Accumulation of Heavy Metals on trees along roadside and Highways
Trees which have distinguish stem are perennial plant species and distributed everywhere. Some of the important tree species are known to eliminate the pollutants and heavy metals contamination from roadsides. These plant species have the ability to remediate or detoxify the harmful heavy metals and certain other chemicals. Plants not only eliminate these barriers but also concentrate them in plant parts. Naturally occurring heavy metals have high density and atomic weight than water. These heavy metals have technological applications in agriculture, medical have led to their wide spread distribution in the environment. It also raised environmental concerns on human’s health. The intended research was focused to assess the accumulation of heavy metals like Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, As in tree leaves and physical and chemical changes appeared on them along the roadside of highways. Leaves of plants are surface sterilized and their enrichment factors were calculated using statistical tools and further results were interpreted as proposed.
CHAPTER # 1
The common things along roadside are grazing fields, vegetable farms and residential areas. It was perceived that these types of vegetation were present there since long. As long as, the economy of country is growing, the road transportation activity also going on increasing. The major source of heavy metals emission (e.g., cadmium, copper, iron, lead, zinc and nickel) is road’s traffic. Accordingly, the increase in road transportation increases the concerns of rise in heavy metals emissions which is going to pollute the present environment, vegetation along roads and farms. Moreover, there are concerns, these heavy metals may enter the food chain and the people may intake these heavy metals in their diets. They may pose serious threats if heavy metals concentration is released in this manner. For instance:
• In fact, zinc is considered an essential element of trace and serves a number of roles and functions in the human body (for example, being a component of enzymes involved in the synthesis of metabolism, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids and other micronutrient elements involving DNA synthesis and expression process Stabilizing cellular components and membranes). However, prolonged consumption of more than 300 mg per day of zinc (Fosmire, 1990) can lead to a disturbance in copper metabolism, leading to reduced copper status, decreased iron function, and impaired immune function; can cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting Diarrhea, epileptic pain, lethargy and fatigue.
• Cumulative toxicant is lead. However, no known lead exposure levels are considered safe for humans. Once inside the body, it is distributed to the brain, kidneys and bones. The body stores lead in the teeth and bones and accumulates over time. Lead can affect the development of the brain and nervous system of young children and lead to high blood pressure and kidney damage in adults. In addition, exposure to high concentrations of lead in pregnant women can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, low birth weight and other minor malformations.
• Depending on the compound, bromine will have different effects. For 1,2-dibromoethane (Gift et al., 2004), which is used as an antiknock additive in lead fuels, may cause adverse reproductive and reproductive effects.
Heavy metals have non-biodegradable properties. They can stay in the roadside environment, including the food chain, for a long time. It is important to understand how heavy metals are distributed on the roadside. This will give us clue on how to protect our health from heavy metal pollution.
The tremendous growth of auto vehicles in recent years has led to the environment becoming a continuing source of contaminants including heavy metals. Plants display a significant amount of lead and other metals in tissues near busy roads (Dalal and Bairgi, 1985, Rashid and Mukherjee, 1990, Iqbal et al., 1999). Tetraethyl lead is an anti-explosive additive that is added to gasoline and escapes from vehicle exhaust and mixes into air, soil and water (Iqbal and Shazia 2004). Lead has long been considered a potential health hazard (Shannon and Graef, 1996). Many studies have identified lead concentrations in dust, soil, granule and leaf samples from different urban areas of the world.
Dust is an important source of lead that can increase blood lead levels in humans, especially in children’s blood lead levels (Aydinalp and Marinova 2004). Manganese is used as a component of tyres and engine oils (Shaikh et al., 2006). Particulate air pollutants such as dust, dirt and gravel on the top of the leaves do not enter the leaves, but may damage the blades due to mechanical wear on the surface. Particulate matter can also block sunlight, reducing the food processing power of plants. The deposition of lead on the blade depends mainly on the characteristics of the surface of the blade and the wind speed, as well as the range of carriers under other environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. (Agarwal 1991).
