Behavioral scientists including Dansereau, Graen, and Haga, 1975; Graen & Cashman, 1975; and Graen, 1976 intorudced Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) with a key focus on social exchange theory on the quality of relationships and interactions between leaders and followers.
Therafter situational leadership style was introduced by Dr. Paul Hersey and Dr. Ken Blanchard on the maturity or developmental level of the follower.
Based on Vrooms Expectany Theroy ,In 1971 Path Goal Leadership wasbased on the the dgree to which suboirnites are motivated and rewared.
Robert Greenleaf (1970 and 1977) proposed a new type of servant leadership based on subordinateThis was then enhanced by Spears in 1990 defining the characteristics fro ta servant leader which was later delineated in 1995.
However during the period 1980s to 2011, James McGregor Burns and by Bernard Bass introduced Transfromation leadership focusing on a colloborative approach where individuals engage with others to create a connection that enabling the level of motivation and morality to rise in both the leader and the followers.
The latest study of Authentic Leadership was conducted by Dr Dr. Bruce Avolio and Fred Luthans in 2008 focused on self-awareness and self developemtcovering, moral perspectives, balanced processing of information, and transparency between f leaders and followers.
In 1991 Hanges, Braverman, and Reutsch study on individuals implicit beliefs, convictions, and assumptions and behaviors that enabled the individual to distinguish between
1. leaders and supporters
2. effective and ineffective leaders
3. moral leaders from evil leaders
Only Hanges, Braverman, and Reutsch study introduced the beliefs, convictions and behaviours of individuals when defining leadership traits.
Can this be due to the influence of globalization and exposure as a r esult of expansion to new countres that differ from the western leadership theries originating in America?