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Chapter No.1
 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background:
Education is a fundamental human right and promotes economic growth and human development. In order to promote economic growth and human development, the Government of Pakistan is a member of the international agreement, Universal Primary Education within the framework of Education for All 2015. In this regard, Pakistan has been assigned a target of reaching 100% of enrollment rate in primary school within the period mentioned above.

Currently, the gross enrollment rate (GER) for primary education is 70%, of which 50% of children aged 5 to 9 abandons the school before the completion of the V grade. About one out of every three children, that is, only 30% of the students of the remaining 50% approve primary education and continue beyond primary education. (NCHD UPE Program 2010). Although these rates have slightly improved. Pakistan still faces the risk of defaulting the 2015 EFA goals. The education system in Pakistan is riddled with problems, but one of the most serious is the high rate of drop out.

In Pakistan, the overall dropout rate for both boys and girls is 50 percent. Whereas, the dropout rate for girls is 56 percent and it is 44 percent for boys. (AEPAM, 2016-017). Similarly, the dropout rate for girls is higher in rural areas.
Table 1: Dropout Rates by Region and GenderRegion and Gender Dropout Rate (in Percent)
All Areas
Male 23.6
Female 21.1
Urban Areas
Male 23.5
Female 17
Rural Areas
Male 23.7
Female 24.6
National and international commitments to the right to education of all children, despite their economic situation, such as the Constitution of Pakistan, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All (EPAs) have had no results fruitful. Among developing countries and those of South Asia, Pakistan remains a country with a significant number of children who do not attend school. UNICEF reports that more than half of primary school children (5-9) remain out of school. The most surprising thing is that seven million of the 13 million children who do not attend school are girls (SPARC 2004). Previous reports (Lieten 2004, Khan 2005, UNDP 2007) show that poor performance in primary education and in particular the exclusion of girls have far-reaching effects on the overall literacy rate and on the level of human development.
Gender differences exist at the primary level of education. This is largely explained by the fact that parents are not interested in the education of their daughters. Other factors are cultural limitations, high rates or poor economic conditions. One of the explanations for a higher dropout rate among girls is that parents’ education and lack of interest in girls ‘ education is that investing in girls’ education is often considered a waste of money and resources as there is a common view that boys will earn and therefore support the parents financially after getting good job, while parents do not see their daughters work or bring home any income once they leave the house. They are married and therefore considered the responsibility of their husbands. This perpetuates a cycle of discrimination against girls in terms of education. However, generally when one of the parents can read and write or when the mother can read and write parents are more likely to want to send their daughters to school.

Parents’ decision to educate children and not girls shows a high level of injustice at home. Girls are denied educational opportunities to be considered unproductive in their ability to financially support the family in the future. Such parental attitudes continue to perpetuate stereotypes in Pakistani culture. This type of stereotype limits the opportunities and choices for girls, both now and in the future. Quoting Amartya Sen’s phrase, “the capabilities of girls will be severely restricted by the denial of education. If freedom is the goal of development, it will be substantially restricted by the fact that illiterate girls will become illiterate women”. This quote is enlightening and shows that women’s empowerment starts at home and that’s where women can start to see themselves as productive members of society in terms of their ability to earn a living and perform various roles outside the home.

Girls who do not attend school cannot be recognized for a single reason. In general, there are several reasons that hinder the education of girls in the country. Physical accessibility may include distance from school, absence of a school in the area, insufficient infrastructure etc. Social reasons such as cultural and religious convictions, social exclusion, low social position, poor parents’ perception etc. they are also limiting girls’ education. It is worth mentioning economic reasons that may include high poverty, deprivation, lack of food, illnesses, lack of options, unemployment, employee of children, unpaid family work, sibling responsibility, livestock grazing, high cost of education etc. This research study is part of a larger project on the lack of primary education in Pakistan. You will find out the reasons behind the high rate of dropping girls at the elementary school level. The results of the research will help to formulate policies at the micro and macro level to simplify gender in primary education. It will provide a basis for political intervention for NGOs, the private sector and the government. The research will focus on the reasons for school dropout from the point of view of girls, their parents and teachers.

1.2 Statement of the problem Women’s education has many effects because it allows women to generate changes and helps to break the fierce cycle of poverty. Despite the initiatives addressed through various government policies, interests and statements such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) aim to ensure fair access to school education for boys and girls. In addition, the World Bank (2010) indicates that the retention of girls are lower. Given that Pakistan is a developing country, it is necessary to invest in girls’ education for accelerate its national and economic development. This would also speed up the process of industrialization for the year 2030 (Vision 2030).

1.3 Objectives of the research
The study was guided by the following objectives.

i To determine and analyze the causes that force students to leave the primary level.

ii Determines the influence of teachers ‘attitude towards girls on girls’ dropout rate.

iii Identify the possible solutions to this problem of increasing dropouts at the
primary level.

