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Abstract
In this world of globalization, higher education has changed its course significantly. Individual’ s studying abroad with the pursuit of achieving better knowledge for future development is bringing the global economic world ever closer. The pattern of students from developing country moving to developed nations increased over last 2 decades tremendously. Germany has been a desired destination for higher study within students from many countries. This research will try to generate the driving factors to select Germany as the study destination and perception of achievements of international students in Germany. For this purpose, a survey questionnaire has been conducted on 135 Bangladeshi students who are studying and already completed the education in Germany. Indicators such as “study field selection” and “study to work transitions difficulty l” have been analyzed thoroughly in this research. The focus of this study is to observe the personal and professional achievements and future prospect of Bangladeshi individuals as international students in Germany. This thesis will act as an understanding of international student’s insight to study abroad and transition possibility in the German labor market. The international students as transnational human capital and their contribution to the economic sector.
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction-10 PAGEREF _Toc520546206 h 2The scope of the study-3 PAGEREF _Toc520546207 h 11Methodology -3 PAGEREF _Toc520546208 h 13Theoretical Background-18 PAGEREF _Toc520546209 h 15Human Capital Theory PAGEREF _Toc520546210 h 15Theories of International Migration PAGEREF _Toc520546211 h 25Analysis PAGEREF _Toc520546212 h 34Section A PAGEREF _Toc520546213 h 34General Overview of Bangladesh PAGEREF _Toc520546214 h 34Education System in Bangladesh PAGEREF _Toc520546215 h 35Brief Background of Bangladesh Tertiary Education PAGEREF _Toc520546216 h 35Push Factors in context of Bangladesh: PAGEREF _Toc520546217 h 38Bangladeshi students Studying abroad PAGEREF _Toc520546218 h 41Why Germany as the Destination? PAGEREF _Toc520546219 h 41Pull Factors for Germany as Bangladeshi Students PAGEREF _Toc520546220 h 42Section B PAGEREF _Toc520546221 h 47Indicator wise analysis- PAGEREF _Toc520546222 h 47Demographic Profile PAGEREF _Toc520546223 h 47Academic Aspect PAGEREF _Toc520546224 h 49Professional Stance PAGEREF _Toc520546225 h 60Inter-Personal integration/development PAGEREF _Toc520546226 h 63Limitation of the study- 4 PAGEREF _Toc520546227 h 70Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc520546228 h 72
IntroductionThe world of education has transformed over the last few decades tremendously. In previous centuries, the higher education was associated with scholars, elites, and professionals. In recent times, however, the cohort has changed towards common people. Realizing the benefits of higher education’s impact on economic growth, it is now perceived as an intrinsic value in an individual’s life and professional development. Employer’s demand for skilled and well-educated individuals also elevated. As demand increased, countries put a strong emphasis on developing the higher educational system. Individuals started moving beyond borders to pursue more advanced and quality higher education. According to the OECD report, from 2000 to 2011, the number of international student’s mobility has increased to double. 4.5 million students at the tertiary level are studying outside of their home country ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/5k43k8r4k821-en”, “ISSN” : “2226-7077”, “abstract” : “Education and employment – what are the gender differences?”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education Indicators in Focus, OECD”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-4”, “title” : “How is international student mobility shaping up?”, “type” : “article”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3178d606-8dc3-4021-b081-901eeca3893c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2013). Growing importance of higher education also originates from a prepared economic system in consequence. Developed countries have been recognizing higher education achievement as a stimulus for the economy since the post-industrial era. While developing countries are still emerging the sense to accommodate the growing demand for higher education. Lack of standard education opportunities and quality education pushing students from developing countries to search study opportunities in well-established education systems abroad. Students from developing and underdeveloped countries now are moving to advanced countries in great number to pursue the excellence in higher studies. On the opposite end, there are few students moving from developed countries towards developing ones, but most of this movement is due to acquire cultural knowledge and diversity. Selection of the country to study depends on several reasons, whereas for some individual’s future economic expansion, career progress and standard of study might have significant standing, for others the cultural development, individual growth and accessibility to the newer arena can be the contributory influence.
