From the beginning of the human existence parents are the best treasures and caretakers of their offspring’s, and they are God given gifts that a person has in their life. Parents are the reason for the existence of their life in this world. From the moment of their conception until their age of adolescence, they are still under the supervision of their parents. When they are at the right age they are engaged with our own responsibilities and relationships. Freedom and responsibilities are their arbitrary choice of their better existence.
There is no connection between first paragraph and second paragraph
Electra complex is a state in which a girl or woman falls in love with her father and become jealous of her mother or the girl the father has an intimate relationships with each . Electra complex is an opposite of Oedipus complex defined by Sigmund Freud. They are both taken from the Greek mythology which has a great relevance in the story (which story?).
The house on zapote street is a short story written by the famous writer nick Jacquie emphasises this concept (Electra complexity)under psychological theory that took an immense role in the story. Nick was born on May 4, 1917 in Paco, Manila. His parents was Leocadio Y. Joaquin, a lawyer and colonel during the Philippine revolution. nick studied at Mapa High School for three years then dropped out from the school for work. He was used to read at the National Library during his spare time. During his time, in 1989, English was the official medium of instruction, due to the emergence and popularity of short story writers in English, all Spanish literature somehow ceased in production
Quijano de Manila is the pen name of Nick Joaquin. He started writing before the war and his first story, ´Three Generation has been hailed as a masterpiece. He has been recipient of almost all the prestigious awards in literature and the arts, including the National Artist Award for Literature in 1976. He was also conferred, among other recognitions, the Republic Cultural Heritage Award for Literature in1961, the Journalist of the Year Award in the early 1960s, the Book of the Year Award in 1979 for his Almanac for Manileños, the national Book award for several of his works, the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, Creative Communication Arts (the Asian counterpart of Nobel Prize) in 1996, and the Tanglawng Lahi Award in 1997.
The story of the novel revolves around the character of Dr. Leonardo Quitangon, Lydia Cabading and her father Pablo Cabading. Dr. Leonardo Quitangon, a soft-spoken, mild-mannered, cool-tempered Caviteno, was still fancy-free at 35 when he returned to Manila, after six years abroad. Then, at the University of Santo Tomas, where he went to reach, he met Lydia Cabading, a medical intern. He liked her quiet ways and began to date her steadily. They went to the movies and to basketball games and he took her a number of times to his house in Sta. Mesa, to meet his family-then only 23 and looked like a sweet unspoiled girl, but there was a slight air of mystery about her. Lydia was understood that she was an only child and that her parents were, therefore, over-zealous in looking after her. Her father usually took her to school and fetched her after classes, and had been known to threaten to arrest young men who stared at her on the streets or pressed too close against her.
After about two months at the house on Zapote Street, Leonardo moved out, alone. Her parents would not let Lydia go and she herself was too afraid to leave. During the succeeding weeks, efforts to contact her proved futile. The house on Zapote became even more closed to the outside world. But she was always accompanied by her father, mother or foster-brother, or by all three.Cabading then announced that he no longer objected to Lydia’s moving out of the house to live with her husband in an apartment of their own. Overjoyed, the Quitangons urged Cabading to go with them in Sta. Mesa, so that the newlyweds could be reconciled with Lydia’s parents. Cabading readily agreed. When they arrived at the Zapote house, the Quitangon brothers were amused by what they saw. Mrs. Cabading, her eyes closed, lay on the parlour sofa, a large towel spread out beneath her. “She has been lying there all day,” said Cabading, “tossing restlessly, asking for you, Lydia.” Gene noted that the towel was neatly spread out and didn’t look crumpled at all, and that Mrs. Cabading was obviously just pretending to be asleep.Suddenly the men heard the clatter of a drawer falling upstairs. Gene surmised that it had fallen in a struggle between mother and daughter. “Excuse me,” said Cabading, rising. As he went upstairs, he said to the Quitangons, over his shoulder, “Don’t misunderstand me. I’m not going to ‘coach’ Lydia”. He went into Lydia’s room and closed the door behind him. When his brother had left for Zapote, Gene realized that he was not sure he was going to Subic. He left too worried. He knew he couldn’t rest easy until he had seen Lydia and Leonardo settled in their new home. The minutes quickly ticked past as he debated with himself whether he should stay or catch that bus. Then, at about a quarter to seven, the phone rang. It was Nonilo, in anguish something terrible has happened in Lydia’s room! I heard four shots,” he cried. Gene sent a younger brother to inform the family lawyer and to alert the Makati police. Then he drove like mad to Zapote. .