1.4 Research Questions:
i. What are the causes that require students to leave the primary level?
ii. How does the teacher’s attitude influence girls to leave school?
iii. What are the possible solutions to this problem of increasing dropouts at the
primary level …?
1.5 Limitations of study
The limitations refer to some aspects of the study that the researcher knows might
negatively affect the research, but on which the researcher has no control.

The following limitations of the study are given below:
The study was conducted in public primary schools leaving the private sector aside
to. Private schools can also have useful information about the school
dropout, which this study has never benefited.

The schools of the Gujrat include only a small percentage of schools
in Pakistan . Therefore, the results of this study can be generalized to
area of ??study, but not for the whole country.

In addition to the factors indicated for the survey, there may be others
factors that influence drop-out rates in elementary school compared to this study of
all time explored.

Chapter No.2
Review of Literature
The word education has been derived from Educare (upload) or Educere (upload) or educate
(the actteaching or training). Thus, education means training or guiding an individual or group
of individuals for a specific purpose. Educating means knowing and understanding something
or earning somethingthrough careful observations and experiences. The instruction contains
instruction or education activity or activities that impart knowledge or skills. Education plays
the main role in society. The functions of educational institutions are to develop people
physically, mentally, psychologically,socially and spiritually (Ghulam Rasool Mamon, p.5)
Develops the economic, social, political andcultural life of the nation. It is a type of formal learning that is usually preorganized and preeducation is an essential tool
in the construction of nations is a process of systematic formationand instruction designed to
convey knowledge and acquisition of skills, potential and skills allow an individual to contribute
effectively to the growth and development of their society and nation
.

It is the earliest program of education for children, beginning generally at
the age of five or six and lasting from six to eight years. “It means full-time education suited to
the requirements of students up to the age of 12 years”. (Online Dictionary)
“Primary education is the beginning of a systematic set of studies in reading, writing, and
mathematics”.(Michael Wann ?The Primary Education)
Primary education has been recognized as a fundamental right of every Pakistani child.
It has been declared to obtain compulsory enrollment by the end of the decade, primary education will be free  and mandatory (Ministry of Education, 1992). Especially the universal education of grades 1 to 5 was underlined in the National Education Policy 1998-2010. All children aged 5 to 9 throughout the country  will have to complete the primary education cycle. Despite all these efforts, Universal Elementary  Education (UPE) is a dream yet to be realized. It has a focal point of different policies and action plans.  Low literacy rates, high school dropout rates, limitation of access to primary education, poor participation girls, the lack of educational and financial resources are the main limits to achieve the goal  universal primary education. The population of the primary age group (5-9) was 35.4%. The dropout rate of boys and girls for primary education in Pakistan was 43% in 2001-02, 31.3% in  2005-06, 41% in the period 2007-08 (Ministry of Education, 2009), which again jumped to 44% in 2017.  general school attendance 50% of primary school children (5-9 years) attend primary school  Appropriate age: 52% for men and 47% for women. In urban areas, 60% of elementary school children The age attends school compared to 45% in rural areas. Factors contributing to desertion are scarce  family status, parents’ attitudes towards their children’s education, illness associated with the child,  the ignorance of parents about their role in relation to their children’s education, the unpleasant schools, poor education and inadequate curriculum (Ministry of Education, 1992).

Basic education is associated with literacy because basic education is a fundamental right a  every human being, while literacy is the first step towards basic education. The literacy rate in Pakistan grows at a rate of 1% per year. The literacy rate reported by Pakistan  The 1998 population census and the 2007 patrimonial and social survey of Pakistan are on the rise during the last decades, but the growth rate is very low. Increase from 43.9% (female = 32%  ; Male = 54.8%) to 55% (Female = 42%, Male = 67%) from 1998 to 2007. Second  The Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2017-2018, the literacy rate for all of Pakistan, includes ten years of age  and up to 58 percent. … Gross enrollment for men is 94% and 78% for women.  Of all the provinces, Punjab (58%) has the highest value of the other Balochistan (42%), KPK (47%),  and Sindh (55%) (Federal Statistical Office, 2007, Ministry of Education, 1998, Ministry of Finance,  2003; Organization of the Pakistan census, 1998).                   
  The general rate of abandonment from Grade I to V is 31.3% (Male = 40.2%, Female = 19.2%). the the rate of drop between grade I and II is 14.1% (male = 16.1%, female = 11.2%), performance levels II to III are 3.7% (Male = 8.6%), Grade III to IV: 5% (male = 7.4%, female = 1.5%) and Grade IV to V: 8.5% (Male = 9.9%, Female = 6.5%) (Ministry of Finance, 2006). The net investment rate is around 66%. the  The proportion of student teachers is 48: 1. The marginalized children of school age are 34% of the total school age.  population. People with special needs are 2.54% of the total population. There are only 531 organizations work for the well-being and education of people with special needs in the public and private sectors  (Hameed, 2005, 2006, Ministry of Education, 1998). The primary enrollment rate in Pakistan (50%) is lower than in Bangladesh (75%), India (77%) and Sri Lanka (100%) In terms of literacy, it stands at 185 out of 202 and for compulsory primary education is found in 169 out of a total of 181 (UNESCO, 2003, 2005a).