The plants, growing near highways are usually exposed to more automobile lead and manganese discharge than any other location. Small amount of lead, manganese and other heavy metals can penetrate the cuticle probably through stomata and other openings. In an earlier study, it has been found that stomata of plants growing on roadside and central district of Karachi are blocked to the extent of 20 – 50% depending on the location (Ahmed et al., 2005).
The main purpose of this prospective study was to assess or evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Al on trees along the N-5 National Road from Bahawalpur to Ahmad Pur East.
CHAPTER # 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Heavy metals are defined as metal elements that have a relatively high density compared to water (Fergusson, 1990). Assuming heaviness and toxicity, heavy metals also include metalloids (such as arsenic) that induce toxicity at low levels of exposure (Duffus, 2002). In recent years, ecological and global public health issues associated with environmental pollution of these metals have increased. In addition, human exposure has increased dramatically due to its exponential growth in several industrial, agricultural, household and technology applications (Brad, 2002). Sources of heavy metals in the reported environment include geology, industry, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, domestic sewage and atmospheric sources (He ZL et al., 2005). Environmental pollution is prominent in mining, foundries and smelters, as well as in other metal industry operations (Fergusson, 1990; Bradl, 2002; He ZL, et al., 2005).
Although heavy metals are natural elements found in the earth’s crust, most environmental contaminations and human exposures result from human activities such as mining and smelting, industrial production and use of metals and compounds. metal (He ZL, et al., 2005, Goyer, 2001, Herawati et al., 2000, Shallari et al., 1998). Environmental contamination can also occur through metal corrosion, atmospheric deposition, metal ion erosion and heavy metal leaching, resuspension of sediments, and evaporation of metals to soil and soil. underground waters. Natural phenomena such as weather and volcanic eruptions have also been reported to contribute significantly to heavy metal pollution (Fergusson 1990, Bradl 2002, He ZL et al 2005, Shallari et al 1998). Nriagu, 1989). Industrial sources include metal processing in refineries, coal burning in power plants, oil burning, nuclear power plants and power lines, plastics, textiles, microelectronics, wood preservation and paper mills (Arruti et al., 2010). 2010; Pacyna, 1996).
It has been reported that metals such as cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential nutrients required for various biochemical and physiological functions (FAO, 1996). Insufficient supply of these micronutrients results in a variety of diseases or deficiency syndromes (FAO, 1996).
Heavy metals are also considered micronutrients because of their trace presence (ppb range less than 10 ppm) in various environmental matrices (Kabata, 2001). Their bioavailability is influenced by physical factors such as temperature, phase association, adsorption and sequestration. It is also affected by chemical factors that influence thermodynamic equilibrium speciation, complexation kinetics, lipid solubility, and octanol / water partition coefficients (Hamelink et al., 1994). Biological factors such as species characteristics, trophic interactions and biochemical / physiological adaptation also play an important role (Verkleji, 1993).
Essential heavy metals play a biochemical and physiological role in plants and animals. They are important components of several key enzymes and play important roles in various redox reactions (FAO, 1996). For example, copper acts as an essential cofactor for several oxidative stress-related enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, cytochrome c oxidase, iron oxidase, monoamine oxidase, and dopamine beta-single plus Oxygenase (Stern, 2010; Harvey and Ardle, 2008; ATSDR, 2002). Therefore, essential nutrients are incorporated into many metalloenzymes involved in hemoglobin formation, carbohydrate metabolism, catecholamine biosynthesis, and cross-linking of collagen, elastin and hair keratin. The ability of copper to circulate between the oxidized Cu (II) and the reduced Cu(I) is used by the copper enzyme involved in the redox reaction (Stern, 2010; Harvey and Ardle, 2008; ATSDR, 2002).
