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Chapter 1
1. What is Psychology?

a. According to the text, Psychology is considered to be a single discipline of science that follows a procedure to discover a topic of interest in greater detail. This topic of interest must use observations to uncover the importance of certain types of human behaviors and chemical cognitive processes that occur deep in the brain. It does this investigation by following a methodology known as the scientific method. This methodology is a step by step process that allows for analyzation at each step to find the cause for the behavior or mental function.

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2. What does the scientific method consist of?

a. As stated in the answer above, the scientific method consists of set of steps that allows fellow scientists/researchers/observers to recognize the problem inquiry that is need of notice or study.

b. Being that it is a set of steps they are of the following:

i. First step in this method, is to “Form a question about a specific behavior or mental ability”, this question should later to become what is known as the “theory” of study correctly.
ii. The second step, will be to create a what is known as “The Hypothesis”, at this point it is highly imperative that the speculation is can be tested bed practical means.
iii. Third step, required is the development of an investigation so that the scientist/researcher can build parameters that will be able to test “The Hypothesis” in question.
iv. Fourth step, would be to start to gather data from the trials or surveys that are implemented from the investigation.
v. Fifth step, once data has occurred then it needs to be evaluated to see if what was gathered correlates with the hypothesis.
vi. Sixth step, from the evaluation of data the scientist/ researcher should be able to derive a conclusion from the investigation.
vii. Seventh step, once the conclusions are made then outcomes are discussed to the Psychology community.

c. Other important factors, to mention about is when using the scientific method to develop a theory is that it helps authenticate findings from the investigation if the researcher findings are Replicable. By doing this it will help establish that their theory is corroborated and accepted by psychology community.
d. D

3. What are the goals of psychology?

a. Description: aim is to recognize and categorize behaviors and mental processes to be able to correctly place and understand what is considered the norm vs. abnormal.
i. Observations, types of studies, etc

b. Explanation: Find causes behind why certain behaviors and mental processes exist in particular situations. Thus, the support of the findings answers the questions of why, and creates explanations formulating theories.

c. Prediction: Contributing speculations “Hypothesis –scientific method” as to what way a particular mode circumstance or group of circumstances determine a person’s behaviors or mental processes.

d. Influence: Evaluate findings from current research studies to obtain solutions with real-world difficulties that are derived from behavior and mental processes to hopefully change the outcomes

4. What are the seven psychological perspectives?

a. Behaviorism- focused on how a person responds due to their surroundings that they live in would cause a behavior to occur. Thus, one would be able to witness reactions of a person in that particular setting and also note the after-effects from that behavior.

b. Psychoanalysis-main objective focuses on the significance behind our human “unconscious state” leads or guides to react in certain types of behaviors. Another key factor that plays a huge role on our behavior are the major events that occur during childhood.

c. Humanistic psychology- chief aim is that a human’s individuality, independence of the ability to choose for themselves and the capability for progress is what influences their overall demeanor in life.

d. Cognitive Psychology- key emphasis is on how a person mental processes view, analyze and recover all types of information and how it continues to advance the person mental state.

e. Evolutionary Psychology- this objective relies heavily on the theory of Darwin’s Natural Selection. Meaning that the survival of the human race especially in regards to specific behaviors are passed down to increase survival ability of the race as whole so that certain characteristics become common in the genetic pool of future generations.

f. Biological (Physiological) Psychology- its main goal is to find the correlation between genetic influences of living human/animal with the its bond to how it behaves its setting.

g. The Sociocultural Approach -it’s core stresses is to explain how stimuluses from a person environment in relation to societal and customary traditions can hugely affect the behavior of an individual especially in decision making and mental processes.

