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Chapter-2
Thinking
2.1 Introduction Thinking can be defined as the action of using one’s mind to produce thoughts in certain field. Thinking includes all forms of cognitions, problem solving, perceptions, imagination, and conception. According to Whittakar “thinking is a complex cognitive forms of behavior which occurs only at relatively advanced stage of development when simpler and more direct methods of dealing with the environment have proved ineffective”.
2.2 Classification of Thinking Thinking can be classified as follows (referred from website of psychology discussion):
2.2.1. Perceptual or Concrete Thinking: A simplest form of thinking the basis of this type is perception, i.e. interpretation of sensation according to one’s experience. It is also called concrete thinking as it is carried out on the perception of actual or concrete objects and events.
2.2.2 Conceptual or Abstract Thinking: One makes use of concepts, the generalized objects and languages, it is regarded as being superior to perceptual thinking as it economizes efforts in understanding and problem-solving.
2.2.3. Reflective Thinking:

in this type of thinking, aims is focused on solving complex problems, therefore it requires reorganization of all the relevant experiences to a situation or removing obstacles instead of relating with that experiences or ideas.
This is an insightful cognitive approach in reflective thinking as the mental activity here does not involve the mechanical trial and error type of efforts.

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