and the motion images, which equip a model of story.
Music video generally use easy language unlike the documentary videos but with many repetitions of the words that help the students to acquire the new vocabulary, this kind of repetition is presented in songs with all kind of pattern that exist in songs will be acquired by student without attention from them (ibid).
3/ Documentary films
Documentary videos or films are more made for educational purpose they include specific topics. They have a serious, regular expressions and Standard English; these kinds of videos provide knowledge to learners and that make them more suitable then commercial or advertisement and movies that are used in teaching language materials .Documentary movies my lack the excitement and beauty of popular movie but they offer learners the opportunity to be exposed to authentic situations that are relevant to language teaching .
Advantages of videos in the classroom
According to Sherman (2003, p. 2). There are many reasons why video can add a special, extra dimension to the learning experience:
A/ Video for its sake
Most people want to have an access to English- language media, they want to be able to see the news, enjoy advertisement and see a film, get information from announcement, and in short, to feel or to use these language products like normal client, this may be the objective of students when learning English language. If teachers are ready to teach students reading a newspaper or a conversation, we should be able to teach them with audio- visual genres. Sherman (2003, p.2).B/Video for Comprehension of the Spoken Language
Videos bring to us different kinds of voices in different situations, one of the advantage of videos is that the comprehension is provided with visual dimension not only audio, that would help students to understand especially pragmatic understanding, also important to the long term contextual understanding which means videos assist learners to understand for a long period of time not only for the recent time (ibid).
3/Video as a Language Model
Authentic videos supply learners with a great stock of linguistic resource of accents, vocabulary, grammar and syntax besides to all kinds of discourse that shows us language in most of its uses and different context. Authentic video can be a model for a special language matter or a pool that allow to students to choose what they want or need.
Drama videos like what is stated by Sherman (2003, p.2), “is particularly valuable because it exemplifies the kind of communicating language most foreign language students rarely meet”. The sense that authentic video provide new things that the printed material does not provide.
D/Video for Culture
Video is a window to the world of English language community; it brings the English culture to the students without effort, far from giving access to the global cultural products like feature film, video shows the way people live, think and behave with each other “small amount of showing is worth hours of telling from a teacher or course book” (ibid).
E/Video as a Stimulus or Input
Video can be used for discussion like what is stated by Sherman (2003, p.3), for writing homework or teacher assignments, as an input for a project or other study subject, the film that is covered in Sherman (2003) book is useful in the study of literature. Teaching films is useful for certain objectives of language learning such as providing a “visual stimulus” according to Cunning video can stimulate and motivate students? interest, the use of video in classroom assist learners to predict the coming information.
F/Video as a Moving Picture Book
Regardless to the used language, videos provide an access to things, sets, people, action and attitudes, but it worth the great amount of picture dictionaries and journals. Learners can realize these things by the help of authentic videos; it brings to the learner all content of English language without any effort (ibid).
The problems of using videos
Despite having many benefits, videos have some weaknesses. Harmer (2003: 283) states that if the teachers wish to use video successfully in classes they need to be aware a number of potential problems. They are as follows:
a) Poor quality tapes and disks: poorly filmed and woodenly aced material will not engage students who are used to something better.
b) Poor viewing condition: the teachers have to be sure that the students can see and hear the video. The monitor must big enough for the learners at the back of the class to see the screen clearly.
c) Stop and start: some students become frustrated when teachers constantly stop and start the video, only showing little bits at a time. It can also be extremely irritating if a teacher fails to show the class how the story ends.
d) The length of extract: some people think that more than two or three minutes of video sends students to sleep. Other, however, like to show whole programs.
f) Fingers and thumbs: students can be irritated by teachers who cannot find what they want or get back. Teachers themselves become frustrated when the machine does not work properly
Section 2 vocabularyIntroduction :
Vocabulary plays irreplaceable role in learning a language. It is the most fundamental part and becomes the starting point for everyone in learning the language. Someone should acquire as many vocabularies as possible of the language in order to master the language.Vocabulary is considered one of the challenging skills in the teaching and learning process. In the past, vocabulary was neglected from curricular because it was believed that this latter was acquired automatically so, the focus centred on grammar, reading, speaking as a separate subject. Even though, learning a language would not limited to learning only vocabulary, but no matter how learners master grammar,without words communication is impeded . In the world of language, words are the building blocks of languages because they help their users convey their desired meanings)Lotfi 2005(.Lexis plays an integral role in EFL classrooms, since it is impossible to study a language without knowing its words.
