Houses in Dhaka were constructed along the riverfront adoring the reward of the south and the river until it became congested during the initial twentieth century. Most other parts of the city had impulsive growth beside the winding narrow streets. Accesses to the plot and the house were directed by the road position. The old-style concept of south-facing house was not always conceivable to lie because of site placement. The entrance leads to the formal living room, the counterpart of the rural privy. The public part of the house is identical with the front or formal domain. If space allows, a veranda and a yard would front the public room(s). The front leads to the inner courtyard, often alongside a symmetric axis through either a central corridor of a big hall room. There may be other entrances leading to the inner court from a secondary road or through a narrow passage avoiding the public domain. On the ground floor, rooms are organized around the inner court, sometimes fronted by a veranda, which is the informal or private part of the house. On the upper floors, an unremitting veranda overseeing the court often acts as the major and the only transmission space joining the rooms. Internal stair(s) are located reliant on the size of the house and plot conformation.
This part is the female area with constrained access, which accommodates diverse household activities and services. Thus the courtyard is the threshold transient semi-public space between the inhabitable rooms – the private territory and the living (sitting) room – the public territory. It is also the center of several domestic doings and a place of social communications including celebrations and ceremonies. Rooms, if not directly available from it, preserve a conceptual connection with it making a court the attention of the house. This connection is horizontal and as the link progresses, the grade of privacy alternates. The long proven climatic concerns like south wind, adequate rain protection and shade etc. are trailed in the spatial procedure. Houses need persistent ease ventilation through exposure to breeze in a warm-humid climate as in Bengal. Due to the prearrangement of rooms around an open courtyard, which encounters this criterion, most parts of these houses are single room depth with a veranda, which also permits better cross ventilation.
Transformation of house form of Dhaka in the 21st century (environmental and spatial configuration)
Altman and Wandersman (1987) pointed out that the communal life carries out the communal character and crucial features, such as, the occurrence of local institutions, official recognition, the type of housing they comprise, the pattern of social interaction and organization that they display, the ethnic, socio-economic, and demographic makeup of inhabitants. Population rise in urban centers has an influence on the built environment. On the one hand, poor people of rural context migrate to big cities in search of job and economic safety; on the other, development of the city and new improvement in the fringe with modern amenities inspires the affluent to move out from traditional buildings. Newly the issue of globalization also becomes an imperative issue for more job prospects, which further hastens the physical changes of old centers to accommodate the arriving population. As a consequence of this phenomenon, communal life and identity are regularly lessening (Mahmud, 2001). A number of aspects can be recognized for such rapid changes in old-style neighborhoods. In many urban studies and research, urban scholars point out these factors as, the altering social structure of the family; the impression of extended family diminishing; multiplicity of the jobs and flexibility of people keeping family members apart; conservation of old traditional dwellings becoming problematic; appearance of developers and purchase of modern apartments with all services in limited, preplanned, secured neighborhoods; and probable of present traditional houses for rental purposes for low-income groups. (Castells, 1985; Flanagan, 1990; Drakakis-Smith, 1997).
Rapid migration of a large number of skilled and unskilled laborers to urban centers augmented the claim in housing and accommodation. To accommodate this number, many traditional residences are renovating day by day but without managing with any building code or recommended rules from the authorities. As the primary settlers are moving out and housing is engaged by people from outside, the traditional lifestyle is varying in the neighborhood and place attachment and personality might be interrogated. Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, has long been observed as one of the fastest increasing cities and at present the city accommodates nearly 15 million inhabitants and 60 percent of this population is migrants (BBS, 2005).