The entire room was spattered with blood. On the floor, blocking the door lay Mrs. Cabading. She had been shot in the chest and stomach but was still alive. The policeman tried to get a statement from her but all she could say was: “My hand, my hand- it hurts!” She was lying across the legs of her daughter, who lay on top of her husband’s body. Lydia was still clutching an armful of clothes; Leonardo was holding a clothes hanger. He had been shot in the breast; she, in the heart. They had died instantly, together.
The drama of the jealous father had ended at about half-past six in the evening, Tuesday last week. The next day, hurrying commuters slowed down and a whispering crowd gathered before 1074 Zapote Street, to watch the police and the reporters going through the pretty little house that Pablo Cabading built for his Lydiya
Thus the Electra complex in the story is a contrast to the real concept where it is the father of Lydia whom one can see vividly seen the fixation. Pablo cabading being the father of Lydia suffers Electra complex in which he becomes very zealous over looking to her. This is a story of jealous father, a cruel man with dreadful possessiveness and a victim of Electra complex.
Pablo Cabading’s deformity towards his daughter makes lots of dissatisfaction in her married life. His rigid rules puts her in melancholy. According to the psychological theory the story tell the attitude of Pablo cabading has something to do with his past experiences and his unconscious mind.
REDUCE the length of the summary. Also include details on relevance/scope/significance/scope of the study. Mention the METHODOLOGY of your project( on what the each chapter deals with).
HISTORICAL BAGROUND AND CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENT IN THE STORY
1.1 The story based on a true incident report- ( change the sub heading- it is inappropriate)
JANUARY 18, 1961: COP KILLS DAUGHTER, SON-IN-LAW, HIMSELF
Manila chronicle-“A Manila police detective, driven to a fit of madness during a family quarrel, killed his only daughter and son-in-law, shot and wounded his wife and then blew his brains out with the same gun at their plush residence in Makati, Rizal, shortly before 5:45 p.m. yesterday. The amok was Pablo Cabading, 48, a plainclothesman assigned with the criminal investigation laboratory of the Manila Police Department. He herded the three into his room at the second floor of their lavishly-furnished house at 1074 Zapote, Makati to settle a domestic dispute. At the heat of the argument, he shot them one after, and then presses the muzzle of his .45 caliber pistol against his right temple and shot himself to death” (The peoples news paper manila chronicle reported injanuary1961)
The conflict arise when Lydia’s father asks for a big dowry. Even after the marriage Pablo always requests her daughter to stay in their home or to live in their house. Pablo remains very strict in his rules. Here the married couple finds difficult to live as their father always meddles with them. Later they find that they escape from their father and they don’t want the way their father rule their life. This makes Pablo unrest and calls back his daughter, where the tragic scene of the play happens.
1.5 The main Characters
Lydia a sweet unspoiled girl at 23, but a slight air of mystery surrounds her. Leonardo and his brothers noticed that she almost never speak of her home life or her childhood; she seems to have no gay early memories to share with her lover, as sweethearts usually crave to do. And whenever it looks as if she might have to stay out late, she would say: “I’ll have to tell my father first”. And off she would go, wherever she was, to tell her father, though it mean going all the way to Makati, Rizal, where she lives with her parents in a new house on Zapote Street.
Pablo Cabading is a cob man of manila police. A strict father, a fine strapping man, an Ilocano, who gives the impression of being taller than he looked every inch an agent of the law: full of brawn and guts and force, and smouldering with vitality. He dresses natty, liked youthful colours and styles, decorated his house with pictures of himself and, at 50, looked younger than his inarticulate wife, who was actually two years younger than him.
Dr. Leonardo Quitangon, a soft-spoken, mild-mannered, cool-tempered Caviteno, was still fancy-free at 35 when he returned to Manila, after six years abroad. Then, at the University of Santo Tomas, where he met Lydia Cabading, a medical intern. He liked her quiet ways and began to date her steadily. They went to the movies and to basketball games and he took her a number of times to his house in Sta. Mesa, to meet his family.
1.5.4The mother Anunciacion:
The mother anunciacion is a mousy woman who is unable to speak anything against her husband remains silent through the story. We must think that she must be suppressed by her husband in all the ways. She was a simple and slow women in her action and she was got less care from her daughter.
The subheadings mentioned in these chapter are not proper and does not yield to the chapter. Chapter 1 lacks proper analysis of the novel and insufficient material .