However, this property of copper also makes it potentially toxic because the transition between Cu (II) and Cu(I) can lead to the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (Stern, 2010; Harvey and Ardle, 2008; ATSDR, 2002; Tchounwou et al., 2002). Furthermore, excessive exposure to copper is associated with cellular damage leading to human Wilson’s disease (ATSDR, 2002; Tchounwou et al., 2002). Similar to copper, biological functions require several other essential elements; however, excessive amounts of such metals can cause cellular and tissue damage, leading to various adverse reactions and human diseases. For some people, including chromium and copper, the concentration range between beneficial and toxic effects is very narrow (Tchounwou et al, 2002, Chang, 1996). Other metals such as aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), antimony (Ba), antimony (Be), antimony (Bi), cadmium (Cd), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), gold (Au), indium (In), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), silver (Ag), antimony (Sr), antimony (Te), antimony (T1), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V) and uranium (U) have no definite biological function and are considered to be non-essential metals (Chang, 1996).
It has been reported that in biological systems, heavy metals can affect organelles and components such as cell membranes, mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, nuclei, and some enzymes involved in metabolism, detoxification, and damage repair (Wang and Shi, 2010). Metal ions have been found to interact with cellular components such as DNA and nuclear proteins, leading to DNA damage and conformational changes that may lead to cell cycle regulation, carcinogenesis or apoptosis (Chang et al 1996; Wang and Shi, 2001; Beyersmann and Hartwig, 2008). Some studies in our laboratory have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress play a key role in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of metals such as arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury (Yedjou and Tchounwou, 2006; Yedjou and Tchounwou, 2007; ; Tchounwou et al., 2004). Due to their high toxicity, these five elements are preferred metals with important public health significance. They are systemic toxicants that are known to cause multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), these metals are also classified as “known” or “probable” human carcinogens, based on epidemiological and experimental studies. A correlation between exposure and cancer incidence in humans and animals.
The toxicity and carcinogenicity caused by heavy metals involves many mechanical aspects, some of which have not been clearly elucidated or understood. However, each metal is known to have unique characteristics and physicochemical properties that give it a specific toxicological mechanism of action.
Environmental Occurrence, Industrial Production and Use
Arsenic is a ubiquitous element that is detected at low concentrations in almost all environmental matrices (ATSDR, 2000). The main inorganic forms of arsenic include trivalent arsenite and pentavalent arsenate. The organic form is the methylated metabolite monomethyl decanoic acid (MMA), dimethyl decanoic acid (DMA) and trimethyl hydrazine oxide. Environmental pollution of arsenic is caused by natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and soil erosion, as well as human activities (ATSDR, 2000). A few arsenic-containing mixes are delivered modernly, and have been utilized to fabricate items with agriculture applications, for example, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, algicides, sheep dips, wood additives, and dyestuffs. They have additionally been utilized as a part of veterinary medication for the annihilation of tapeworms in sheep and cows (Tchounwou and Wilson 1999). Arsenic mixes have likewise been utilized as a part of the medicinal field for no less than a century in the treatment of syphilis, yaws, amoebic looseness of the bowels, and trypanosomaiasis (Tchounwou and Wilson 1999; Centeno, et al., 2005). Arsenic-based medications are as yet utilized as a part of regarding certain tropical illnesses, for example, African resting affliction and amoebic looseness of the bowels, and in veterinary drug to treat parasitic ailments, incorporating filariasis in mutts and clogged pore in turkeys and chickens (Centeno, et al., 2005). As of late, arsenic trioxide has been endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration as an anticancer specialist in the treatment of intense promeylocytic leukemia (Rousselot et al., 1999). Its helpful activity has been credited to the enlistment of customized cell passing (apoptosis) in leukemia cells (Yedjou and Tchounwou, 2007).
