Eclectic is a method of language education that combines various approaches and methodologies to teach language depending on the aims of the lesson and the abilities of the learners. It is a conceptual approach that does not merely include one paradigm or set of assumptions. Instead, eclecticism adheres to or is constituted from several theories, styles and ideas in order to gain a thorough insight about the subject, and draws upon different theories in different cases as follows.
Approaches and method used.
There are different approaches and methods for language teaching. In eclectic approach, the teacher can choose these different methods and approaches.
? Grammar translation method: The grammar translation method of second language teaching is one of the most traditional method. The grammar translating method is a way of studying language first through a detailed analysis of its grammar rules and methods. The task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language.
In terms of the classroom roles and the nature of classroom interaction, it can be stated that the roles of teachers and learners are traditional. While the teacher is the authority in the classroom, the students do as the teacher says so that they can learn what the teacher knows. The interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students.
Ex: Ask the students to write down the conversations of their friends in their native language, and then translate it in to the target language.
Ask the students to memorise at least 5 words per day in English and give their native language equivalent.
This method of teaching languages by which students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating between the target language and the native language.
? Direct method: The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method. In general, teaching focuses on the development of oral skills. The teaching concepts and vocabulary through real life objects and other visual materials. Teaching a language is directly establishing an immediate and audio visual association between experience and expression, words and phrases, idioms and meanings, rules and performances through the teachers’ body and mental skills, without any help of the learners’ native language.
This method build a direct way of the target language making a relation between experience and language, word and idea, though and expression rule and performance. The language is presented totally in the target language. The students are expect to be able to work out the grammatical rules as they progressed. The actual language present is select according to its usually in everyday context and us around purely oral context in strictly control structures. The lesson begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language. Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures.
Ex: Paragraph writing: the students asked to write a passage in their own words.
Conversation practice: the students are given an opportunity to ask their own questions to the other students or to the teacher.
? Structural- situational approach: The situational approach is useful in presenting language as used in situation, the method overlooked other important considerations about language learning and teaching. The method made an assumption that language is situational. The language is use for real life communication and not predicted. This approach is useful today for teaching a language.
According to the situational approach. The language that is being taught is realistic, all the words and sentences must grow out of some real situation or imagined real situation. The meaning of words are tied up with the situations in which they are used.
Ex: the students know the meaning of the word “blackboard”, not because they have known it from the dictionary. But because they have learned the word in situations. By hearing commands such as; clean the blackboard, look at the blackboard. This example stresses the association between the word “blackboard” and the action of “looking at it”,” cleaning it” or writing on it.
Audio-lingual/ audio visual method: Most audio-lingual methods consisted of short dialogues and sets of recorded drills. Method is based on a behaviourist approach, which held that language is acquired by habit formation. The students are easy to understand the material because they are not only listen, but also see the presentation. This method enhance student to learning and create a more inviting atmosphere. This method is intended for teaching everyday language at the early stage of target language learning.
Ex: Using any piece of paragraph at the students’ reading level, read the paragraph aloud several times. Have the students write down what they hear. The idea is to write what they have heard as literally as possible.
Audio lingual method does not focus on vocabulary. Instead, the teacher focuses on grammar through drill and practice.
? Bilingual method: bilingual means the ability to speak two languages fluently. This method establishes meaning immediately through the mother tongue and, in the initials stages, the printed word. The understanding of words and sentences in target language can be made easier by the use of mother tongue. There is no need to create artificial situations or environments for explaining the meaning of words and sentences of the target language.
Ex: first the teacher reads a dialogue to the students when they closed the books. The students repeat the sentence with the teacher with their books opened in the second reading time. The teacher gives some sentences wise or meaningful parts first language equivalents. The teacher says each sentence of the dialogue twice with L1 version.
? Communicative language teaching: this approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When students are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language. lays emphasis on oral method of teaching. It aims to develop communicative competence in students.
Ex: practicing question forms by asking students to find out personal information about their partners, friends is a good example of the communicative approach, as it involves meaningful communication.
? Total physical response: this method based up on the way that students learn their mother tongue. Teacher has language body conversation with their students. The teacher instructs and the student physically respond to this. Such as “stand up, clean the board, clapping the three times, touch the head.
Ex: the teacher command the student to look at the board, and the students all do the actions. After repeating a few times it is possible to extend this by asking the students repeat the word as they do the action.
This method is more effective learn the language. It is lot of fun, very memorable, good for kinaesthetic learners to need to be active in the class room, can works well with the mixed ability classes and it involves both left and write brained learning.
? The silent way: in this method based on the idea that teachers should be as silent as possible during a class but students should be encouraged to speak as much as possible. Silence makes students to concentrate on what is to be learned. The teacher is silent. The teacher’s presence in the classroom is limited to providing a model of the language that the students are going to work on. Uses a combination of silence and gestures to focus students’ attention.
With the silent way students are engaged in the learning process, discovering words and sounds instead of having this drilled in to them. Students become more engage and tasks have more relevance. Limited input from the teacher means almost no criticism, students feel that it is safe to make mistakes, a necessary step in language learning.