In this chapter , we will shed light on the importance of vocabulary in teaching and learning. Also, we mention different definitions of vocabulary by various experts. Moreover, on what makes words difficult, and to distinguish between active and passive vocabulary. In addition to some techniques and strategies which help learners remember vocabulary.
Definition of vocabulary
Many definitions have been proposed for the term ‘vocabulary’; however, they are still limited and need extra clarifications. It is a hard task to give one clear-cut definition; therefore, we have decided to present some definitions taken from different sources.
Thornbury states that vocabulary or lexis in English are frequently used interchangeably. Vocabulary refers to ”a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of language might use”. (Hatch &Brown, 1995, p. 1). It means that vocabulary is a collection of words that used by one’s as mean of communication.
In the Longman dictionary (1995), vocabulary is defined as all the words that someone knows, learns or uses. Hatch and Brown (1995) consider “vocabulary” as a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that an individual speaker of a language might use.
Vocabulary is known as evolutionary in the sense that constant changes are made all the time because of the introduction and omission of words in a language. It is for that reason that Rivers (op.cit.) defines it as that aspect of language which continues to develop and evolve for as long as one has contact with a language whether it be one’s first, second or third language.
Todd argued that there is no clear final definition of the word “vocabulary” (49). He suggested that there is the orthographic, morphological, lexical, and semantic aspect of the word. An orthographic word has a space on either side of it. While, a morphological one has a relation with form only and not meaning. Then, a lexical word concerns the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning; and finally, a semantic word considers the distinction between words which are morphologically the same and different in meaning .TEACHING STRATEGIES.Inside the classroom, the teacher’s interference is unavoidable; thus, teachers are supposed to adopt strategies and methods to deal successfully with unfamiliar words. This includes unplanned and planned vocabulary teaching.
1/Unplanned Vocabulary Teaching
Seal (1991: 298) defines this term as the “teaching of problem vocabulary that comes up without warning in the course of a lesson”. This occurs when learners feel that they need to know the meaning of a vocabulary item during a lesson or when the teacher feels that it is required to make certain clarifications. Here, the teacher is going to improvise an explanation. Seal stated (1991: 298), that there are three stages in the unplanned vocabulary teaching.They are referred to as the three Cs: the stage of conveying meaning; the stage of checking the meaning, and the consolidation stage. In the first stage, the teacher attempts to convey the meaning of the target word using different techniques as miming, giving synonyms, opposites or an anecdote. In the second stage, s/he checks that the meaning of the unknown word is understood. This may be done through asking the learners a certain questions or clearly by doing some activities to test their understanding, such as crossword puzzles. In the final stage of vocabulary teaching, when the teacher tries to consolidate the information by urging students to use the word in different contexts. However, unplanned vocabulary teaching has certain deficiencies as stated by Seal himself (ibid, 299). The first of these dangers is that the teacher may not provide enough clarification of the new word; Hence, not satisfying students’ needs for understanding the meaning of this word. The other one lies in the fact that this technique takes a lot of time to explain the new word and other related words.
Planned Vocabulary Teaching
Hatch & Brown (1995: 415) refers to this technique as “intentional vocabulary instruction”. Seal (1991: 298) defines it as “when the teacher goes into the classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary items that s/he has decided beforehand will be taught during the course of the lesson”. He mentions two types of this kind of vocabulary teaching. The first type is similar to unplanned vocabulary teaching where the teacher predicts that a certain items will cause problems for learners’understanding. So, he prepares how to teach them. Whereas,The second type of planned vocabulary teaching can be described as the vocabulary lesson. It occur in isolation to improve the F L learners’ stock of vocabulary, or it can be taught as a follow-up to other activities such as, listening, reading, discussion and dialogues.
TYPES OF VOCABULARY
There are various ways to classify the types of vocabulary:
According to Doff (1988, p.147) vocabulary is classified into active vocabulary and passive vocabulary. The active vocabulary mentions words, which learners can understand, pronounce correctly without context and use effectively in speaking and writing. On the other hand, the passive vocabulary is the words that are encountered or understood in context such as in reading or listening, but they are not used in speaking or writing.
Nguyen Bang and Nguyen Ba Ngoc (2002, p. 36) categorize vocabulary into receptive and productive vocabulary. The receptive vocabulary refers to learner’s understanding of vocabulary when he hears or reads it. In other words, it is words that learners recognize while hearing, listening or reading. Receptive vocabulary denotes the understanding of words or phrases in verbal or written scenarios.
