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Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment
Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)
ToddlerErickson’s Developmental Stage:
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Preschool-Aged
Erickson’s Developmental Stage:
Initiative versus Guilt School-Aged
Erickson’s Developmental Stage:
Industry versus Inferiority
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

The toddler is learning some of the functional activities, which include climbing the stairs, as well as learning how to sit (Jarvis, 2015).

Toddlers are starting to learn about hygienic activities, which include washing their bodies (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers are learning about certain types of behavior, which include avoiding activities, which may cause harm to them (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers are expected to be responsible for some of the activities related to their personal hygiene, which include washing hands and brushing their teeth (Jarvis, 2015). School-aged children are learning on the importance of health and the body functions (Jarvis, 2015).

School-aged children are able to understand the importance of a healthy diet (Jarvis, 2015).
Toddlers may not be receiving adequate care related to their health due to parental view on certain factors (Jarvis, 2015).
Toddlers may be at a risk of developing certain health issues due to the exposure to certain environmental factors (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers may have health problems due to inappropriate clothing to address changing weather patterns (Jarvis, 2015).
Some of the children may also be slow in adopting measures to take care of their own hygiene, which may include not properly brushing their own teeth (Jarvis, 2015). Although children in this age group may be taking measures to address injury or harm caused, they tend to ignore their general appearance and hygiene (Jarvis, 2015).
The school-aged children tend to copy the behavior of their guardians, which may include poor health habits (Jarvis, 2015).

Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers are being taught on eating a variety of healthy foods after being weaned from breastfeeding (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).

Toddlers are stopped from breastfeeding and using the bottle (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).

Preschoolers have a schedule of three meals during the day with small snacks in between the main meals (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Preschoolers are becoming aware of their food preferences and the healthy foods (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). School-aged children are becoming aware of the importance of having a good nutrition, which includes having a balanced diet (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).

School-aged children also understand the importance of exercise in relation to having a good diet (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Toddlers have a poor health due to a poor diet (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Toddlers who are either underweight or overweight due to poor feeding habits attributed to the parents or guardians (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). Preschoolers engaging in highly processed foods and sugar, which are mostly given as snacks (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).

Overweight or underweight preschoolers mainly attributed to the diet administered (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). Obese school-aged children, which is attributed to a lack of regular exercise (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).

School-aged children not interested in healthy foods, which contribute to a weakened immune system (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).

Pattern of Elimination:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers are trained on using the toilet when the need to use the toilet arises (Jarvis, 2015).
Toddlers can give signs when it is time to urinate or a bowel movement (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers are responsible for their own toilet activities (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers are able to express any discomforts in the elimination process (Jarvis, 2015). School-aged children are able to urinate 6 to 8 times a day with 1 or 2 bowel movements (Jarvis, 2015).
School-aged children are able to communicate on any elimination problems (Jarvis, 2015).
Weaning from breast-feeding to other food items may cause issues in the elimination process (Jarvis, 2015).
Toddlers may have issue on their elimination pattern due to the change in the feeding process (Jarvis, 2015).
Preschoolers may experience bed-wetting issues due to poor training of their bladder control (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers may develop hygiene issues due to poor hand washing after using the toilet (Jarvis, 2015). School-aged may have poor feeding habits, which may negatively affect their urination or bowel movements (Jarvis, 2015).

Some of the school-aged children may also experience bed-wetting problems (Jarvis, 2015).
Pattern of Activity and Exercise:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers are active in this stage as they are learning their muscle functions (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Toddlers begin to engage in exercise, which include learning to sit and walking (Wilson & Giddens, 2012). Preschoolers are active with other children due to the socializing aspect (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Preschoolers are impacted by the patterns of activities undertaken by their guardians (Wilson & Giddens, 2012). School-aged children are fully aware of the benefits of exercise (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

School-aged children are actively engaged in sporting activities and other activities related to their health (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Toddlers may have negative behaviors when sharing playing toys (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Toddlers may also engage in risky activities, which may lead to harm of injury of the children (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).
Preschoolers may be negatively affected by rejection by other children during sporting activities (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Preschoolers who do not engage in exercise and physical socialization may limit their social interaction, which is important in their development (Wilson & Giddens, 2012). School-aged children may be reluctant to engage in sporting activities due to other options, which include playing videogames and watching television (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).
School-aged children who are antisocial may not get involved in extra-curricular activities, which may negatively impact their social life (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).
Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers have a challenge in using verbal communication and mostly use gestures in passing certain information (Blair et al., 2013).

Toddlers are able to recognize some of the objects close to them by name (Blair et al., 2013). Preschoolers are able to understand important issues surrounding them and their use (Blair et al., 2013).