Potential for Human Exposure
It is assessed that few million individuals are presented to arsenic constantly all through the world, particularly in nations like Bangladesh, India, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, and Taiwan, where the ground water is polluted with high centralizations of arsenic. Presentation to arsenic happens by means of the oral course (ingestion), inward breath, dermal contact, and the parenteral course to some degree (ATSDR, 2000; Tchounwou, 1999; NRCC, 1978). Arsenic focuses in air run from one to three ng/m3 in remote areas (far from human discharges), and from 20 to 100 ng/m3 in urban areas. Its water focus is generally under 10µg/L, albeit more elevated amounts can happen close normal mineral stores or mining locales. Its focus in different sustenances ranges from 20 to 140 ng/kg (Morton and Dunnette 1994). Common levels of arsenic in soil normally extend from one to 40 mg/kg, however pesticide application or waste transfer can deliver considerably higher qualities (Tchounwou, et al., 2004).
Sullying with abnormal amounts of arsenic is of concern since arsenic can cause various human wellbeing impacts. A few epidemiological investigations have announced a solid relationship between arsenic introduction and expanded dangers of both cancer-causing and foundational wellbeing impacts. Enthusiasm for the poisonous quality of arsenic has been elevated by late reports of huge populaces in West Bengal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Inner Mongolia, Taiwan, China, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Finland and Hungary that have been presented to high convergences of arsenic in their drinking water and are showing different clinical obsessive conditions including cardiovascular and fringe vascular infection, formative peculiarities, neurologic and neurobehavioural clutters, diabetes, hearing misfortune, entrance fibrosis, hematologic scatters (weakness, leukopenia and eosinophilia) and carcinoma (Tchounwou et al., 2004; (ATSDR, 2000; Centeno et al 2005; National Research Council, 2001). Arsenic presentation influences for all intents and purposes all organ frameworks including the cardiovascular, dermatologic, apprehensive, hepatobilliary, renal, gastro-intestinal, and respiratory frameworks (Tchounwou et al 2002). Research has likewise indicated essentially higher institutionalized death rates for growths of the bladder, kidney, skin, and liver in numerous regions of arsenic contamination. The seriousness of unfavorable wellbeing impacts is identified with the substance type of arsenic, and is time-and measurements subordinate (Tchounwou et al., 2002).
Environmental Occurrence, Industrial Production and Use
Cadmium is a heavy metal with considerable environmental and occupational concerns. It is widely distributed in the earth’s crust with an average concentration of about 0.1 mg/kg. The highest levels of cadmium compounds in the environment accumulate in sedimentary rocks, which contain approximately 15 mg cadmium/kg. Cadmium is often used in a variety of industrial activities. The main industrial applications of cadmium include the production of alloys, pigments and batteries (Wilson, 1988). Although the use of cadmium in batteries has increased significantly in recent years, commercial use in developed countries has declined due to environmental concerns. For example, in the United States, daily cadmium intake is about 0.4?g/kg/day, less than half of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s oral reference dose (EPA, 1993). This decline is related to the introduction of strict water discharge limits. Plating work, and recently introduced general restrictions on cadmium consumption in some countries.
Potential for Human Exposure
The main route of exposure to cadmium is inhalation or smoking, as well as food intake. Skin absorption is rare. Humans can access cadmium through a variety of sources, including employment in the primary metals industry, eating contaminated food, smoking, and working in cadmium-contaminated workplaces. Smoking is a major factor (IARC, 1993; Paschal et cadmium sources include industry Emissions from activities, including mining, smelting, and the manufacture of batteries, pigments, stabilizers, and alloys (ATSDR, 2008). Cadmium in certain foods is also present in trace amounts, such as: leafy vegetables, potatoes, grains and seeds, liver And kidneys, crustaceans and mollusks (Satarug et al., 2003). In addition, cadmium-rich foods can greatly increase cadmium concentrations in the body, such as liver, mushrooms, shellfish, mussels, cocoa powder and dried seaweed. The distribution pathway is the circulatory system, and blood vessels are considered to be the mainstream organs of cadmium toxicity.
