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Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
We the researchers find new knowledge, techniques and skills to develop and present the review of related literature and studies. We were greatly involved in the fast growing trend innovation in technologies and communication in today’s generation. The researchers conduct studies about the effects of smart phones and smart tablets in learning performance of the college students. This chapter presents a review of literature related to the topic and various studies both foreign and local that are related to the topic.
Smart phones have now become popular to the students especially college students. There are many classroom management, one of this is a policy prohibit mobile phone uses and text messaging in class discussion, according to some research has found that mobile phones and short message service (SMS) texting can help students to collaborate and interact and assess student learning and participation. This mobile infrastructure can be used inside and outside of classrooms. Researchers have recognized the potential for these devices to foster collaboration and extend learning opportunities by allowing anywhere-anytime learning.
Walberg et al. already identified the main variables that affect the student outcomes: prior achievement or students ability, developmental stages/ age, motivation, quality of instruction, quantity of instruction, environment at home, climate in the classroom, peer group and the exposure of the students to mass media outside of the school campus (Walberg, Fraser ; Welch, 1986).The student’s learning performance can affect to the gadgets that they are using outside the school, it has a case to case basis: The students that can search information that widens the knowledge of the child, it can really affect the learning performance where in the student at the school can give much more information and can share knowledge to his/her classmates.
EMOTIONAL
Srivastava (2005) found that users of smartphones and smart tablets sleep with their phone on their bedside table or under their pillow and used it as an alarm clock. this type of smart phone or smart tablet dependency and fondness provides users the impression that their connection to the world is constant and with this they never feel that they are alone.
SOCIAL
Jenny Radesky (2015) urged parents to increase their interaction with their offspring from direct human to human interaction.

she encouraged to unplugged in general the family interaction and suggested the benefits that young children may get from a designated family hour with relatives to spend quality time without the involvement of any mobile devices and televisions.

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the researchers pointed out that while there is ample of expert evidence that children under two (2) years and six (6) months cant gain learning as well from watching videos and television as they can from human interaction, there has been inadequate investigation whether there is a similar result of the interactive applications on mobile devices produce.

whether the usage of smart tablets and smart phones could meddle with the elements of social interaction, ability to develop empathy and problem-solving skills that are usually learned during formless play ang peer communication.

building blocks playing may assist early on math skills to toddler than interactive electronic gadgets, she said.

” the hands-in activities may replace by these devices and important for the progression of visual-motor skills and sensori-motor that are important for the application and learning of science and math,” said Radesky.

sesame street, learn-to-read applicationsbon mobile devices and electronic books, these are evidence that well-researched early-learning television programmes can help the reading comprehension and vocabulary of the children, the team found but only once children are much closer to school age
Radesky suggested that before allowing a child to use a certain application, the parents should try to use it first.

” at this time there are lots of questions thab answers when it talks about mobile media,” she said.