Many researchers and scholars have studied the influences and motivations of student’s selection process of specific countries ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0389213780”, “ISSN” : “15116670”, “PMID” : “66717756”, “abstract” : “- Students around the world have recognised Malaysia as the preferred choice for college and tertiary education because of its low cost of living and high quality education. – a preliminary study was conducted to understand the factors that motivate these students to choose Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) as their institute of higher learning. – A total of 130 respondents ranging from undergraduate and PhD students participated in the study. – pull factor such as u201cinstitution imageu201d significantly influenced the satisfaction level of the international students to choose UKM. Meanwhile, push factor of u201cjob prospectu201d significantly influenced these students to recommend UKM as a study destination.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lam”, “given” : “Jason M.S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ariffin”, “given” : “Ahmad Azmi M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ahmad”, “given” : “H. J.Azhar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Business and Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “63-78”, “title” : “Edutourism: Exploring the push-pull factors in selecting a university”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9a2696c0-cb9f-4dd0-8175-88614f3b02ae” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mazzarol”, “given” : “Tim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemp”, “given” : “Steven”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Savery”, “given” : “Lawson”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1997” }, “number-of-pages” : “17-37”, “title” : “International students who choose not to study in Australia : An Examination of Taiwan and Indonesia International Students Who Choose Not To Study In Australia An Examination of Taiwan and Indonesia”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3f2d3a20-8dca-44fb-bb04-a4f8f2216a8b” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-010-0417-0”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bessey”, “given” : “Donata”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “42”, “container-title” : “Empirical Economics”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “note” : “Why student choose Germany as the destination”, “number” : “6”, “page” : “345-361”, “title” : “International Student Migration to Germany”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3326c935-ae1d-442b-b5be-531f94e87ad6” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01204.x”, “ISSN” : “03091317”, “abstract” : “u2018Educationu2013migration nexusu2019 policies in Australia between 1998 and 2010 linked international education with different forms of temporary and permanent migration. This resulted in a blurring of boundaries around student, worker, consumer, migrant and ethnic identities. While the exploitation, marginalization and vulnerability of international students in Australia has gained a great deal of media and scholarly attention, less consideration has been given to the varied forms of subsequent protest undertaken by student migrants in Australian cities. This article analyses three case studies of protests involving student migrants in Melbourne: a protest against unfair assessment; a fight for a campus prayer room; and labour protests within the retail service and taxi industries. It draws on theoretical work on new social movements and social transformation in urban spaces to find ways to conceptualize this activism in relation to the scales of campus, city and nation. In doing so, it argues primarily that these sites of protest are socio-spatial experiences that encompass shifting and socially produced spatial scales, as well as complex networks of association across different communities, which in turn reflect different student-migrant identities.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robertson”, “given” : “Shanthi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Urban and Regional Research”, “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “972-988”, “title” : “Campus, City, Networks and Nation: Student-Migrant Activism as Socio-spatial Experience in Melbourne, Australia”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “37” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a249b0a0-0268-43ef-b1cc-08239fa4da01” }, { “id” : “ITEM-5”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/psp.1747”, “ISBN” : “15448444 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “15448444”, “abstract” : “Student migration is a key component of knowledge migration. However, as knowledge becomes a central part of migrant selectivity, labour and family migrants too are involved in knowledge acquisition, both prior to and after migration. At the same time, student migrants are involved in work and family, just like other migrants. What then is distinctive about student migrants? This paper attempts to address this challenge. It begins by reviewing how migration theories have analysed student mobility. It then suggests that migration theorists need to extend existing analyses, which have primarily focused on the spatialities of migration, to take account of the spatialities of knowledge. It is argued that knowledge institutions need to reach out to people in different parts of the world and to produce in prospective students a desire to circulate. This is necessary if the institutions are to obtain a global presence and to maintain their legitimacy as knowledge brokers. An analysis of student migration where the inducements that the Higher Education Institutions offer to prospective students and the subjective responses of such students to these invitations will throw light on how the spatiality of knowledge is achieved and also highlight the distinctiveness of student migration in a knowledgeable migrant world.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Raghuram”, “given” : “Parvati”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Population, Space and Place”, “id” : “ITEM-5”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “138-154”, “title” : “Theorising the Spaces of Student Migration”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “19” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4372fc66-836b-4e5d-b07e-3ba822c596f4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bessey, 2012; Lam, Ariffin, & Ahmad, 2011; Mazzarol, Kemp, & Savery, 1997; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bessey, 2012; Lam, Ariffin, & Ahmad, 2011; Mazzarol, Kemp, & Savery, 1997; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bessey, 2012; Lam, Ariffin, & Ahmad, 2011; Mazzarol, Kemp, & Savery, 1997; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bessey, 2012; Lam, Ariffin, & Ahmad, 2011; Mazzarol, Kemp, & Savery, 1997; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013). They discussed why students from the certain origin of the country tend to choose specific study destination and the reasons that influence them to do so. There are also studies done on the motivational factors to select a specific course of study and how does student migration impact the host and the home country’s economy in general ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/jtr.811”, “ISBN” : “1522-1970”, “ISSN” : “10992340”, “abstract” : “This study examines the role of motivations, prior travel experience, social ties and destination choice in pre-trip attitude formation. The sample for this study is composed of a group of university students who recently participated in study abroad programs to the South Pacifi c or Europe. The results revealed that academic motivations and social ties infl uence studentsu2019 destination selection for the study aboard program. Social motivation emerged as the most important factor that infl uences attitude toward the destinations prior to the trip. Further analysis found that the destination intended to visit mediates the effect of social motivation on pre-trip attitude formation.