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Currently accepted ethical practices regarding human subjects. Informed consent must be given and protection/privacy of patients must be confidential. Three basic principles of ethics; Respect for Persons-privacy and consent, Justice-treat people fairly, and Beneficence- do not harm people (UAF). Ethical principles are generated by the “Belmont Report” which “provides a framework for IRBs to evaluate research involving human subjects (UCONN).” IRB stands for “Institutional Review Board”.

Must have permission and minors MUST have parental consent.
“Informed consent must also be given for interviews (UCONN).”
“Informed consent can be giving verbally, provided there is a witness (UCONN).”
“Studies involving minors rarely qualify for exempt filing (UCONN).”
“You can collect tissues if you don’t distribute them (UCONN).”
“Researchers must obtain a subject’s (and parents’ if the subject is a minor) permission before interacting with the subject or if the subject is the focus of the study (UCONN).”

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Studies in Chapter 17. The studies performed in Chapter 17 are unethical because scientists took samples, experimented, and injected HeLa cells into patients without even informing them. Southam tested people to observe how people reacted to cancer and other diseases. For example, in one of his studies where he injected cells into prisoners at the Ohio State Prison, he put their lives in danger with a “potentially deadly disease called tularemia” and “gave multiple cancer cell injections” to every prisoner (page 129). Lots of scientists and researchers in that time, did experiments on prisoners because they were “considered a vulnerable population unable to give informed consent” and it is wrong that they had to do certain studies without resistance (page 129). He also injected terminally ill patients and healthy patients even though they could die. I believe that these actions are unethical and “a clear violation of basic human rights” (page 132). Lastly, Chester Southam, who “wasn’t their doctor” still injected patients with cancer “for his benefit” without even informing them (page 130). For example, he injected HeLa cells into the forearm of a woman that had been diagnosed with leukemia. The fact that he did not see people as humane, and as objects or animals to experiment on is terrible. He did not care whether or not the patients survived; he just wanted results for his research. Also, whenever he had to explain himself to the cancer patients, he would lie and tell them that “he was testing their immune systems,” instead of telling them the truth that he was injecting them with HeLa cells (page 128).
A Human Subject is” a living individual about whom an investigator conducting research obtains: I. Data through intervention or interaction with individual; II. Identifiable private information (UF).”
Nuremberg Code was created after Nazi’s treatment of the Jews and it regarded medical ethics/ experiments on humans.
Deceased humans do not fit the criteria by the government as a “living individual” (UF).
Tissues from deceased humans should have most of the same restrictions as living humans because they are still human. Even though they are dead, the family is still affected.
I believe you should always get permission before doing any research on subjects (Whether dead or alive).

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