Preschoolers are able to communicate verbally to their guardians and express their concerns to them (Blair et al., 2013). School-aged children are fully developed and are able to address issues on their own (Blair et al., 2013).
School-aged children are able to categorize objects and express themselves adequately using vocabulary (Blair et al., 2013).

Toddlers may have doubts in their minds in their ability to perform different tasks (Blair et al., 2013).

Toddlers are also dependant on their guardians in expressing themselves and performing certain tasks (Blair et al., 2013). Preschoolers are inattentive due to their over active bodies and emotions (Blair et al., 2013).
Preschoolers may also have issues in interacting with each other, which is important in development (Blair et al., 2013). Some school-aged children may have slow development issues, which may be attributed to poor socializing aspects (Blair et al., 2013).

School-aged children may lack self-confidence while engaging in certain activities (Blair et al., 2013).

Pattern of Sleep and Rest:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers are able to sleep 10 to 12 hours in a day (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Toddlers are also able to sleep during the day or at night depending on their activities during the day (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Preschoolers are also able to sleep between 10and 12 hours during the night (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Preschoolers are active during the day and not able to sleep at this time (Wilson & Giddens, 2012). School-aged children sleep for few hours due to their activities during the day and night (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

School-aged children do not sleep during the day due to their schedules, which require them to be active (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).
Toddlers have problems in going to sleep with some resisting sleeping during the night (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).
Toddlers may experience nightmares, which may affect their sleeping patterns (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).
Preschoolers may experience sleep walking as they begin to understand the process of sleeping and resting (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Nightmares are also a common problem at this age due to their activities, which include watching movies and cartoons (Wilson & Giddens, 2012). School-aged children may experience sexual dreams and sleep talking (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

School-aged children may get injuries due to sleepwalking (Wilson & Giddens, 2012).

Pattern of Self-Perception and Self-Concept:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. The thought process is mainly attributed to what the toddlers see or hear (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Toddlers are able to understand their name and how to respond to different stimuli (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Preschoolers are looking for a social circle to fit in which may influence their interaction and their success (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

The media and the people surrounding this age group may influence their decision-making process, which includes how they dress and interact (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

School-aged children gain self-esteem, as they are able to understand themselves better (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Due to the social circle surrounding this age group, the school-aged children become more competitive in different areas of their development (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Toddlers are confused by certain sensory aspects, which include coordination (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

Toddlers can throw tantrums when their guardians go against their wishes (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

Preschoolers are aware of their behaviors and may even get embarrassed by certain behaviors (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

Criticism from other children may negatively affect them (Watt & Forbes, 2015). School-aged children may be affected by what other children may think about their behavior or actions (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
School-aged children may be negatively influenced by other peers in relation to certain aspects of their lives (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Role-Relationship Pattern:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List 2 potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers copy what adults surrounding them engage in (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

The toddler begins to understand the different roles between the mother and the dad which include the mother responsibility to feed the child where else the father is responsible for playing with the child (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Preschoolers begin to understand the different gender roles and behaviors, which is attributed to their guardians and other close individuals in the community (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

Preschoolers may use games as a good basis to understand their different roles better (Watt & Forbes, 2015). School-aged children are able to develop other relationships outside their family although the family is where they feel more secure (Watt & Forbes, 2015).

School-aged children are able to understand their roles and duties based on their relationship with other members of the family (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Toddlers may be mean to other children, which is attributed to how the guardians relate with the children (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Toddlers may be scared of new faces, which they have never seen before (Watt & Forbes, 2015). Toddlers may copy negative behaviors from their guardians, which may affect their relationship with other children (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Lack of proper parenthood skills may lead to poor relationships of the children with other children in a community (Watt & Forbes, 2015). School-aged children may be negatively affected by peer pressure, which may lead to negative behaviors and activities (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
School-aged may have problems in having good relationships with their parents due to influence from other children in the same grouping (Watt & Forbes, 2015).
Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers may begin to explore their own sexual functions (Estes, 2014).

Toddlers may be influenced by how those close to them relate with each other based on their sexual orientation (Estes, 2014).

Preschoolers are aware of the basic differences between the different genders (Estes, 2014).

Preschoolers are curious about the other gender (Estes, 2014). School-aged children are curious about sex and the different aspects that surround sex and reproductively (Estes, 2014).

School-aged children start developing their reproductive systems, which include growing of pubic hair (Estes, 2014).

Toddlers are confused about the reproductive system as guardians provide inaccurate information related to this aspect (Estes, 2014).

Toddlers may cause injury to their reproductive system as they explore their functions (Estes, 2014).

Preschoolers may engage in inappropriate sexual acts, which may put them at a risk of harming themselves (Estes, 2014).
Preschooler may experiment new ways of using their reproductive organs which may lead to an infection or an injury (Estes, 2014). School-aged children may engage in risky sexual acts, which include homosexuals, which are risky sexual acts (Estes, 2014).