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nyaupane”, “given” : “Gyan P.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paris”, “given” : “Cody Morris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teye”, “given” : “Victor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Tourism Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “205-217”, “title” : “Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “13” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6ff9724b-2c1d-4ced-9940-016cb019e477” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/slll62-008-9111-x”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Salisbury”, “given” : “Mark H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Umbach”, “given” : “Paul D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paulsen”, “given” : “B Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pascarella T Ernest”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Research in Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “119-143”, “title” : “Going Global : Understanding the Choice Process of the Intent to Study Abroad”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “50” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d7f0e5dd-77e9-4bbc-b1a0-d03229be2138” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nyaupane, Paris, & Teye, 2011; Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, & Pascarella T Ernest, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nyaupane, Paris, & Teye, 2011; Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, & Pascarella T Ernest, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nyaupane, Paris, & Teye, 2011; Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, & Pascarella T Ernest, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nyaupane, Paris, ; Teye, 2011; Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, ; Pascarella T Ernest, 2009)
Education abroad can also comprise the phenomenon of student migration, international migration and transnational migration ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “King”, “given” : “Russell”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “Willy Brandt”, “container-title” : “International Migration and Ethnic Relations”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “number” : “3/12”, “page” : “3-48”, “publisher-place” : “Malmu00f6”, “title” : “Theories and Typologies of Migration : An Overview and a Primer”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1f417db7-27d1-4b86-a8c2-e800e5400401” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Massey”, “given” : “Douglas S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hugo”, “given” : “Graeme”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kouaouci”, “given” : “Ali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrino”, “given” : “Adela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Taylor”, “given” : “J Edward”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Population and Development Review”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1993” }, “page” : “431-466”, “title” : “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “19” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50441e5-a232-469f-906f-1c16541ad49d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993). Identifying the motivation and perception of student’s selection of a foreign country to study and after study, achievements can open new doors for understanding the future of global economy. Emerging economic crisis and development can be redefined with the help of accumulation student migration into perspective.
A worldview of international students
From the OECD report, it can be observed that in the last two decades the number of tertiary students pursuing education abroad has increased significantly. In the report, it is mentioned that the number of students studying abroad outside their origin of the country increased at an annual growth of 6% each year. It is also predicted to increase more rapidly in coming years ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/5k43k8r4k821-en”, “ISSN” : “2226-7077”, “abstract” : “Education and employment – what are the gender differences?”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education Indicators in Focus, OECD”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-4”, “title” : “How is international student mobility shaping up?”, “type” : “article”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3178d606-8dc3-4021-b081-901eeca3893c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2013). However, the movement of international students follows a specific pattern. Based on country of origin to host country political relation, traditional movement history, a collaboration between governments and educational institutes influence such patterned movements. In general, people tend to study in a more advanced and prospective location. Contrary to what some scholars expected, even in times of global economic crisis, the number of student mobilization did not go down. Worldwide the tertiary education system expanded because of globalization and demand for skilled employees in the labor market. The sharp increase in choosing OECD countries as a destination to study abroad also projects that the motivation to select certain country depends on the host country’s economic stability and prospects.
The foremost reasons behind this movement phenomenon are the globalization of information, identification of self-value, the desire for personal development and economic expansion. There are uncountable benefits to studying abroad. Cultural enhancement, linguistic competence and competitive advantage for the transition to the job market are some leading points. Studying abroad turns the students into an asset for the host country and for the country of origin. More importantly, having exposed to the globalized world studying abroad converts individuals into transnational human capital (OECD, 2004). While students from all over the world are pursuing study abroad, the major share of tertiary level students studying abroad comes from countries of origin in 2011 are China, India, and Korea. It is estimated that 53% of mobile international students are Asian. Out of this share, 3 to 4% are enrolled in OECD countries. Students from China are encouraged to pursue study abroad to maintain the capacity building strategy ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/5k43k8r4k821-en”, “ISSN” : “2226-7077”, “abstract” : “Education and employment – what are the gender differences?”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education Indicators in Focus, OECD”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-4”, “title” : “How is international student mobility shaping up?”, “type” : “article”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3178d606-8dc3-4021-b081-901eeca3893c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2013).