Different studies reported different causes and rates of dropout in Pakistan. Rural girls dropout from early classes as compared to their urban equivalent. There is not a single reason which caused the student to dropout but it is a combined effect of different causes. Dropout rate is the percentage of students who dropout from primary school before reaching to 5th grade.

Chapter No. 3
Methodology of the Study
This high rate of abandonment in Pakistan requires the execution of some analyzes through a constructive method. No doubt it would be difficult but impossible because Pakistan includes a large population that has a mixture of various cultures and civilizations. Therefore, the following methodology is used to help different sectors solve this problem.

Introduction
This section focuses on research design, target population, sample size and sampling techniques, research tools, reliability of research tools, data collection procedure and data analysis techniques.

.

3.1 Population
The population has been defined as any group of people or observation or test in which the researcher is interested. The target population is defined as all members a real or hypothetical set of people, events or objects that a researcher wants to generalize the results of a research study. Mugenda and Mugenda (1999) state that the population refers to an entire group of individuals, events or objects that have a common observable characteristic.

The target population of Gujrat was 7 school,
 28 teachers and 2162 girls in the 7 Gujrat schools as summarized below.

Table 3.1: Target Population
Representatives Target population
Teachers 28
Students 2162
Toatl2190

3.2 Study Design
. The descriptive survey method was adopted for this study. The descriptive survey is considered the most appropriate for this study because it is enabled the researcher obtains the relationship between poverty, safety of the girls, lack of interest of the children, death of the parents, housework, distance schooling, teacher’s attitude, lack of free education, migration, lack of schooling and school dropouts (a variable employee) as perceived by girls, class teachers and parents.

3.3 Sample size and sampling techniquesSampling is a research technique used to select a certain number of subjects from a target population as representatives of that target population. This study extracted a sample of 5 schools from the 7 public primary schools of Gujrat, which represent 71% of the total schools in the district. The schools were randomly sampled. The 10% sample is considered representative because a representative study must represent at least 10% of the target population. Teachers were selected through simple random sampling. A total of 14 teachers and 215 students are selected that represent 10% of the target population. This gave a total of 229 respondents in the sample population.

Table 3.2 Sample size
Representatives Target population
Teachers 14
Students 215
Toatl229
3.4 Research instruments
The main research tools that will be used in this study were the questionnaires. The
researcher has found this tool suitable for two categories of study subjects namely
and teachers. The questions were closed to provoke certain
answers that were searched and opened to add more information from where they came
importance for the study.

The questionnaires tried to get information from the interviewee about the cases of
the desertion of girls in their schools, the measures that will be taken to stop the trend e
what else could be done to stop the phenomenon of desertion. The researcher has obtained records frequency and progression of the school administration. These documents were
analyzed to reveal student drop-out rates
3.4.1 Student’s questionnaires
The questionnaire for the students tried to obtain information on the distance a
school the means that students use to go to school, confirming incidents of dropout
of girls in mixed schools, opinion on the cause of early school leaving, measures to be taken quit smoking and what else could be done to stop the situation ahead of
the prevailing defection of the girls despite the measures taken.

3.4.2 Teachers questionnaire
The questionnaires for teachers tried to get feedback on their profession duration , qualification in the current position, number of girls leaving school and repeaters, cause of dropout and measures to stop the problem of dropout.

3.5 validity and reliability of instrument
The purpose of the pretest is to evaluate the clarity of the elements of the instrument.
The validity and reliability of each of the elements in the questionnaire tool as the
suitability of the language used in the instrument (Mulusa, 1988).

3.5.1 Validity
According to Patton (2001), validity is the quality attributed to the proposal or measures
the degree to which they conform to establish knowledge or truth. A scale of attitude is
considered valid, for example, to the extent that its results fit others
attitude possession measures. This aspect of the good instrument in this study
it has been achieved by submitting the tools to the experts of contents that are iresearchers’ supervisors. Supervisor comments were considered at the time of creation
the necessary revision of the instruments, which were then revised to ensure validation.

For a search tool to be considered valid, the content selected and included in
the questionnaire must be relevant to the variable being investigated, says Mutai(2000)
3.5.2 Reliability
The reliability of an instrument according to Coleman and Bringgs (2002) is the
probability that the repetition of a procedure or research method produces identical or
Similar results To test the reliability of the instrument that will be used in the study,
the test-retest method will be used. The questionnaire was administered twice within
a two week interval. To determine the stability coefficient, Pearson product
the formula of the moment was used. This established the degree to which the questionnaire
It provokes the same answers every time it is administered. The two schools that were
used in the pilot study were not used in the actual study. The reliability of the articles
was based on estimates of the variability between the articles. reliabilityThe coefficient was determined using the scores of the test technique used.