PSYCHO ANALYTIC THEORY AND THE ELECTRA COMPLEX
2.1 Psycho analysis and Sigmund Freud
2.1.1Life and career
Sigmund Freud was born to a wool merchant and his second wife, Jacob and Amalie, in Freiberg, Moravia, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, on May 6, 1856. This town is now known as P?íbor and is located in the Czech Republic. For most of his life, he was raised in Vienna, and he was married there in 1886 to Martha Betrays. They had six children. His daughter, Anna Freud, also became a distinguished psychoanalyst.
In 1909, Freud came to the United States and made a presentation of his theories at Clark University in Massachusetts. This was his first presentation outside of Vienna. By this point, he was very famous, even with laymen.
In 1923, at age 67, Freud was diagnosed with cancer of the jaw after many years of smoking cigars. His treatment included 30 operations over the next 16 years, according to the PBS program, “A Science Odyssey.”Freud lived his adult life in Vienna until it was occupied by Germany in 1938. Though Jewish, Freud’s fame saved him, for the most part. The Nazi party burned his books throughout Germany, but they let him leave Austria after briefly confiscating his passport. He and his wife fled to England, where he died in September 1939.
In 1873, Freud entered the University of Vienna medical school. In 1882, he became a clinical assistant at the General Hospital in Vienna and trained with psychiatrist Theodor Meynert and Hermann Nothnagel, a professor of internal medicine. By 1885, Freud had completed important research on the brain’s medulla and was appointed lecturer in neuropathology, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Freud’s friend, Josef Breuer, a physician and physiologist, had a large impact on the course of Freud’s career. Breuer told his friend about using hypnosis to cure a patient, Bertha Pappenheim (referred to as Anna O.), of what was then called hysteria. Breuer would hypnotize her, and she was able to talk about things she could not remember in a conscious state. Her symptoms were relieved afterwards. This became known as the “talking cure.” Freud then travelled to Paris to study further under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist famous for using hypnosis to treat hysteria.
After this new study, Freud returned to his hometown in 1886 and opened a practice that specialized in nervous and brain disorders. He found that hypnosis didn’t work as well as he had hoped. He instead developed a new way to get people to talk freely. He would have patients lie back on a couch so that they were comfortable and then he would tell them to talk about whatever popped into their head. Freud would write down whatever the person would say, and analyze what they had said. This method of treatment is called free association.
2.2 Psycho analysis
In 1896, Freud coined the term psychoanalysis. This is the treatment of mental disorders, emphasizing on the unconscious mental processes. It is also called “depth psychology.”Freud also developed what he thought of as the three agencies of the human personality, called the id, ego and superego. The id is the primitive instincts, such as sex and aggression. The ego is the “self” part of the personality that interacts with the world in which the person lives. The superego is the part of the personality that is ethical and creates the moral standards for the ego.
Freud’s life work was dominated by his attempts to find ways of penetrating this often subtle and elaborate camouflage that obscures the hidden structure and processes of personality. Freud was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and also a theory which explains human behaviour.
Psychoanalysis is often known as the talking cure. Typically Freud would encourage his patients to talk freely (on his famous couch) regarding their symptoms, and to describe exactly what was on their mind.
2.2.1The Unconscious Mind
Freud (1900, 1905) developed a topographical model of the mind, whereby he described the features of the mind’s structure and function. Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to describe the three levels of the mind. On the surface is consciousness, which consists of those thoughts that are the focus of our attention now, and this is seen as the tip of the iceberg. The preconscious consists of all which can be retrieved from memory.
The third and most significant region is the unconscious. Here lie the processes that are the real cause of most behaviour. Like an iceberg, the most important part of the mind is the part you cannot see.
The unconscious mind acts as a repository, a ‘cauldron’ of primitive wishes and impulse kept at bay and mediated by the preconscious area.
Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behaviour to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious.
2.2.2 The Psyche
Freud (1923) later developed a more structural model of the mind comprising the entities id, ego and superego (what Freud called “the psychic apparatus”). These are not physical areas within the brain, but rather hypothetical conceptualizations of important mental functions.
Freud assumed the id operated at an unconscious level according to the pleasure principle (gratification from satisfying basic instincts). The id comprises two kinds of biological instincts (or drives) which Freud called Eros and Thanatos.
Eros, or life instinct, helps the individual to survive; it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating and sex (Freud, 1925). The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido.
In contrast, Thanatos or death instinct is viewed as a set of destructive forces present in all human beings (Freud, 1920). When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence. Freud believed that Eros is stronger than Thanatos, thus enabling people to survive rather than self-destruct.