Chronic inhalation of cadmium particles is usually associated with changes in lung function and chest radiographs, which is consistent with emphysema (Davison et al., 1988). Cadmium particles exposed to air in the workplace are associated with decreased olfactory function (Mascagni et al. 2003). Some epidemiological studies have demonstrated that chronic low-level cadmium exposure is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density and osteoporosis (Åkesson et al., 2006; Schutte et al., 2008). Exposure to cadmium is usually determined by measuring the level of cadmium in the blood or urine. Blood cadmium reflects recent cadmium exposure (eg smoking). Cadmium in urine (usually diluted by calculating the cadmium/creatinine ratio) indicates cadmium accumulation or kidney burden (Jarup et al., 1998; Wittman and Hu, 2002). It is estimated that approximately 2.3% of the US population has elevated urinary cadmium levels (;2 ?g/g creatinine), which is a sign of chronic exposure and physical burden (Becker et al., 2002). The cadmium content in the blood and urine of smokers is usually higher, with moderate smokers and lower non-smokers (Becker et al., 2002; Mannino et al., 2004). Due to the continued use of cadmium in industrial applications, environmental pollution and human exposure to cadmium have increased dramatically over the past century (Elinder and Järup, 1995).
Environmental Occurrence, Industrial Production and Use
Chromium (Cr) is a natural element present in the earth’s crust with an oxidation state (or valence state) from chromium (II) to chromium (VI) (Jacobs et al., 2005). The chromium compound is stable in the trivalent Cr(III) form and is present in the ore in the form of ore, such as chromite. The hexavalent Cr(VI) form is the second stable state. The elemental chromium Cr(0) is not naturally occurring. Chromium enters a variety of environmental substrates (air, urine and soil) from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources, the largest of which comes from industrial enterprises. Manufacturers that contribute the most to chromium release include metalworking, tannery, chromate production, stainless steel welding, and production of ferrochrome and chrome pigments. The increase in the environmental concentration of chromium has been combined with the release of chromium air and wastewater, mainly from metallurgical, refractory and chemical products. Chromium released from human activities into the environment occurs mainly in the hexavalent form Cr (VI) ((ATSDR)). Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is a toxic industrial pollutant that is classified as a human carcinogen by several regulatory agencies and non-regulatory agencies (IARC, 1990; EPA, 1992). The health hazards associated with chromium exposure depend on its oxidative state, from the low toxicity of the metal form to the high toxicity of the hexavalent form. All compounds containing Cr (VI) were once considered man-made, and only Cr (III) is naturally ubiquitous in air, water, soil and biological materials. Recently, however, naturally occurring Cr (VI) has been found in surface and surface waters, which exceeds the World Health Organization’s drinking water limit of 50 ?g Cr (VI) per liter (Velma et al., 2009). Chromium is widely used in many industrial processes and is therefore a contaminant in many environmental systems (Cohen et al., 1994).
Commercial chromium compounds are used in industrial welding, chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning and wood preservation. Chromium is also used as a preservative in cooking systems and boilers (Norseth, 1981; Wang et al., 2006).
Potential for Human Exposure
It is estimated that more than 300,000 workers are exposed to chromium and chromium-containing compounds every year in the workplace. In humans and animals, Cr (III) is an essential nutrient that plays a role in the metabolism of glucose, fat and protein by enhancing the action of insulin. However, occupational exposure has been a major problem because of the high risk of Cr-induced disease among industrial workers exposed to Cr (VI) (Guertin et al., 2005). In addition, the general population and some wild animals may also be at risk. It is estimated that 33 tons of total Cr is released into the environment each year (OSHA, 2006. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently set a “safe” level of 5 ?g/m3, an 8-hour time weighting despite this revision level. It may still pose a risk of cancer 138, but for the general population, atmospheric levels range from 1 to 100 ng / cm3 (Singh et al., 1999), but can exceed this range in this range. Close to Cr manufacturing. Non-occupational exposure Occurs by ingesting chromium-containing foods and water, while occupational exposure occurs by inhalation (Langård and Vigander., 1983). Chromium concentrations in soil range from 1 to 3000 mg / kg, 5 to 800 ?g / L in seawater, rivers and Concentrations in lakes range from 26 ?g/L to 5.2 mg / L. The chromium content in food varies widely, depending on processing and preparation.