School-aged children are more prone to sexually transmitted diseases due to the curiosity to try certain sexual acts and influence by the media (Estes, 2014).
Pattern of Coping and Stress Tolerance:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers may cope by using physical expressions, which may or gestures to pass certain information (Estes, 2014).

Toddlers may handle stress by crying which may help in releasing the tension of the children (Estes, 2014).
Preschoolers will use verbal expressions to air out any issues (Estes, 2014).

Preschoolers may handle stress through socializing and playing (Estes, 2014). School-aged children may engage with friends or close relatives to cope with stress (Estes, 2014).
The environment is important in helping the school-aged children in addressing any issues, which may bring stress in their lives (Estes, 2014).
Toddlers who are overaggressive due to learned behavior from their guardians (Estes, 2014).
Toddlers who are difficult to calm them down when stressed (Estes, 2014).
Preschoolers may have a problem in addressing their frustrations due to poor mechanisms put in place (Estes, 2014).

Preschoolers may sometimes struggle with their emotions and feelings (Estes, 2014). School-aged children may develop anxiety due to the challenges involved in addressing stress (Estes, 2014).

Lack of proper stress management interventions may lead to depression (Estes, 2014).
Pattern of Value and Beliefs:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. Toddlers are unaware of spiritual matters and matters of life and death (Jarvis, 2015).

Toddlers can have behavioral changes due to the death of a loved one or close family member (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers do not a fully developed conscience (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers are in control of their behavior and actions to maintain the love of their guardians (Jarvis, 2015). School-aged children are fully aware of their conscience, which directs their moral actions (Jarvis, 2015).

Life, death and the supernatural aspects are part of life in this stage (Jarvis, 2015).
Toddlers may have a poor health due to the loss of their mother who plays an important role in their development (Jarvis, 2015).

Toddlers may be subjected to spiritual and cultural practices, which may endanger their lives (Jarvis, 2015).

Preschoolers may have mood swings and anxiety due to a threat on their lives relating to death (Jarvis, 2015).

Due to their limited emotional experiences, certain cultural practices may negatively affect their emotional health (Jarvis, 2015). School-aged children may be negatively impacted by a poor choice of beliefs and other practices due to curiosity (Jarvis, 2015).

School-aged children may be forced to engage in risky behaviors due to peer pressure from other children (Jarvis, 2015).

Short Answer Questions
Address the following based on the above assessment findings.Expected answers will be 1-2 paragraphs in length. Cite and reference outside sources used.

Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

As children progress from the toddler stage to the school-aged stage, there are certain similarities in assessment between the different stages of development. One of the similarities is the impact of parents on the children where the children look up to their parents as their role models (Jarvis, 2015). Negative behaviors of children may be attributed to the guardians. Eating habits and moral behaviors are derived for their parents, which may also contribute to health problems (Jarvis, 2015). All the three groups learn certain important behaviors from their parents. The three stages are also influenced by the surrounding culture, which is spread thorough socializing with other children. The three groups are also influenced by the media, which plays a key role in their behavioral and thinking patterns (Jarvis, 2015). As the children develop to the next stage, they are able to express themselves through improved communication skills and adopt healthier behaviors as they are more conscious of their health status (Jarvis, 2015).
Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.
A nurse can handle physical assessments, education, and communication with children and adults by understanding the ethnic and cultural differences, which impact an individual thought patterns and behavior (Jarvis, 2015). A nurse should not ignore the issues of spirituality and cultural differences since they shape a child’s perspective on different issues in the society (Jarvis, 2015). The assessment and examination of a child is different from that of an adult as a child has different developmental stages, which must be considered in order to come up with accurate results (Jarvis, 2015). The nurse should engage more with the child during the assessment where also the parents are also involved as this can help the nurse get a clear perspective regarding certain issues. Parents are important in child assessment as they are able to give a history of the child, which is different in assessing adults. The nurse should also be keen on the reactions and responses given by the child as these may also provide an insight on the assessment (Jarvis, 2015).

References
Blair, K., Dudson, M., Miller, A., ; Norman, N. (2013). Jarvis’s Physical Examination and Health Assessment Student Lab Manual: ANZ adaptation. Australia. Saunders.

Edelman, C., Kudzma, E., & Mandle, C. (2014). Health promotion throughout the life span. St.Louis: Mosby.

Estes, M. E. Z. (2014). Health assessment & physical examination. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Jarvis, C. (2015). Physical Examination and Health Assessment. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Watt, E., & Forbes, H. (2015). Jarvis’s physical examination and health assessment: ANZ. Chats wood. Elsevier.

Wilson, S ; Giddens, J (2012). Health assessment for nursing practice. Saint Louis: Elsevier Science.

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