reference: 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
(Friedel H., Bos, B. & Lee, K. 2013)
It is mentioned that the advances of technology change the students study habits dramatically. The way teachers discuss their lessons, reading books in the library and jotting down notes has greatly affected by the technology. The students can easily get information with the use of their gadgets through the help of internet. Through that they practice laziness through because they don’t need to go in the library and scan information’s in the books. With the use of their smart phones and smart tablets, students can access to academic journal because they can scan books in the internet, the museums have work available online and college library already has an online sites (John Ireland, 2014).
The role of the teachers has slowly changed they facilitate learning by providing guidelines and recommended resources. They are no longer the providers of information. It is easier to access more information and when using technology an affliction known as DAD (Divided Attention Discover) it is easier to the learners to become distracted from studying or while the discussion is going on. Many students have trouble in finishing essays or doing some important reading because using smart phones and smart tablets in the classroom is a big temptation to them. They are tempted to check messages, scrolling their Facebooks. Others are reading stories on wattpad instead of reading their books. Modern gadgets like smartphones, smart tablets and laptops present a whole range of which may involve with a student’s ability to attend class and learned the lesson.
Students who are actively participating in social networking like face book messenger, Instagram and etc. may post picture through their smart phones or smart tablets is considered inappropriate by school authorities. It may ruin the reputation of the student based on those pictures and comments, through that misbehavior it can greatly affect student’s courage to go to school because they are already enhanced. The fixation of gadget reduces participation of the students in reading books, socializing or engaging in active, creative play and especially the aspect of creation during their free time.
As cited also in` her study due to attachment of students to gaming, texting, talking on the phone or socializing online. Some students are tempted to do this in class that interrupts their learning and at home it distracts from study time. Putting long hours or using too much their gadget will give the learners their less attention to their assignments or to study their lessons. They might also have less sleep which can slow their thinking the next day. (Kate Coen 2013)
There are varied facts indicate that the used of gadgets are common to the younger sector of the society which reported by the “Media Use Statistics”. It is stated that almost two-thirds of the teenager in todays are gadget’s owners. The youths are expected to be frequent users since they grew along the trends and modernization. Technological innovations of gadgets are become more high-tech because of this, there is a tremendous national debate about the condition of writing and how high-tech the communication of the youth might affect their ability to create idea. (Laurilla 2009)
According to James Kendrick (2013) he highlighted that gadgets has improved a lot of those days and especially in the last 10 years. Mobile gadgets such as smartphones and smart tablets have gotten smaller, more powerful and very useful. Gadgets are everywhere and play greater roles in the lives of most anyone especially students. The availability of smart phones and smart tablets are quickly spreading throughout the world and making meaningful improvement in many lives. Mobile technology in the forms of phones, tablets and notebook is making our life easier and better than before. We can be in touch with our loved ones that we need to reach, whether it is for educational purpose or work related or personal nature. It does this in many ways, not the least of which making communication routines.
To the new study that is being released by Nielsen Philippines (2014 ), the Filipinos spend their time at an average of 174 minutes nearly 3 hours each day-online through their smart phones. The consumer research firm and the international media revealed that 3 out of 4 Filipinos use their smart phones as their main access point to the internet, pointing to the increasing influence that these devices have lots of online activities that is previously reserved for laptop computers and desktop.
In report to its Evolving Digital Consumer (2014), Nielsen said that the lives of Filipino who uses smart phone is revolve mainly around the entertainment, where in takes up an average of 78 minutes per day among the local users. The study of Nielsen showed that the use of smart phone applications took up an average of 56 minutes per day, while the communication tasks on smart phone is consume at an average of 40 minutes a day.
According to Nielsen Philippines the Executive Director Carlo Santos said in a statement that “The landscape media is exponentially transforming with more consumers that are getting intelligent and sophisticated with how they access the content”
Companies that are seeking to do business with consumers are being urged to recognize this growing trend. He said “This opportunity where in there are more consumers that is connecting to the internet with long duration, more frequency and through various portable devices, the marketers will have to consider to this opportunity to engage in the evolving consumer.” Because the Filipino users are partial towards the entertainment-oriented activities to their smart phones, Google Play Store is an online marketplace wherein various applications can be found and has the largest percentage to overall among the local users. The Filipinos usually spent 2 minutes per day in using this application.
When it comes to the time that is being spent per application, Facebook is remained on top with an overall reach of 89% and average usage of 37 minutes a day per smart phone users. He pointed out that owning mobile device in the Philippines is being shown that it sustained growth with smart phone reaching 34% in 2014, or over a third of the local population. This doubled to the ownership level that is registered in 2013.While owning the tablet is at 8% in 2014 compared to last year which is 5 %.
The availability of more affordable headsets causes the sudden increase of smartphone ownership. Santos said that in the Philippines the available brands in the market are about 50 due to the growing number of local brands as well as to the penetration manufacturer from China and India 33 percent last year to 39 percent in 2014 ,ages between 16-24 years old continue to own the largest ownership .
It also reveals that out of 10 tablet owners, 9 of them can access the internet through a wi-fi connection with the use of their devices at home. Santos also said that the television, tablets and smartphones are quickly trespass on the territory because the homes used to be the turf of it. To stay connected to the consumers, TV and the brands that advertise in this medium must beyond traditionally integrated digital strategies and programming.
As such, when it comes to smartphones and smart tablets advertising, advertisers must now think differently. The awareness of the brand must entail effective engagement. For consumers to focus their attention to the ad, it must be different to what they usually see. However, brands must think about their digital strategies. Spending more than three (3) hours on their smartphones and smart tablets makes it a good channel to reach consumers because smartphone owners are a captive audience.
Lenhart,Smith and Zickuhr, (2011) Recent Pew Internet and American Life Survey says that 42 percent use their smartphones for weather updates and 30 percent to follow local news. The ability to access information and communication is the primary assistance a smartphone can give to its user. Maguth (2013) stated that smartphones has many capabilities just like computers. Making PowerPoint presentation, using text messaging to translate and search, disseminating informations to students and parents are some of functions of smartphones that computer also possess.