In general, most fresh foods typically contain a chromium content of 10 ?g/dL). Therefore, lead poisoning remains one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States today (CDC, 1991; ATSDR, 1999). Lead exposure is a particular concern for women, especially during pregnancy. Lead absorbed by pregnant mothers is easily transferred to developing fetuses (Ong et al., 1985). Human evidence confirms the results of animal studies (Corpas et al., 1995), linking prenatal exposure to lead to reduce birth weight and preterm birth and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in offspring (Andrews et al., 1994).
Environmental Occurrence, Industrial Production and Use
Mercury is a heavy metal belonging to the transition element series of the periodic table. It is unique in that it exists or is found in nature in three forms (elemental, inorganic, and organic), with each having its own profile of toxicity (Clarkson et al., 2003). At room temperature, elemental mercury exists as a liquid, which has a high vapor, pressure and is released into the environment as mercury vapor. Mercury also exists as a cation with oxidation states of one (mercurous) or +2 (mercuric) (Guzzi and LaPorta, 2008). Methylmercury is the most frequently encountered compound of the organic form found in the environment, and is formed as a result of the methylation of inorganic (mercuric) forms of mercury by microorganisms found in soil and water (Dopp et al., 2004).
Mercury is a widespread environmental toxicant and pollutant, which induces severe alterations in the body tissues and causes a wide range of adverse health effects (Sarkar, 2005). Both humans and animals are exposed to various chemical forms of mercury in the environment. These include elemental mercury vapor (Hg 0), inorganic mercurous (Hg +1), mercuric (Hg +2), and the organic mercury compounds (Zahir et al., 2005). Because mercury is ubiquitous in the environment, humans, plants and animals are all unable to avoid exposure to some form of mercury (Holmes et al., 2009).
Mercury is utilized in the electrical industry (switches, thermostats, batteries), dentistry (dental amalgams), and numerous industrial processes including the production of caustic soda, in nuclear reactors, as antifungal agents for wood processing, as a solvent for reactive and precious metal, and as a preservative of pharmaceutical products (Tchounwou et al.,2003). The industrial demand for mercury peaked in 1964 and began to sharply decline between 1980 and 1994 because of federal bans on mercury additives in paints, pesticides, and the reduction of its use in batteries (EPA, 1997).
Potential for Human Exposure
It shows all kinds of mercury through human accidents, environmental pollution, food pollution, dental care, therapeutic methods, industrial and agricultural activities, and business activities (Government, 2005). Important sources of chronic, low-level mercury display are dental implements and fish consumption. Pepper enters water as a natural gas process through the earth’s crust and industrial pollution (Dept., 2004). Mega and bacteria measure mercury entering the mercury waterway. Maitael Para then makes her way through the food chain, fish, shellfish and finally in humans (Sophie Eli., 2003).
The main para (HG) and Mitral Para (MHH) of two extremely highly emotional species. The dental implants include more than 50% of the mercury Para (Zahir and Ali, 2008). The element vapor is extremely lipphilic and is absorbed effectively by absorbing lungs and tissues. After entering the HG blood, it passes rapidly through membrane membranes, which include the bleeding of the brain and the platinum barrier (Guzzi and La Porta, 2008). Once the cell gets admitted, the HG is oxidized and becomes highly reactive HG 2+. Maitel Para obtained from food fish can easily absorb into a static way and it can easily cross both the obstacles of the platinental and blood-brain due to lip drilling. Once the mercury is absorbed, it has a very low cost rate. A large proportion of the concentration of kidneys, neurology tissue and liver. All the steps of the mercury are toxic, and their effects include mineral toxic, neurotoxia, and pneumocyticity (Touchonova and El., 2003).
