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B.E. PROJECT ON
AUTOMATION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING IOT
Submitted by
ABHISHEK KUMAR (408IC13)
ARUN YADAV (437IC14)
DEEPAK KUMAR JHA (447IC14)
GAURAV BHARDWAJ (458IC14)

( In partial fulfillment of B.E. (Instrumentation and Control Engineering) degree
of University of Delhi )

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Under the Guidance of
ASSOCIATE PROF. PIYUSH SAXENA

DIVISION OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING
NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOL0GY
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI, DELHI

JUNE 2018

DEDICATION

We dedicate this thesis to our teacher and Indian farmers.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B.E Project
undertaken during B.E. Final Year. We owe special debt of gratitude to our supervisor ASSO.Prof. PIYUSH SAXENA, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY for her constant support and guidance throughout the course of our work. Her sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for us. It is only her cognizant efforts that our endeavors have seen light of the day.
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DECLARATION

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by us, in the Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.
The results presented in this thesis are original and have not been submitted to any other university in any form for the award of any other degree.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, under our supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.
The results presented in this thesis are original and have not been submitted to any other university in any form for the award of any other degree.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.

Prof. SMRITI SRIVASTAV
Head of the Division(ICE)
Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering
Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT)
Azad Hind Fauj Marg
Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi
PIN – 110078

PLAGIARISM REPORT

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ABSTRACT

Technology has always been great help to the society for reducing the work load and bring comfort to the lifestyle. We have come along with an novel idea that provide Automatic irrigation system to almost all types of crops and Gardening systems. Hence our project is an attempt to reduce the manpower in irrigation systems and make it Automatic. Currently the system is working for Rice crop but just by changing the values of set point of moisture and level it can work for any crop and plant.
The system is also capable of doing monitoring of the field by using the NODEMCU module
And show the values of output of sensors on the monitor screen. The Heart of the system is Arduino UNO R3 which is responsible of sending and receiving data from sensors an d NodeMCU.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Different Arduino Boards 28
Table 2.2:Atmega 328P pin description 36
Table 2.3:Features of Atmega 328P 38
Table 3.1:Pin description of FC-28 45
Table 5.1: ESP8266 pin description 72
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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Basic block diagram 17
Figure 1.2:Drip irrigators 21
Figure 1.3:Monitoring process waveform 24
Figure 2.1: Arduino board 29
Figure 2.2:Atmega 328P pin diagram. 35
Figure 2.3: Arduino architecture. 41
Figure 3.2:Soil moisture sensor FC-28. 47
Figure 3.3: Silver aluminium probe. 49
Figure 3.4: Soil sensor pin layout. 51
Figure 3.5: Soil sensor connection diagram. 52
Figure 3.6:Female jumpers wire 53
Figure 3.7:FC-28 installation diagram. 55
Figure 4.1:Sonar senor 58
Figure 4.2:Working of ultrasound. 62
Figure 4.3:HC-SR04 pin layout. 65
Figure 5.1:ESP8266 68
Figure 5.2:ESP8266 pin diagram 70
Figure 5.3:NODEMCU DEV KIT. 72
Figure 5.4:ESP8266 types 74
Figure 5.5:NODEMCU development board pin layout 75

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

If you do not have any symbols, abbreviations, or specific nomenclature in your thesis, you do not need to fill out this table.

Symbol Definition

V Frequency

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INDEX OF EQUATIONS

Equation Caption Page

Equation 4.2 Capacitence level measurement 54
Equation 4.3.3.2 Distance calculation from ultrasound 57

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2
DECLARATION 3
CERTIFICATE 4
CERTIFICATE 5
ABSTRACT 7
LIST OF TABLES 8
LIST OF FIGURES 9
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 10
INDEX OF EQUATIONS……………………………………………………………… 11
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………… 74
RESULT…………………………………………………………………………………75.
APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………79
REFERENCES 83
TABLE OF CONTENTS 12