This is because the method was more precise since it determines the stability of the
tool. A reliability coefficient of at least 0.7 for the alpha cronbach was
considered high enough for the tools that will be used for the study (Neuman, 2000).

The results obtained from the pilot study helped the researcher to review the
questionnaire to make sure that it covered the objectives of the study.

3.6 Pilot study
According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2000), validity is attributed to the proposition
or measures to the extent that they are adequate to establish knowledge or truth.

A pilot study was conducted to test the validity and reliability of the research
tools as below The two schools were exclusively for the pilot study and not
included in the research sample.

3.7 Data collection
The instruments were administered in two phases; The pilot study was conducted in pilot schools to determine whether the tools, such as questionnaires, actually obtained the required information. In collecting data, the researcher visited each of the public schools and selected homes where teachers, students and parents are located. Authorization was requested from the director in charge of conducting research among the teachers of a particular school. The researcher then gave the questionnaires to the interviewees and arranged the date for completing the completed questionnaires with them. Parental data were searched through interview guides. This means that the researcher has required more time to organize appointments with parents interested in interviews.

3.7 Data analysis
Orodho (2004) notes that the analysis of data is the life line of an investigation and that the method of analysis is the vertebral column and the conductor. The information collected was therefore analyzed through the use of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). El Orodho (2004) notes that the analysis of data is the life line of an investigation and that the
The method of analysis is the vertebral column and the conductor. The information collected was therefore analyzed through the use of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).
The study generated quantitative and qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were used
analyze quantitative data by calculating the frequencies and percentages that were
presented using frequency tables and charts. Quantitative information has been analyzed by
regression analysis in which the factors that cause the dropout of the girls are correlated.

The study generated quantitative and qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were used analyze quantitative data by calculating the frequencies and percentages that were
presented using frequency tables and charts.

.

CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND
PRESENTATION

4.1 Introduction
This chapter deals with data analysis, presentation and interpretation of results.

The data presented includes determining to what extent the factors are based on the school
influence the rate of dropout of girls in selected schools in gujrat, establish
determine the influence of teachers ‘attitudes towards girls on girls’ dropout rates
the influence of distance from home to school on the rate of abandonment of girls and
recommend measures that can be taken by public mixed schools for
curb the problem of girls who leave selected schools in the Gujrat.

4.2 Response rate
Of the 229 questionnaires administered, 180 were completed and returned. This
represented 14 teacher questionnaires
and 166 student questionnaires. This represents a 79% response rate, that is
considered very good to draw conclusions for the study. This high response rate is
attributed to the data collection procedures, in which the investigator personally
gave the questionnaires and waited for the respondents to fill and collect
questionnaires. 50% response rate is adequate, 60% good and over 70% is classified as very good.
4.3 Extent to which school based factors influence the girls’
drop out rate
The researcher studied school-based factors to establish its effect on girls
dropout rate. The researcher studied the discrimination of girls at school,
demoralization of girls’ student teachers and the dangerous school environment for girls.

The study started by evaluating the discrimination of girls at school and its effect on
the girls leave. The results are presented in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Discrimination of girls in school
Responses Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree 32 18%
Agree 75 42%
Undecided 12 7%
Strongly Disagree 37 20%
Disagree 24 13%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.1 shows that a majority of 107 (60%) of the respondents agreed that there exists discrimination against girls in their school. About 61 (33%) did not agree with the statement.

This shows that students tend to become demoralized and leave school. This increasesthe rate of dropping girls at school.

The demoralization of girls’ student teachers has been put into perspective. The results are presented in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2 Demoralization of girls’ student
Responses Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree 82 46%
Agree 41 23%
Undecided 16 9%
Strongly Disagree 29 16%
Disagree 12 7%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.2 shows that the majority of respondents 123 (69%) agreed that it exists
demoralization of the student in her school. The other 41 (23%) did not agree with the
declaration. This shows that girls are demoralized and therefore leave school.

The researcher then tried to know the effect of the school environment dangerous for girls
and its effect on the abandonment of girls. The results are presented in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3 Unsafe school environment for girl
Responses Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree 98 54%
Agree 32 18%
Undecided 21 12%
Strongly Disagree 18 10%
Disagree 11 6%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.3 shows that a majority of 130 (72%) of the respondents agreed that it exists
dangerous school environment at school. About 29 (16%) did not agree with the statement.

4.4 Influence of teachers’ attitude towards girls’ drop out rate
The researcher then tried to investigate the influence of teachers’ attitude towards
rate of abandonment of girls. The study investigated the sexual preference of teachers’ students
teaching, negative attitude of teachers towards the education of girls, motivation of kindergarten
children.