Rivers (1968) states that vocabulary cannot be taught. It can be presented, explained, included in all kinds of activities but ultimately, it is only the individual who learns it. She urges teachers to make learners learn how to learn vocabulary and enable them to find their own ways of expanding and organizing their word store (Rivers 1983).
Incidental vs intentional learning
Vocabulary can be learned incidentally or rather accidentally. Incidental learning occurs without awareness or intention to learn , it refers to learners’ ability to pick up the language.It is also learning one thing while intending to learn another (Richards & Schmidt, 2002). In terms of language acquisition, incidental learning is said to be an effective way of learning vocabulary from context (Day, Omura, &Hiramatsu, 1991; Jenkins, Stein, & Wysocki, 1984; Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1985; Saragi, Nation, & Meister, 1978). Intentional learning on the other hand, related to learning being planned on the part of the teacher and learners. Hatch and Brown stated that (1995, p.369) “Intentional learning as being designed, planned for instead teachers or students.” Then, intentional learning, defined as “any activity geared at committing lexical information to memory” (Hulstijn, 2001, p.271).
Importance of vocabulary
No one can overstate the power of words , words are the building block of language. The famous proverb says, “actions speak louder than words.” Yet, very often these are the words that convey people’s information.Essentially, it is impossible to imagine what life would look like if there were no words. McCarthy (1990: viii) states that: “no matter how well the student learns grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of L2 are mastered, without words to express a wide range of meaning, communication in L2 just cannot happen in any meaningful way”. Thus, the aim of vocabulary teaching revealed in this citation is being able to communicate. The author emphasizes the significance of vocabulary over grammar and pronunciation. He also adds that vocabulary often seems to be the least well catered for of all the aspects of learning a foreign language (McCarthy 1990: viii).
Krashen (1993) mentions the importance of vocabulary especially in the host community, because EFL learners who know grammar rules and they have poor vocabulary will face difficulties and problems in communication with native speakers. Harmer (1991) states that if language structures make up the skeleton of language, it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh. Therefore, an ability to use grammatical structure does not have any potential for expressing meaning unless words are used.
Therefore, if the learners have a wide range of vocabulary, they will have more confidence to communicate with others and vice versa. They can meet many difficulties to express themselves and communicate with others
Steps of teaching vocabulary
In the field of teaching, Nation and Newton (1997,p.39)recommended teachers to take into account a three phases while planning for a vocabulary course: selection, sequence ,and presentation.
Early scholars searched for appropriate vocabulary that contribute in successful learning. They provided lists of the most frequently used words in the early stages of learning.They added range in spoken language as a second variable in vocabulary selection. However, their interest is not limited on frequency and range, but they added also other factors such as: Combination ,definition, substitution , and association of words are required too. Those factors and others form the notion of “core vocabulary”(Carter,1986,1987).
The second phase is sequencing in vocabulary teaching. There are two focal sequencing that the teacher should follow: first is the sequence of levels of vocabulary .second, is grouping and ordering words. The table below is adapted from Nation and Newton (1997,p.239) which represents the division of levels of vocabulary.
Levels Number of words Text coverage %
High frequency words 2.000 87
Academic vocabulary 800 08
Technical vocabulary 2.000 03
Low frequency words 123.200 02
Total 128.000 100
Levels of acquiring vocabularyAny language has a huge number of words that make its base. The process of acquiring English vocabulary comprises many levels. First , at the beginning of the studies learners have to acquire 2000 high frequent words which its text coverage is 87%. Next, if the learner continues his/her academic studies, s/he will encounter 800 words to acquire, and which covers 08% of a text. Technical vocabulary has a very narrow range, they are listed under 2000 words resulted in 02%, since each field has its own terminologies such as medicine, chemistry and mathematics; they are listed around 200. . Finally, low frequency covered 2 % , this percentage transferred to 123 words they are not used for academic studies but for social objectives.
After selecting and sequencing the set of vocabulary to be taught, teachers come to present these words to their learners.Vocabulary lists can be an effective technique which can be used to make the teaching learning process easier for the teacher and learner. High frequency vocabulary is taught through vocabulary exercise or individual learning because this type of vocabulary is insignificant. However, low frequency vocabulary are plenty. There are a certain words that do not deserve the teachers’ attention. They are preferably guessed from the context. There are various strategies for dealing with high and low frequency vocabulary. They can be put into practice either directly or indirectly. Both of these approaches require reflection and design on the part of the teacher. In a direct approach ,teachers give a full attention to vocabulary, they have to use explicit vocabulary exercises However , In an indirect approach to vocabulary teaching, the teachers’ concern for vocabulary learning will be implicit.