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 16
1.1: Introduction 16
1.1.1 Block Diagram……………………………………………………………..17
1.1.2 Description of Block Diagram……………………………………………..17
1.1.3 calculation of Transfer Function……………………………………………18
1.2 Types of Irrigation system…………………………………………………………….20
1.2.1 Drip irrigators…………………………………………………………………21
1.3 Monitoring and measurement process…………………………………………………22
1.4 Equipments used………………………………………………………………………..23
1.4.1 Hardware used……………………………………………………………….23
1.4.2 software used…………………………………………………………………24
1.5 Installation………………………………………………………………………………24
CHAPTER 2: ARDUINO…………………………………………………………………..26
2.1 introduction……………………………………………………………………………..26
2.1.1 Meaning of term arduino………………………………………………………..27
2.1.2 Arduino boards………………………………………………………………….27
2.2 Boards used……………………………………………………………………………..28
2.2.1 Reasons to choose arduino uno R3…………………………………………….28
2.2.2 components of Arduino………………………………………………………..29
2.3 Arduino Advantages……………………………………………………………………38
2.4 Arduino Archetecture……………………………………………………………………40
2.5 programming of Arduino…………………………………………………………………41
2.6 Making of Arduino………………………………………………………………………42
CHAPTER 3: MOISTURE MEASUREMENT……………………………………………..43
3.1 soil moisture sensor……………………………………………………………………..43
3.1.1 Features………………………………………………………………………..43
3.1.2 Abbrevations…………………………………………………………………..44
3.1.3 Specifications…………………………………………………………………44
3.2 Using the sensor…………………………………………………………………………44
3.3 working………………………………………………………………………………….45
3.4 High sensitvity moisture sensor…………………………………………………………46
3.4.1 Description…………………………………………………………………….46
3.4.2 Features………………………………………………………………………..48
3.4.3 Pin definitions…………………………………………………………………50
3.5 Examples……………………………………………………………………………….52
CHAPTER 4: WATER EVEL MEASUREMENTS……………………………………….55
4.1 Basic level measurements……………………………………………………………….55
4.2 capacitive level measurements………………………………………………………….55
4.3 Ultrasonic water level sensor……………………………………………………………56
4.3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………56
4.3.2 About Ultrasound……………………………………………………………..57
4.3.3 Distance calculation…………………………………………………………..58
4.4 Types of ultrasonic sensors…………………………………………………………….59
4.4.1 Proximity Detection…………………………………………………………..59
4.4.2 Ranging Measurements………………………………………………………..59
4.4.3 Migration in ultrasonic sensing……………………………………………….59
4.5 Migration Advantage……………………………………………………………………59
4.6 Typical Applications…………………………………………………………………….60
4.6.1 Tank level…………………………………………………………………….60
4.6.2 Production line sensor……………………………………………………….60
4.6.3 Distance Measurements……………………………………………………..61
4.6.4 Application using Migration Ultrasonic sensor……………………………..61
4.7 Use of ultrasonic sensor in Industry……………………………………………………..62
4.7.1 Use in medicine………………………………………………………………63
4.8 Pin Description…………………………………………………………………………..64
CHAPTER 5: NODEMCU…………………………………………………………………..65
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………65
5.1.1Definition of Node MCU…………………………………………………….65
5.1.2 Esp8266……………………………………………………………………..65
5.2 Nodemcu Development Board………………………………………………………….69
5.2.1 Arduino with IOT……………………………………………………………70
5.2.2 Development board…………………………………………………………71
5.2.3 Differnce between first and second nodemcu development board…………72
5.2.4 nodemcu development kit used in IOT project…………………………….72
5.3 Nodemcu Development kit version 1.0 pin layut………………………………………73
5.4 Nodemcu DEV it version 1.0pin Description……………………………………………73
5.5 Programming of Nodemcu Development Board …..74

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

1.1 Introduction
Irrigation system is a process to feed required amount of moisture to the plants and crops. In this project the exact amount of moisture Required by an particular crop has been taken as an input parameter to the system.
Reference input moisture is given as second input to the adder subtractor And then both are given to an preinstalled and programmed AND gate which is then feedback to Arduino.
Arduino and microprocessors outputs are then working as an input to pump and motors which in turn controlling the operation of both the sensors.
• Block Diagram of the system.

• Design of process and transfer function.