The researcher began by studying the sexual preference of teachers’ students
teaching. The results are shown in Table 4.4.

Table 4.4 Teachers’ student sex preference in teaching
Responses Frequency Percentage
Boys 98 51%
Girls 68 38%
Both 20 11%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.4 shows that most teachers (51%) prefer to teach children
girls This does not encourage girls to stay in school and therefore causes
to leave. The majority 68 (38%) prefer to teach the child and 20 (11%) teach both children
and girls Teachers should be encouraged to advise and teach more to girls
they stay at school.

Thus, the researcher investigated the negative attitude of teachers towards girls
education has an effect on the desertion of girls. The results are shown in Table 4.5.

Table 4.5 Teachers’ negative attitude towards girl’s
education according to Students
Responses Frequency Percentage
Yess124 69%
No 33 18%
Sometimes 23 13%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.5 shows that the majority 124 (69%) of the students interviewed stated that indeed
have a negative attitude towards girls’ education This means that if teachers have
a negative attitude towards girls’ education, so girls can feel comfortable in being
taught by the teachers themselves.

The study found that teachers who had been sensitized to change any negative aspects
attitudes towards girls’ education and adopted new methods to promote equity in
the classrooms have had a major impact on the performance and maintenance of girls
schools.

4.5 Influence of distance from home to school on drop out rate of girls
The researcher investigated the influence of distance from home to school on drop out
rate of girls. The study probed the number of kilometers covered by girls from home
to school and provision of transport by school.
The researcher started by investigating the number of kilometers covered by girls
from home to school. The results are presented in Table 4.6.

Kilometers Frequency Percentage
0 to 2 Kms92 55%
3 to 4 Kms62 37%
5 Kms to above 12 8%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.6 shows that a majority of 92 (55%) cover a distance of 0 to 2 kilometers to be reached
at school. The other 62 (37%) of the students cover between 3 and 4 km and 12 (8%) above
5 kilometers.

The provision of transport by the school was therefore studied. The results are presented in
Table 4.7.Table 4.7 Provision of transport by school
Responses Frequency Percentage
Yess84 47%
No 96 53%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.7 shows that the majority 96 (53%) of the students disagreed with the school
provides transportation for them, the other 84 (47%) have agreed that they are provided by transport from your school. The schools that provide transportation could be
encourage students to stay in school and, therefore, reduce dropouts.

4.6 Measures to curb the problem of girls drop out
The researcher has studied the measures that can be put in place to stop the
problem of the girls who leave The study has studied the supply of lighting programs
parents on the education of girls, teachers who hold talks on the importance of
education for girls and parents should be encouraged to lead their daughters in education.

The researcher began by studying the provision of programs to illuminate the parents
The education of girls as a measure to curb the problem of girls abandons. The results are
presented in table 4.8.

Table 4.8 Provision of programs to enlighten parents on
girls’ education
Responses Frequency Percentage
Yess121 67%
No 42 23%
Not sure 17 10%
Total 180 100%
Tables 4.8 show that the majority of 121 (67%) of the students interviewed suggested it
there should be a supply of programs to show parents the importance of girls
instruction. About 42 (23%) of the students interviewed did not agree with the suggestion.

This shows that it is necessary to provide programs mainly from the Ministry of
Education to illuminate parents on the education of girls.Then the teachers who were conducting conversations about the importance of education for girls were studied. theThe results are presented in Table 4.9.

Table 4.9 Teachers conducting talks on importance of education to girls
Responses Frequency Percentage
Yess135 74%
No 21 12%
Not sure 24 13%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.9 shows that a majority of 135 (74%) of respondents agreed that teachers should
to hold talks on the importance of education for girls. This will therefore encourage e
make them understand that they need to be in school. The abandonment of the girls
then reduce.

Parents should be encouraged to guide their daughters in the education that was then studied. thethe results are presented in Table 4.10
Table 4.10 Parents should be encouraged to guide their girls
on education
Responses Frequency Percentage
Always 112 62%
Sometimes 54 30%
Not at all 14 8%
Total 180 100%
Table 4.10 shows that the majority of 112 (62%) of the respondents agreed that the parents
You should always encourage and guide your girlfriend in education. There are about 54 (30%)
of respondents who think the idea should only be done a few times.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
This chapter summarizes the study and form conclusions based on the results. theThe implications of results and areas for future research are also presented.

5.2 Summary
The study is based on an investigation into the causes of early school leaving among girls in selected mixed groups. The researcher has highlighted four Survey on the causes of early school leaving among girls on a selected mixed secondary day
schools in Gujrat.

In the study of school-based factors, they influence the rate of abandonment of girls,
that a majority of 107 (60%) of responding students have agreed that it exists
discrimination of girls in their school. About 61 (33%) did not agree with the statement.