Hanton et, al. (2011). Technological rich world has grown up in this generation. Listening to music,watching TV and videos, playing online games, emails and chatting using smartphones. According to Tindell and Bohlander (2012) in an emergency, sending a message directly to students’ smartphones and informing them about the emergency and indicate some instructions on how to respond can be made quickly with the help of smartphones.
Hingorani et, al. (2012) discussed that smartphones can access social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram in addition of traditional use such as calling and messaging. In the universities, they also used smartphones in advertising or promoting school events and happenings. Balakrishnan & Raj (2012) female students in Australia and Malaysia made their smartphones as a security device so that when they are in danger, they can easily contact others.
Oksman (2010) stated that in addition to the new media, the newspapers, radio and television which are the traditional media are also available on the smartphones through internet.Dean (2010) Ryerson University students’ has an experience and expectation with their mobile library site. The students’ top the future request were getting research help, contacting librarian, checking out new books, reading some documents and searching for articles. It further stated that the two (2) most commonly used functions of smartphones to called students were text messaging and e-mailing followed by watching videos, reading books or wattpad and news.
According to Alfawareh & Jusoh (2014) use as a watch, an alarm clock, watching movies, taking pictures and videos, listening to music, downloading software, installing applications, surfing internet, reading some documents. Sending text messages, checking email and website pages and making calls are inclusion in the usage of smartphones. According to Elliot Soloway, a professor in electrical engineering and computer science at University of Michigan, “in a student’s capable hands, especially with numerous features like a GPS, an accelerometer and a camera, a smartphone might as well be a rocket ship.”
Froese, et al. (2012) employed expectations of the effects of the students’ cellphone activity on learning outcomes and a self-report survey to assess it. In 2009, October through December, there are 693 students participated in the study, all come from the seven (7) colleges and universities across the Unites States . Through the survey it was found out that using smart phones or smart tablets can distract students and texting during class hours can disrupt their classroom learning.
Tindell and Bohlander (2012) embedded a survey from a private university in north eastern Pennsylvania and the total number of their respondents is 269 college students. The purpose of their survey is to gain understanding of the use and abuse of smart phones and smart tablets. Its potential aid in policy making decisions and in a college classroom setting that found out most of the students spends more time in texting rather than paying attention to the class discussion.
Elder (2013) conducted a survey at south eastern land grant university. The respondents were the eighty-eight (88) students who are enrolled in Educational Psychology class and they are undergraduate students. It was found that cellphones anticipates lower score rather than to those students who did not use their smart phones and smart tablets. It indicates distraction to nature of learning to the student. This descriptive evidence updated by the students’ self-reported use of smart phones and smart tablets and their beliefs. Moreover, those students who used their smart phones or smart tablets during discussion wouldn’t retain as much information than those students who focuses their attention to the discussion.
Alfawareh and Jusoh (2014) conducted a survey at Najran University and their respondents were the 324 undergraduate students. They conducted a survey for them to verify the trends in smart phones under two categories. The first category is the normal usage of smart phones and the second category is usage for learning. It was found that smart phones or smart tablets is being used as the replacement to desktop or mobile computers at it revealed that the students in the university have not fully use their smartphones or smart tablets for learning purpose. The Smartphone’s disruptive effects of texting on students learning is being acknowledge.
Baker, Lusk and Neuhauser (2012) said that the use of electronic devices in the classroom in their syllabi should be address by the faculty members. It offers an important avenue to the appropriateness of electronic devices in the classroom although there is no present theory addresses to this.
Hanson, Drumheller, Mallard, Mckee and Schlegel (2011) states that e-mail, instant messaging and web surfing are being used when the students are in the library rather than checking the library’s online resources. Students have a difficulty in balancing their time for their school life with their need for financial and social support even though they want to prioritize their academics. Updating their Facebook status rather than doing their assignments was found.
“Are smart phone making us dumber?”. Katherine Ellison (2012) it is stated that there are lots of risk though the multiplicity of benefits in our brain from using smart phones. One of these risked, the scientists has lots of studies wherein it proves that the users get chemical changes that makes them addicted to the particular devices despite that these people already know the risks. Moreover, using these devices too much would decrease the social communication and to the empathy between them. However, there are some studies shows that the users who use these devices specifically smartphones or smart tablet become more skilled or they have more knowledge to follow data while on some video games improves it sharpness of vision. She conclude that the changes are getting worse, but is still confused to the main reason for the declination of brain function more often.
According to Jenny Radesky (2015) urged parents to increase their interaction with their offspring from direct human to human interaction she encouraged to unplugged in general the family interaction and suggested. The benefits that young children may get from a designated family hour with relatives to spend quality time without the involvement of any mobile devices and televisions.
The researchers pointed out that while there is ample of expert evidence that children under two (2) years and six (6) months cant gain learning as well from watching videos and television as they can from human interaction, there has been inadequate investigation whether there is a similar result of the interactive applications on mobile devices produce. Whether the usage of smart tablets and smart phones could meddle with the elements of social interaction, ability to develop empathy and problem-solving skills that are usually learned during formless play and peer communication. Building blocks playing may assist early on math skills to toddler than interactive electronic gadgets, she said.” the hands-in activities may replace by these devices and important for the progression of visual-motor skills and sensori-motor that are important for the application and learning of science and math,” said Radesky. sesame street learn-to-read applications on mobile devices and electronic books, these are evidence that well-researched early-learning television programs can help the reading comprehension and vocabulary of the children, the team found but only once children are much closer to school age Radesky suggested that before allowing a child to use a certain application, the parents should try to use it first” at this time there are lots of questions that answers when it talks about mobile media,” she said

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