Steps of teaching vocabulary
Brown and Payne (1994) have identified five steps to learn vocabulary that teachers should be aware of in order to help students acquire new vocabularies:
1 )Encountering new words:
Looking for sources forward such as reading books and stories, listening to radio and songs. Learners interests, motivation and their needs lead them to focus on learning some words rather than others.
2) Getting the word form
Getting a clear image about the words? form-spelling and pronunciation. It is considered very important especially when learners are asked to define words.
3) Getting the word meaning:
Based mostly on relating new words with already made pictures in mind, using dictionaries, relying on someone?s clarification or putting words in context.4 )Consolidating word form and meaning in memory:
Learning words through their appropriate context in which learners can acquire the word meaning and form at the same time.
5 )Using the word:
It is essential to test the learner?s productive knowledge of collocations, syntactic restriction and register appropriateness.
The learners require all these five steps in order to enhance their vocabulary and have full knowledge of the words they want to acquire.
Techniques of teaching vocabulary:
There are many techniques of presenting new vocabulary items to learners that can be used while a vocabulary lesson. Gairns and Redman (1986: 73) list three techniques that are rather teacher-centred because lexical items are chosen by the teacher rather than the learners. These are verbal techniques, visual techniques and also translation.
Techniques of verbal presentations may also take many arrangements. When vocabulary items are more abstract, it is advisable to use illustrative situations. The teacher presents a situation in which a specific word is used and then, learners speculate what the word is. The lecturer may ask comprehension checking questions as to check if students grasped the concept. Learners may also be encouraged to use the new word or phrase in various contexts. Another form of verbal techniques is providing students with a synonym or a definition. Synonyms are both used with low level learners and with higher level ones. When it comes to a definition, if it is alone, it is frequently incomplete as a means of conveying meaning and without any doubt, contextualised instances are in most cases required to explain the limits of them (Gairns and Redman 1986: 74). Finally, the authors add that in order to represent the meaning of superordinates such as ‘furniture’, the lecturer may use the technique of exemplifying the given word with word as ‘table’, ‘chair’ and ‘sofa’ (Gairns and Redman 1986: 74).
Studies indicate that 80% of learning occurs through seeing. Anderson states that “At present, up to 65 percent of our students can be classified as visual learners” .Visual aids include the use of all objects that can be seen in the classroom, such as pictures, photographs, charts , posters, flashcards among others. These aids maybe used while teaching concrete vocabulary items, such as furniture, food, professions, places, descriptions of people, activities and actions and they are fundamental when working with young learners. The incorporation of such aids helps learners to be relaxed and engaged; they can increase their motivation and reduce their affective variables to grasp the meaning of words easily as well as they ascertain their effectiveness in creating comfortable classroom environment .Using visuals may be quite efficient because seeing pictures helps to remember new words better.
.Mime and Gestures
This technique, which include body language and facial expressions, is widely used by teachers, whether consciously or unconsciously. It helps to convey the word meaning to student as it may entertain them, especially when they are asked to repeat or imitate what the teacher does. Tellier (2008, p.89), in her study” The effect of gestures on second language memorization by young children ” reported that ” gesturing enables children to memorize vocabulary better in L2, as they get physically involved in their learning” that is to say, practicing and gesturing are very helpful in language learning, just like the proverb says ” involve me and I learn”.
Teaching words in the context
Most people agree that vocabulary ought to be taught in context as (Rivers 1968). Words taught in isolation are generally not retained. In addition, in order to grasp the full meaning of a word or phrase, students must be aware of the linguistic environment in which the word or phrase appears. Setting a good context which is interesting, plausible, vivid and has relevance to the lives of the learners, is an essential for vocabulary teaching as it aids in both engaging the attention of the learners and naturally generating the target vocabulary. Maintaining the context and making sure the language surrounding the context is easy to comprehend, the teacher should start eliciting the target vocabulary.
In conclusion, vocabulary is a broad notion and it has countless definitions. It is difficult to imagine what life would be like if there were no words, thus various linguists have tried to estimate the value of vocabulary teaching. The teacher’s part is to support learners in their learning and to direct their learning into a right course. Undoubtedly, without suitable support students vocabulary will be incomplete when communicating in a foreign language. Nevertheless, that is not the concern since usually learners’ aim is to become self-confident and courageous when using a target language.