This shows that students tend to become demoralized and leave school. This increasesthe rate of dropping girls at school. Most of the students interviewed 123
(69%) agreed that there is demoralization of students in their school. The other 41
(23%) did not agree with the statement. This shows that girls are demoralized and
then, drop out of school Most of the 130 (72%) of the respondents agreed that it exists
dangerous school environment at school. About 29 (16%) did not agree with the statement.

In the study of the attitude of teachers towards the education of girls, a 102 (57%) majority of
teachers prefer to teach children than girls. This does not encourage girls
stay in school and then cause his abandonment. About 78 (43%) prefer to teach
boys Teachers should be encouraged to advise and teach girls more
they stay at school. A majority of 124 (69%) stated that they actually had a negative
attitude towards girls’ education This means that if teachers have a negative result
attitude towards girls’ education, so girls can feel comfortable taught by
the teachers themselves.

The distance from home to school has influenced the rate of abandonment. Majority 92 (55%)
Respondents cover a distance of 0 to 2 kilometers to go to school. The other 84
(45%) of students cover between 3 and more than 5 kilometers. This cannot be the
why the student leaves school. This is because most of the
Students cover less than 2 kilometers to go to school. The majority 96 (53%) of the
the students did not agree with the school that provided the transport to the other 84 (47%)
Agreed that transportation is provided by your school. The schools that are
providing transportation could encourage girls to stay in school as well
therefore, it reduces abandonment. Most 121 (67%) of respondents suggested that
there should be a supply of programs to show parents the importance of girls
instruction. About 42 (23%) of the respondents disagreed with the suggestion. This showsthat it is necessary to provide programs mainly from the Ministry of Education for
Enlighten parents on girls’ education.

In the study of the measures to be taken to reduce the abandonment, the majority 135 (74%) of the respondents agreed that teachers should have conversations about the importance of education for girls. This will encourage them and make them understand that they must be at school.

The abandonment of the girls will be reduced. The majority 112 (62%) of the respondents
agreed that parents should always encourage and guide their daughters in education.

There are about 54 (30%) of respondents who think that the idea should be done only
for some times
5.3 Conclusions
The following conclusions were drawn from the results. In the study of the influence of
the study of school factors influences the rate of abandonment of girls, it indicated
Most respondents agree that there is discrimination against girls school. This shows that students tend to become demoralized and leave school.

This increases the rate of dropping out of girls at school. Most of the respondents
He agreed that there is demoralization of students in his school. This shows that the
the girls are demoralized and, therefore, they leave school. The majority of respondents agreed
that there is an unsafe school environment at school. This could make the girl
awkward student and therefore abandonment.

In the study of the attitude of teachers towards the education of girls, most teachers
prefer to teach children than girls. This does not encourage girls to stay inside
school and therefore causes its abandonment. Teachers should be encouraged to
advice and teach more girls so they can stay at school. A majority said this
in fact, they have a negative attitude towards girls’ education. This means that if
teachers have a negative attitude towards girls’ education, so girls can be
comfortable taught by the teachers themselves.

The distance from home to school has influenced the rate of abandonment. Most
Respondents cover a distance of 0 to 2 kilometers to go to school. The other of the
students cover between 3 and more than 5 kilometers. This can not be why
Student who leaves school This is because most of the students
Cover less than 2 kilometers to go to school. Most students did not agree
the school provides transportation for them, the other agrees that they are provided by
transport from your school. The schools that provide transportation could be
encourage students to stay in school and, therefore, reduce dropouts.

Most respondents suggested that there should be a supply of programs for
Enlighten parents about the importance of girls’ education. This shows that there is a need for
provision of programs mainly by the Ministry of Education to instruct parents
the education of girls.

In the study of measures to be taken to reduce abandonment, the majority of respondents
agreed that teachers should give talks on the importance of education for girls. This will then encourage and make them understand that they need to be at school.
The abandonment of the girls will be reduced. The majority of respondents agreed
Parents should always encourage and guide their daughters in education.

5.4 Recommendations
After having made a descriptive survey drawing on the causes of abandonment among the girls of
some primary schools selected in the Gujrat.The importance of educating girls to understand their role must be sensitizedand participation in girls’ education.

Each school must have the mandate to organize general meetings of parents to allow
Parents meet teachers and discuss problems concerning the education of their children. These
Parents should be informed of the need to motivate their daughters to stay in school.

References
Baluch, M. and Shahid, S. 2009, ‘Measuring gender disparity at primary school level in Pakistan’, International NGO Journal, vol. 4, no. 5, pp.180-189.
Bilqees, F. and Saqib, N.U. 2004, ‘Drop-out rates and inter-school movements: Evidence from panel data”, Pakistan Institute of Development, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Malik, Z.M. 2002, ‘Causes of dropout in primary schools: A study of primary schools of Sargodha tehsil during the years, 1996-97 ; 1997-97’, Pakistan Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 646-648.