The ego develops from the id during infancy. The ego’s goal is to satisfy the demands of the id in a safe a socially acceptable way. In contrast to the id the ego follows the reality principle as it operates in both the conscious and unconscious mind.
The superego develops during early childhood (when the child identifies with the same sex parent) and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed. The superego operates on the morality principle and motivates us to behave in a socially responsible and acceptable manner.
The basic dilemma of all human existence is that each element of the psychic apparatus makes demands upon us that are incompatible with the other two. Inner conflict is inevitable. For example, the superego can make a person feel guilty if rules are not followed. When there is conflict between the goals of the id and superego, the ego must act as a referee and mediate this conflict. The ego can deploy various defence mechanisms (Freud, 1894, 1896) to prevent it from becoming overwhelmed by anxiety.
2.2.3 Stages of Personality in a Child
Sigmund Freud believed that each stage of a child’s development beginning at birth is directly related to specific needs and demands, each based on a particular body part and all rooted in a sexual base.
Freud offered dynamic and psychosocial explanations for human behaviour. He conceptualized what we call the psycho-sexual stages of development. Freud believed that there are specific stages in which an individual has a specific need, and gratification during each stage is important to prevent an individual from becoming fixated in any particular level. Fixation, as Freud described it, is attaching oneself in an unreasonable or exaggerated way to another individual or one particular stage of development. Freud claimed that such a fixation at one particular stage can cause bad habits or problems in an individual’s adult life.
Freud’s explanation of these developmental stages provided early psychosocial explanations for an individual’s deviance or abnormal behaviour. According to this theory, there is a delicate of balance that must be met at each stage. In a historical perspective, Freudian psychoanalysis can be seen as one of the first systematic, psycho-dynamic approaches to show how human psychological processes can result in mental disorders.
He demonstrated that certain abnormal mental phenomena occur during the attempt to cope with difficult problems. He also developed techniques such as free association and dream analysis for becoming acquainted with conscious and unconscious aspects of personality. These techniques are still widely used in therapy to treat a number of mental disorders.
Freud’s psycho-dynamic perspective has come under attack by several critics. An important criticism to Freud’s stages of development is that no scientific data supports any of the stages. This theory has also been criticized for its overemphasis on sex drive, and also for failing to consider motives toward personal growth and fulfilment. Regardless of how correct it is, Freud’s theory of development paved the way for other psychologists to develop theories on how a child develops. It led scientists to take a further look into the developmental processes of human behaviours. It also led to the start of theories that describe the abnormal behaviours of individuals.
As mentioned before, Sigmund Freud’s developmental stages consists of many stages, and Freud outlined five stages of development: the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stage, and the genital stage.
In order to understand the basics of his developmental stages, it is important to note a few things: Freud’s age ranges varied a bit over the course of his work, largely because he acknowledged that development can vary a bit from individual to individual. Additionally, experience of the stages may overlap at times. Finally, Freud believed that the way that parents handle their children during each of the stages has a profound and lasting impact on the overall development of the child’s psyche.
Thus Psychoanalysis as Freud conceived it emphasised unconscious forces, biological based drives of sex and aggression and unavoidable conflicts in early childhood. These were considered the rulers and shapers of our personality. Freud’s views had an impact not only on psychology but also on the general culture. He succeeded in redefining the human personality and revolutionizing our ways of thinking about human nature
2.2.4 Psychosexual Stages of Development
Freud believed that all behaviours are defensive but that not everyone uses the same defences in the same way. All of us are driven by the same id impulses, but there is not same universality in the nature of the ego and super ego.
Although these structures of the personality perform the same functions for everyone, their content varies from one person to another, they differ because they are formed through experience and no two person to another. They differ because they are formed through experiences and no two people have precisely the same experiences not even siblings ‘rears in the same house. Thus part of our personality is formed on the basis of the unique relationships we have as children with various people and objects. We develop a personal set of character attributes, a consistent pattern of behaviour that defines of us as an individual.
Freud sensed strong sexual conflicts in the infant and young child, conflicts that seemed to resolve around specific regions of the body. He noted that each body region assumed a greater importance as the centre of conflict at a different age. From these observations the derived the theory of the psychosexual stages of development; in each developmental stage we can see a conflict exists which should be resolved before the progress to the next stage/
Sometimes a person is relucted or unable to move from on stage to the next because the conflict has not been resolved or because the needs have so supremely satisfied by an indulgent parent that the child doesn’t want to move on. In either case the individual is said to be fixated at this stage of development. In fixation a portion of libido or psychic energy remains invested in that developmental stage, leaving less energy for the following stages.