5. What are descriptive research methods?

a. Descriptive Research methods- are types of tools used in psychology to help further defines the divisions of behavior.

i. Naturalistic observation- is quite literal in its explanation the research observer makes sure to not imposed on the natural setting of the subject being monitored, its only downside the researcher must wait for a organic event to happen.

ii. Laboratory observation- is technique that if more formal than natural in that the research observer can control the setting of the test subjects and use equipment which can increase data accuracy. However, the only issue with it, is that test subjects are not being exposed to authentic situations of real life so it tends to slightly hinders what the true behavior might be in a natural setting.

iii. Case study- while very similar to observational descriptor methods, one major difference is, whether it is, an individual or group of test subjects the focus for the research observer is to witness any and all types of actions of the subject/s to better assess what difficulties are occurring in daily life. Thus, to further understand if the subject/s has a psychological illness. However, the one major obstruction in case studies is the observer will not be able to truly explain the source of the behavior.

iv. Survey -is a type of process the is generated with a list of questions on specific subject matters, so that the research observer can develop a inference of a target populations to help determine what affects their behavior. The huge issue with survey is that when people respond they may not answer reliably which in turn cause the researcher’s data to either skewed or invalid.

6. What are differences between naturalistic observation and case studies?

a. Naturalistic observation main goal is to witness and document a subject behavior is its natural location.
b. Another, difference is that the researcher has to wait for an even to occur to collect date from test subject
c. Lastly, for naturalistic observation, the type of bias done by how the researcher analyzes their observation of the subjects incorrectly due to individual ideas which cause clouded judgement in the data.
d. Case studies- analyze many factors through undetermined for lengthy time period, and do not have to wait for a specific event to occur for the behavior of interest.
e. Also, case studies have limit their focus to a certain sample size to try and see if the research interest behavior that they have chosen will be revealed by test being ran.
f. Finally, researchers cannot truly analyze date correctly because of small sample size or that observations can be linked as direct cause of ill-behavior seen.

7. What is the correlational method? What do correlations indicate?

a. Correlational method is used to find the measure of proximity that two factors or events will affect the test subject’s behavior in life.
b. Correlation indicate whether two variables are headed towards the same path or the opposite tracks which affects the way decisions influence behaviors of test subjects.

8. What is the experimental method? What variables are involved in this method?

a. Experimental method- is a focused study that is used to uncover the cause & effect relationship.
b. The specific variables chosen for this method are the ones that are of interest and linked to a causal hypothesis.

9. What are some limitations of the experimental method?

a. The confounding variables known as the researchers’ bias, the placebo effect, and selection of interest all will limit the study from concluding to find the main cause for the behavior of the test subject’s.
Chapter 2
1. The structure of the neuron and each parts’ functions.

a. Neuron- is a specify type of tissue found in the nervous system of both Human and animals.

b. Its function in the body is these concentrated types of cells form a tissue that can run and channel electrical impulses both to and from brain to the rest of the nervous system.

c. The basic structure of a neuron consists of 3 major parts:

i. Cell Body- is also known as the soma (in Greek means “Body”)

? it’s at the top and is a semi-spherical shape portion of the neuron

? Since its a cell, it has a pervious membrane to allow certain specialized chemical processes to occur for metabolism.

? Its maintains a centralized location of the nucleus to ensure that performance of vital controls, such receiving cell signals from other neurons.

ii. Dendrites- are extensions (fibers from the cell body (in Greek means “Tree”)
? Their role is to sense and gather signals from adjacent neurons which is sent directly to the cell body
iii. Axon-is a single slim, elongated projection from the cell body (in Greek mean “Axis”)

? The major role of the axon is to communicate signals either to dendrites or other cell bodies

? Vary in size, especially depending on location & the extent of signaling velocity needs to be communicated

? It has many coverings known as myelin sheaths which insulate intensity of electrical impulses.

? Breaks that are exposed gaps that are called Nodes of Ranvier, which its role is to regenerate action potentials keep electrical impulse to make sure singling of messages remains consistent.

? Axon terminals- are crucial for sending signals from the delivering neuron to the receiving neuron.