MoE.2007, ‘Pakistan Education Statistics 2006-07’, Academy of Educational Planning & Management, Islamabad, Pakistan. UNDP.2010, ‘The Millennium Goals Report’, United Nations Development Programme, New York, USA.

UNICEF. 2007, ‘The State of the World’s Children 2008: Child Survival’, United Nations Children’s Fund, New York, USA.
NCHD 2010, National Commission for Human Development, Islamabad, Pakistan, <http://www.nchd.org.pk> accessed 2 Jan. 2011 SPARC. 2004, ‘The State of Pakistan’s Children 2003’. Islamabad: Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Child, Islamabad, Pakistan UNDP. 2007, ‘Human Development Report 2007/2008. Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world’ United Nations Children’s Fund, New York, USA. Lieten, K. 2004, Views on Development. The Local and the Global in India and Pakistan, New Delhi: Three Essays Collective.

APPENDIX H
LIST OF TABLES
Table Name Page No. APPENDIX H
LIST OF Charts
Chart Name Page No. APPENDIX 1
Rating Scale
APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
Respected Respondent,
The questionnaire is developed to find out your perception about drop outs in primary education sector sentries. You are requested to fill in this questionnaire. Your participation in this research work would be appreciated and your information will be kept confidential.  Read all the statements and give your perception about drop out by ticking ( ?) the level which you think is more appropriate. The levels of your agreement with the statements are given as under:
SECTION A: PERSONAL INFORMATION
1. Highest level of education attained by parent/guardian.
Primary Secondary
University Masters Other,
specify………………….
2. Occupation of parent/guardian.
Teacher Farmer Pastoralist Civil Servant
Businessperson Any other (specify)………………………………..
3. Average annual income of parent/guardian in Kshs.
Less than 10,000 10,000-20,000 20,000-40,000
40,000-80,000 80,000-160,000
160,000-320,000 More than 320,000
4. What is your order of birth in the family
First born second born third born
Any other (specify) ……………………..
5. How many kilometers (Km) is your school from home
0 to 5 km
6 to 10 km
11 and above km
6. How do you get to school?
By foot
By matatu
By bicycle
Any other (Specify)………………………………………………….
7. How many other siblings do you have?
Boys………. Girls…………
8. Specify number of girls according to the following age brackets
10 -13 14-18
Above 18
SECTION B: EFFECTS OF FACILITIES
9. How would you rate the quality of the learning resources and facilities in your school?
Excellent Good Fair Bad
10. How best can you describe the available school learning resources?
Enough Few Not available
11. Please rate the adequacy and availability of the following resources
STATEMENT Not available Available but inadequate Available and adequate
(a) Classrooms (b) Playing fields (c) Separate washrooms for girls and boys. (d) Boarding facilities for girls. (e) Teachers houses 12. Does the school have basic amenities?
Yes No
13. If No, how does this affect girls’ participation in education.____________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
Please answer by ticking according to your level of agreement.
14. Availability of learning facilities is core to retention of girls in schools
StronglyAgree Agree Undecided
Stronglydisagree Disagree
15. In your opinion, what do you think should be done to improve facilities in your school?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
SECTION C: EFFECT OF TEACHER’S ATTITUDE
16. My teacher value and know the importance of girls’ education.
Yes No Don’t know
17. Do the teachers prefer teaching boys to girls?
Yes No
Give a reason for your answer___________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
18. The table below shows some of the effects teacher’s attitudes might have towards drop out of girls from schools. Tick where appropriate.