Urbanization, Forest Trees and Environment
Urban Forest Citizens are an important part of urban ecosystem, welcome environmental services to promote and enhance human environment, but at the same time, is affected by urban population (Ordunon and Barona 2015; Song and L 2000 2000). ). Due to rapid citizenship and industrial during the past few decades, heavy metallurgy (HM) installations in urban areas, due to antioxual activities, expenses of carriage exit, insecticide and fertilizer, amendment of dirt deficiency, in which Hmmm signs are released in air, water, and earthenware (Li et al.2016; Ping et .2016; Syrer and El. 2011).
Due to the increasing public concern due to the potentially harmful effects of HMS exhibit and possible risk of human health, soil, and plants (HOL 2016, ZSLA 2017) in urban patients Is. With rapid citizenship and industrialization, China has become the world’s leading heavy metal producer, resulting in soil pollution with HMZ (HoAA 2016; Mumtut and al-Qaeda 2017). China’s State Council on May 28, 2016, to strengthen and control soil pollution control, as important regulatory indicator (TSCC2016), HD, HD, S, PB, KR, and HG Enhanced Earth’s environmental standards.
Many studies investigated HR stock and pollution, such as CD, Cobb, PB, C, and ZIN, especially in the fields and mining fields (NREGA 996; Barbara and El 2014; Leonard 2014; Raja and Ann .2017). The most importantly considered forest system of forestry systems are ignoring and ignoring (Wingfield and Ann .2015). Maintenance of forest ecosystems requires a soil soil system, and the quality of forest clay will affect the sustainable or indirect forest sustainable development (Castello and Pali 2011). Therefore, researchers focusing on the level of pollution and potential environmental risk of forest soil, urgently due to the importance of soil in the forest forest system, especially in the forest forest ecosystem.
Previous studies include trees related to the ring ring and environmental conditions. Temporary monitoring of environmental changes as the use of tree rings is possible, because many tree species occur in annual growth (Cocosza and May 2016; LAPP, 1975). Since the leap has reviewed the ability of the chemistry of the tree to monitor the temporary changes in the surface of ecosystem trace (LPP, 1975), the continuous number of studies has been increased using the Mandro Chemistry, which includes soil, And the environment (divine population and the al .2017; Panakashnikina and al. 2016). In the past decade, many different trees of trees of trees have been studied by the HMS recordings for rebuilding temporal and local patterns (al-Ahlhet-ul-2017; Atom, 1997).
Heavy metals are an important part of the environment. Because they do not weaken, heavy metals pass through the atmosphere and go through biomaterials, and often the chemical time is counted as bombs. Once introduced in the environment, metal pollution affects biological systems at different levels – Analog system by cells, organs, single biology, population and entire ecological system (Market et 2003, 2003). Therefore, surveillance of these metals in different parts of the environment is especially around sensitive areas. Researchers from the world are well addressed by metal pollution in most environmental mosquitoes. Road dust dust, clay, tree chicken, leaves, lichen, mess, epifiers (hook and l., 2007; daimari and l, 2013; dummy itt, 2012; che and wang, 2013; aberdeal and l, 2014). Metal pollution around the roadside is often caused by street traffic, vehicle wear and tears, road construction materials, different stations and storage of environment from different sources. Literature available on road pollution studies from India (Banerjee, 2003) shows that most of them were educated in major cities. Such studies have reminded the areas of rural and forest, which get more metal pollution through the movement of environment more than highway and storage.
In recent years, tree rods have been found as effective tool for monitoring trace metals on the streets to find road-pollution inputs on road-related automobiles (Scorpio and El., 2012). Some of the characters of the tree rod are just as easy as possible to sample, there are trees, trees are long, and easy to identify. It makes a candidate for effective bio-monitoring (Sydney ; El., 2011). More than that, the bars have to collect more due to their roofs and the dust particles stored in the rod’s autumn ducker can provide precise information about the changes in an area (Belize and L, 2003). The roadside also provides important information about the activities involved in the area, however, its residence time is less than the bars. Therefore, covering pollution of both the road and the tree tree, which can be an interesting way to understand the fate of pollution from the roads.