2. What are the major neurotransmitters and what are their functions?

a. Neurotransmitter’s are biochemical constituents that convey messages to neurons.
i. Major Neurotransmitters
? Acetylcholine (Ach)- is vital for propagation central motion, capacity to absorb new information, recall past events, and for REM cycle
? Dopamine (DA)- also is need for movement, to stay attentive to surroundings, to capability of ascertaining fresh material, fortify previous information, and personal gratification.
? Norepinephrine (NE)- is required for appetite, watchfulness, and restlessness
? Epinephrine- triggers breakdown of glucose and delivers energy when working out occurs.
? Serotonin- activates changes is temperament, sleep patterns, hunger, spontaneity, hostility
? Glutamate- Stimulates in certain locations of the brain that are tied to processing new info, thought- process, and feelings
? GABA- Expedites neural restraint in of CNS
? Endorphins- Deliver release from discomfort and feeling of gratification and comfort

3. The human nervous system and its different parts. What is the function of each part of the nervous system?
a. The Nervous has 2 Major categories:

i. Peripheral Nervous System- made of nerves and ganglia that conveys messages to and from the CNS

? Even further broken down into another 2 categories:

? Somatic Nervous System- Interprets all stimuli from sensory nerves messages which dictates to motor nerves how to react to outside environment. (Conscious thought)

? Autonomic Nervous System- Controls ; maintains Homeostasis by sending communication signals to CNS, certain endocrine glands, the heart /blood vessels, and smooth muscles of digestive tract. (Involuntary)

? 2 Sub-categories:

o Sympathetic Nervous System – its role is to prime the body for direct movement from an external threating response “flight or fight”

o Parasympathetic Nervous System – Induces body to relax back to regular state to preserve vitality

ii. Central Nervous System
? Brain-control center of the Human Body
? Forebrain- biggest part of brain, and controls cognitive skills (retention, reason, and consciousness of self-existence)

? Midbrain- is the mediator between the hindbrain and forebrain by linking physical processes to mental processes

? Hindbrain- anatomical structures of lower portion of the mind that connect spinal cord to the rest of the brain, in order to maintain physiological functions not controlled by thought

? Spinal Cord- is the expansion pathway of the brain.
? Is the conduit for signaling to occur networking the brain and PNS

? Can respond/ perform without the need of directive from the brain, when put in harm’s way

? Utilizes 3 Types of Neurons:

? Sensory- Afferent – receives message from external environment

? Motor- Efferent- reacts once signaled from Afferent and moves to protect body
? Interneuron – extends and relays message between sensory to Motor

4. What is the limbic system? What are the principle structures and functions of this system?

a. Limbic system- is comprised of several structures that work together in brain.

i. Amygdala -controls emotions
ii. Hippocampus- forms new memory
iii. As unit they govern exhibition of human emotion, ability to remember and drive.

5. Lateralization functions of the brain. What do the left and right hemispheres handle?
a. Lateralization occurs when a hemisphere governs a function required for normal operation of the body.
b. Left Hemisphere-
i. Oversees the entire right side of the body
ii. Manages most of linguistic tasks
iii. Specified role for arithmetic and rationality

c. Right Hemisphere-
i. Oversees the entire left side of the body
ii. Sequences out musicality
iii. Deciphers emotion communication ( verbal and non-verbal)
iv. Specified role in figuring out depth perception of objects

6. What changes occur in the brain throughout the lifespan?
a. Synaptogenesis- is how the brain will grow in random intervals from the teen stage into early adulthood
b. Pruning- is the reaction of the brain deciding what needs to be eradicated due to having needless synapses that are repeats, this happens right after Synaptogenesis
c. Myelination- is initiated during birth and continues through life
d. Plasticity- is how the brain is able adjust to changes and continue on living.

7. Mechanisms of heredity. What are genes and chromosomes?
a. The mechanism of heredity must follow the biological process know as sexual reproduction. Where the sexual gametes combine to form a zygote. The zygote now contains genes from both parents, exactly 46 chromosomes (23n -p).
b. Genes- are sections of DNA that will pass on all inherited characteristics which are found on chromosomes
c. Chromosomes- is the entire genetic makeup of an individual coiled DNA.

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