STATEMENT Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Agree
a) Teacher’s negative attitude towards girls education affects girls’ retention in school. b) Teachers feel that girl child cannot perform better than boy child in school. c) Teachers think the girl child should be left at home to do home chores. d) Teachers think education makes the girl child ?big headed’ hence ruining her chances of marriag. e) Some teachers undermine girls in the class and school. 19. In your opinion does attitude of teachers determine the retention of girls in
school? Please explain______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
SECTION E: EFFECT OF DISTANCE
20. How many kilometres is your home to the nearest school?
0 to 2 Kms 3 to 4 K 5 Kms and above
21. Does the school provide transport? (e.g. school bus)
Yes No
22. Longer distances from home to school discourage girls from pursuing
education and eventually dropout?
Yes No
23. If yes, suggest ways on how the challenge can be overcome._______________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
SECTION F: SCHOOL BASED FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO GIRLS DROP OUT RATE IN MIXED PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS
24. The school environment for girls contribute greatly to high drop out rate
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
25. Have you ever heard cases of sexual harassment in your school or from your
friends?
Yes No
Please answer by ticking according to your level of agreement.
26. In my opinion, I think girls first experience discrimination, sexual harassment
and abuse from students.
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
27. In my opinion, I think girls first experience discrimination, sexual harassment
and abuse from the teachers.
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
28. Some of the teachers demoralize girls in the classroom, contributing to the
girls’ feelings that they do not belong in school.
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
SECTION G: POSSIBLE STRATEGIES THAT HELP REDUCE DROP OUT
RATES BY GIRLS IN MIXED SCHOOLS
29. The government should provide programmes to enlighten our parents on the
importance of girl education
Yes No
30. Churches and schools should take the initiative to educate the girls on
importance of education in order to have a good future.
Yes No
31. What other recommendations do you make on possible strategies in reducing
drop out rates by girls in schools?
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
END OF QUESTIONNAIRE
Thank you very much for you taking your time to fill this questionnaire APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS
Respected Respondent,
The questionnaire is developed to find out your perception about drop outs in primary education sector sentries. You are requested to fill in this questionnaire. Your participation in this research work would be appreciated and your information will be kept confidential.  Read all the statements and give your perception about drop out by ticking ( ?) the level which you think is more appropriate. The levels of your agreement with the statements are given as under:
Please tick or fill in the blank spaces as appropriate.
SECTION A: GENERAL INFORMATION
1. What is your gender? Please tick
Female Male
2. In which of the following age brackets do you belong?
Below 25 yrs
26-30 yrs
31-40 yrs
Above 40 yrs
3. Highest level of education attained.
Primary Secondary College University
4. Number of years worked as a teacher in Kasarani District?
Less than 5 years 5-10 years above 10 years
70
SECTION B: EFFECTS OF FACILITIES
5. How would you rate the quality of the learning resources and facilities in your
school?
Excellent Good Fair Bad
6. How best can you describe the available school learning resources?
Enough Few Not available
Please rate the adequacy and availability of the following resources
STATEMENT Not available Available but inadequate Available and adequate
(a) Classrooms (b) Playing fields (c) Separate washrooms for girls and boys. (d) Boarding facilities for girls. (e) Teachers houses
7. Does the school have basic amenities?
Yes No
8. If No, how does this affect girls participation in education._____________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
Please answer by ticking according to your level of agreement.
9. Availability of necessary facilities is core to retention of girls in schools
StronglyAgree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
10. In your opinion, what do you think should be done to improve facilities in
your school __________________________________________________________________
SECTION C: EFFECT OF TEACHER’S ATTITUDE
11. Which sex do you prefer teaching? Boys Girls Both boys and girls
Give a reason for your answer____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
12. The table below shows some of the attitudes you might have towards drop out of girls from public primary schools. Tick where appropriate.

STATEMENT Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Agree
a) There are never enough resources in my school to educate the girl child. b) The girl child should be married off early in order to bring in dowry. c) The girl child should be left at home to take care of other siblings while the parents are working d) Education makes the girl child big headed’ hence ruining her chances of marriage e) Some teachers undermine girls in the class and school.
13. In your opinion does attitude of teachers determine the retention of girls in
school? Please explain_____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
SECTION E: EFFECT OF DISTANCE
14. How many kilometres is your home to the nearest school?
0 to 2 Kms
3 to 4 Kms
5 Kms and above
15. Does the school provide transport? (e.g. school bus)
Yes No
16. If no, which mode of transport do you use to get to school?
Foot Bicycle van
17. Longer distances from home to school discourage girls from pursuing education
and eventually dropout?
Yes No
18. If yes, suggest ways on how the challenge can be overcome.______________
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
SECTION E: SCHOOL BASED FACTORS CONTRIBUTING
TO GIRLS
DROP OUT RATE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
19. The environment in which the school is based is important for the pupils
True False don’t know
20. Unsafe environments for girls contribute greatly to high drop out rate
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
21. In my opinion, I think girls first experience discrimination, sexual harassment
and abuse, either from fellow students or from the teachers
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
22. Some of us teachers undermine girls in the classroom, contributing to the girls’
feelings that they do not belong in school
Strongly Agree Agree Undecided
Strongly disagree Disagree
SECTION E: EFFECT OF DISTANCE
23. Does the distance from school affect students’ concentration in class?
Yes No
24. If yes, what can be done to this challenge?
_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
25. Longer distances from home to school discourage girls from pursuing
education and eventually dropout?
Yes No
26. If yes, suggest ways on how the challenge can be overcome._______________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
SECTION F: WAYS THAT WILL HELP REDUCE DROP OUT RATES BY
GIRLS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS
27. I think the government should provide programmes to enlighten parents on the
importance of girl education
Yes No
28. Churches and schools should also take the initiative to educate the girls on
importance of education in order to have a good future.
Yes No
29. What other recommendations do you make regarding girls school drop out?
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
END OF QUESTIONNAIRE
Thank you very much for you taking your time to fill this questionnaire

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