Both are shown below.

1.1.1 Block Diagram
Figure 1.1 Basic Block Diagram

1.1.2 Description of block Diagram
* First moisture sensor will measure the moisture content of the soil and the compare this value to the threshold value given as set point.
* If the measured value by moisture sensor is less then set point then it will give output 1 to the AND gate.
* Now level sensor will also measure the level of water above the surface of earth andcompare it with threshold value given as set point.
* If the measured value is less then set point then it will give output 1to the AND gate.
* Now if both the inputs received by the AND gate is 1 then it will give input to the Arduino as 1 at the Motor port microprocessor.
* This will make pump to be ON. Now the moment upto which the pump is ON it will send ON signal to both of the sensors.
* The sensors will keep Measuring the values of the parameters till both the measured valuesand set values become Equal.

1.1.3 Calculation of Transfer Function
Both level and moisture sensor have been taken as first order elements and the Arduino is assumed to provide an gain of Ka value.
Also as the input to the pump is an Resultant of AND component of both the sensors so the gain of AND gate is taken as unity.
The pump is behaving as an second order element.
Overall Transfer function is as shown below:

1.2 Types of Irrigation System
Different types of irrigation system are present based on the requirements and design of the fields. But mainly there are only two types of irrigation systems.
• Low flow irrigation system

• High flow irrigation system

• Low flow irrigation system mainly involves micro spray, drip irrigators, And Drip lines.

1.2.1 Drip Irrigators : Drip lines are flexible tubing with emitters evenly spaced along the tubing. Drip lines are also called inline drip or subsurface drip. Some drip lines may be placed on top of the ground with an emitter. A subsurface drip line (underground) can be used to irrigate ground covers. Installation can occur before (inground) or after (above ground) for groundcovers.

For individual emitter layouts, water is delivered just where plants need it. This can reduce the area for, and number of, weeds in the garden. As shown in the figure.

Fig 1.2

Overhead irrigators : In this a uniform amount of water is sprinkled Over a particular specified area. There are certain specifications needed to use it over the field.
• Sprinkler and other devices must have same precipitation rates. Specific sprinklers (gear driven rotors) and sprinkler nozzles (stream rotors, like the Hunter MP Rotator) reduce the amount of water delivered and allow the soil to absorb the water.

1.3 Monitoring and Measurement Process
Monitoring is an Integral part of any Instrumentation system for its establishment and
improvement. In earlier systems the Monitoring was done by the plant designer directly
from the process.
But now Monitoring of any process can be done by using web services and that is called
as IOT based Monitoring Process.
By using ESP8266 module the output Data of sensors can be directly send to server.
The monitoring process is depicted in this figure.

So first output from both moisture sensors and level sensors are taken and then directly
transmitted to ESP8266 module.
Then IOT( ESP8266) module will read the data in digital form due to preinstalled analog to digital converter in it and then then by using the internet service provided the user of the instrument the module will send the data to the Web.
The web address provided will also be stored in the microprocessor unit Of IOT module.
The web address used here is of online Matlab platform. Hence all the data will be sent to the same web address.

The monitoring process done over here is Time based that is one can easily observe the values of the sensor outputs at any time as shown below :

Fig 1.3
(At any point of time both the sensors output can be monitored)

1.4 Equipments used
For the designing and working of Automation Irrigation system with monitoring process using IOT both Hardware and software are used thathas been Listed below.

1.4.1 Hardware used
* Soil Moisture sensor fc-28
* HC-SR04 Ping sensor for water level measurement
* Arduino Uno
* ESP8266 IOT module
* Breadboard
* Relay Sequencer
* Motor Pump
* Connecting wires

1.4.2 Software used
*Arduino IDE
* Matlab

1.5 Installation
Installation refers to setting of parameters and other variable terms of the system according to the plant or field. The project can work for all types of crops but the parameters required need to be adjusted according to the field and particular type of crop.
Installation of monitoring part becomes difficult in extreme rural areas due to unavailability of Internet Network services.
In this project Installation is mainly done in three steps:

• Placing the Hardware components at the Requisite position on Field.

• Adjusting the parameters like moisture and level Required for

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