2.3. Freud’s psycho sexual stages of development
The oral stage is the first stage of psychosexual development lasts from birth until sometime during the second year of life. During this period the infant’s principal source of pleasure is the mouth. The infants derives pleasure from sucking, biting and swallowing the infants is in a state of dependence on the mother or caregiver who becomes the primary object of the child’s libido. In more familiar we might say the infants is learning in a primitive way to love the mother
The second oral behaviour oral aggressive or oral sadistic occurs during the painful, frustrating eruption of teeth. As a result of these experience infants comes to view the mother with hatred as well as love. After all she has been responsible for everything in the infant’s environment, so she must be responsible for the pain persons who become fixated at this level are prone to excessive cruelty towards others. They tend to be envious of other people and try to exploit and manipulate them in an effort to dominate. The oral stage concludes at the time of weaning, although some libido remains if fixation has occurred.
2.3.2 The anal stage
Society in form of parents tends to defer to infants to defer to the infants needs during the first year of life, adjusting its demands and expecting relatively little adjustment in return. This situation changes dramatically around the age of 18 months, when a new demand, toilet training is made of the child. Freud believed that the experience of toilet training during the anal stage had a significant effect on personality development.
A second way the child may react to the frustration of toilet training is to hold back or retain the faeces. This produces a feeling of erotic pleasure and can be another successful technique for manipulating the parents. This behaviour is basis for the development of an anal retentive personality. The person is likely to be rigid compulsively neat obstinate and overly conscientious.
2.3.3 The phallic stage
A new set of problems arise around the fourth to fifth year, when the focus of pleasure shift from the anus to the genitals. Again the child faces a battle between an id impulse and the demands of society, as reflected in parent’s expectations.
Children at the phallic stage display considerable interest in exploring and manipulating the genitals, their own and those of their playmates. Pleasure is derived from the genital region. The child may talk about wanting to marry the parent of the opposite sex.
The phallic stage is the last of the pre genital or childhood stages and phallic conflicts or most complex ones to resolve. They are difficult for many people to accept because they involve the notion of incest, a taboo in many cultures. Between incestuous desires and masturbation we can see the seeds of shock, anger and suppression being sown in the parents of the typical 4 year old. Reality and morality comes grips with the evil id once again
2.3.4 The genital stage
The genital stage the final psychological stage of development begins at puberty. The body is becoming physiologically mature and if no major fixations have occurred at an earlier stage of development, the individual may be able to lead a normal life. Freud believed that the conflict during this period is less intense than in the other stages. The adolescent must conform to societal sanctions and taboos that exist concerning sexual expression, but conflict is minimised through sublimation. The sexual energy pressing for expression in the teenage years can be at least partially satisfied through the pursuit of socially acceptable substitutes and later through committed adult relationships with a person of the opposite sex.
While Freud theorized that children who smoothly transition through the stages grow to be calm, well centred adults; he felt that an unsuccessful completion meant that a child would become fixated on that particular phase and either over or under-indulge throughout adulthood. Believers of Freud’s theories on child development, then, must surely make every effort to help their children through each of the stages, allowing each child to experience their feelings without guilt or excessive pressure to conform to preconceived ideas.
The basic conflict of the phallic stage centres on the unconscious desire of the child for the parent of the opposite sex. Accompanying this is the unconscious desire to replace or destroy the parent of the same sex. Out of Freud’s identification of this conflict came one of his best known concepts: the Oedipus complex. The Oedipus complex operates differently for boys and girls Freud developed the male part of the complex more fully. In the Oedipus complex, the mother becomes a love object for the young boy. Through fantasy and overt behaviour, he displays his sexual longings for her. However the boy sees the father as an obstacle in his path and regards him as a rival and a threat.
The Oedipus complex in girls: Freud was less clear about the female phallic conflict, which later his follower Carl Jung termed Electra complex. The name and notion were derived from another story by Sophocles in which Electra persuades her brother to kill their mother, whom she hated.
Like the boys the girl first object of love is the mother, because she is primary source of food, affection, and security in infancy. During the phallic stage however, the father becomes the girls new love object. The girl blames her mother for her supposedly inferior condition and consequently comes to love her mother less. She may even hate the mother for what she imagines the mother did to her. She comes to envy her father and transfers her love to him because he possesses the highly valued sex organ.