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Congestive Heart Failure
Tibebu adula
Chamberlain College of nursing
Aug 12, 2018
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major health problem in United States and is the leading cause of hospitalization to elderly population. It is a common condition that can happen at any age and affects about 5.7 million Americans every year. (CDC, 2013). It is possible to control this disease of the heart, however if not successfully controlled, heart failure can cause serious disability and death. The purpose of this paper is to explain in detail about the health and wellness, presentation, duration, progression, treatment options and outcomes for congestive heart failure.
Congestive heart failure, occurs when our heart pumps an inadequate amount of blood or due to inadequate contraction of heart muscle result in insufficient cardiac output. Conditions such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or hypertension gradually leaves the heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently. Not all conditions that lead to heart failure can be reversed, but treatments can improve the signs and symptoms of heart failure and help the patients live longer. According to Heathy People 2020 Goals, lifestyle changes, such as exercising, reducing salt in your diet, managing stress and especially losing weight, can improve your quality of life. The recommended way to prevent heart failure is to control conditions that cause heart failure, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. (Mayo, 2013).
Congestive Heart failure might be a long term (chronic) or sudden (acute) condition that starts accidentally. Among a variety of Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure that can emerges suddenly includes: dyspnea or shortness of breath during night sleep, fatigue and weakness, swelling of ankles and feet and abdominal area (ascites). Other symptoms include irregular heartbeat, reduced ability to exercise, persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm, increased need to urinate at night, very rapid weight gain from fluid retention, lack of appetite and nausea, difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness, chest pain if our heart failure is caused by a heart attack(myocardial infraction). (Mayo, 2013).
Congestive heart failure is fluid overload in the heart.  The heart must works harder to pump blood through body. In the most common form of heart failure, the heart muscle has reduced contractility. This reduction in contractility causes a decrease cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped). The systemic blood flow (blood sent to all the body tissue) is reduced. The weakened heart does not have the strength of draw the blood back to the heart and the blood pools in the extremities (arms and legs). I suggest the peripheral demand to blood flow through the heart.  As cardiac muscle weakened and CHF progresses, condition such as, acute renal failure, or cirrhosis are may occur exacerbating (worsening) edema (swelling
Congestive heart failure is a long term condition or (chronic) disease that requires lifelong management. However, with treatment, signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure can be improved. Treatment may help the patient to live longer and reduces a chance of dying suddenly. The underlying treatments for the cause of congestive heart failure can managed to improve symptoms. For instance, maintaining a heart valve or controlling a fast heart rhythm may reverse heart failure. But the best solution for most of heart related problems involves a balance of the right medications, and in some cases, devices that help the heart beat and contract properly. Usually the treatments of CHF can be applied with the
Combination of medication. Based on the symptoms, the patient might take one or more of these drugs including Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors that help patients with systolic heart failure to live longer and feel better. ACE inhibitors are a class of medications that are effective in the treatments of heart failure. They work by lowering blood pressure. Other drugs that patient required to take is Angiotensin II receptor blockers: these drugs, have many of the same benefits as ACE inhibitors. They may be an alternative for people who can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors. Beta blockers also may reduce signs and symptoms of heart failure, improve heart function, and helps the patient to live longer. Diuretics are often called water pills that makes a patients urinate more frequently and keep fluid from collecting in their body. Diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix), also decrease fluid in patient’s lungs, so that the patient can breathe more easily. Diuretics makes patients body lose potassium and magnesium, so their doctor may prescribe supplements of these minerals
Patients with congestive heart failure should consider other approaches such as, cardiovascular exercise, diet, and nutrition to manage their symptoms. Restriction of movements and related activity promotes physical deconditioning, so physical activity should be encouraged. However, limitation of activity is appropriate during acute heart failure exacerbations. Most patients should not participate in heavy labor or exhaustive sports. Dietary sodium restriction to 2-3 g/day is recommended. Fluid restriction to 2 L/day is recommended for patients with evidence of hyponatremia (low blood level of salt) and for those whose fluid status is difficult to control despite sodium restriction and the use of high-dose diuretics. Lifestyle changes to help prevent heart failure include: not smoking, eating healthy foods, maintaining a healthy weight, reducing and managing stress, controlling certain conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. (Medline, 2013).

The goal of treatment is to improve oxygenation in the lungs and better tissue perfusion.. The key factor to preventing heart failure is to reduce risk factors. Controlling or eliminating many of the risk factors for heart disease such as hypertension and coronary artery disease by making lifestyle changes along with the help of any medication. This paper has identified common strategies through which patients with CHF can manage their illness and multiple factors that commonly impact on their self-care disease management in the disease.

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References
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (Dec. 2013). Congestive heart failure. Retrieved
Feb. 11th, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (Nov. 2013). Congestive heart failure symptoms.
Retrieved Feb. 11th, 2014 from http://www.mayoclinic.com
Medline Plus. (Nov. 2013). Medications for CHF. Retrieved Feb. 11th, 2014 from
http://www.nlm.nih.gov

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