Benefits of studying abroad- Studying abroad not only enhance the knowledge acquiring skills of an individual it also accomplishes personal development and boosts professional progress in a positive way. The survey done on IES alumni from 1950 to 1999 among 3,400 respondents demonstrates that studying abroad not only impacts the individual’s life during the study period but the impact extends years after the study period. Personal growth, better self-management, intercultural development and future professional decision making in every aspect of a person’s life is affected by studying abroad. the study also confirms that longer stays in the host country and cultural integration maximize the benefit for future. From learning a new language to overtaking an internship, every aspect of global exposer helps an individual to grow and develop them as an asset called human capital for the world. The parts of this study involve the personal development section containing broadening worldview to self-maturity and confidence building options. which got the highest remark by the respondents. Academic commitments section of the study involved indicators such as the influence of learning a foreign language, interest enhancement of academic study. The most domineering positive response is on the intercultural development. Once a student’s studies abroad and mix with different people from the different culture they later keep this influence of interaction continued. And finally, Respondents also gave a positive response on how acquired skillsets influence their career path later in life. Overall, it can be determined that studying abroad not only enhance skill sets and communication approach it builds a human being as an extraordinary human capital ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “1028315309”, “abstract” : “”It will change your life. You’ll come back a new person. ” For years, the benefits of study abroad have been described in these words. Everyone in the study abroad field believed it could greatly impact a student’s life, but the exact long-term benefits were unknownu2014until now. The first large-scale survey to explore the long-term impact of study abroad on a student’s personal, professional, and academic life shows that study abroad positively and unequivocally influences the career path, world-view, and self-confidence of students. The Institute for the International Education of Students (IES), www.iesabroad.com, surveyed alumni from all IES study abroad programs from 1950 to 1999. Regardless of where students studied and for how long, the data from the more than 3,400 respondents (a 23 percent response rate) shows that studying abroad is usually a defining moment in a young person’s life and continues to impact the participant’s life for years after the experience.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dwyer”, “given” : “Mary M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Peters”, “given” : “Courtney K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Transitions abroad”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “The Benefits of Study Abroad”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “37” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=259ec444-5c26-4bc3-98cd-f73103008e14” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dwyer & Peters, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dwyer & Peters, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dwyer & Peters, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dwyer ; Peters, 2004).

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Going Global-Another study on Understanding the Choice Process of the Intent to Study Abroad shows that “Students who study abroad develop a deeper understanding of the global issue, intercultural communication skill, and personal and professional capabilities.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/slll62-008-9111-x”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Salisbury”, “given” : “Mark H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Umbach”, “given” : “Paul D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paulsen”, “given” : “B Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pascarella T Ernest”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Research in Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “119-143”, “title” : “Going Global : Understanding the Choice Process of the Intent to Study Abroad”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “50” }, “locator” : “120”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d7f0e5dd-77e9-4bbc-b1a0-d03229be2138” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 120)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 120)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 120)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 120) When making a decision about choosing a destination country or university, students not only go through monetary benefits but also non-monetary benefits. Information regarding the destination country and university holds credibility of potential options in subsequent decisions. The most important stage of deciding to study abroad is budget and calculating cost-benefit analysis to compare the same condition with the home country. At the same time, choosing a course of study holds the importance of future demand of that field in the labor market. Additional direct or indirect costs, family income, and other elements of financial capital are measured in future prospect. Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad, scholars mentioned, “When students choose a program that meets their intellectual or career goals, they consider their academic ability, achievement or preparation, educational and career aspirations, and the perceived potential of a study abroad experience to instil the human capital necessary in reaching those career goals. Extent the student agrees that courses have Same as above helped him/her see the connections between his/her intended career and how it affects society.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/slll62-008-9111-x”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Salisbury”, “given” : “Mark H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Umbach”, “given” : “Paul D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paulsen”, “given” : “B Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pascarella T Ernest”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Research in Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “119-143”, “title” : “Going Global : Understanding the Choice Process of the Intent to Study Abroad”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “50” }, “locator” : “124”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d7f0e5dd-77e9-4bbc-b1a0-d03229be2138” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 124)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 124)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 124)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Salisbury et al., 2009, p. 124)
Brain Drain- Another aspect of studying abroad can be determined as Brain Drain in the perception of the home country. In general, the best and the brightest students tend to choose study abroad options in developed and economically well-established countries. Many of the international students decide to remain in the host country after completing their education. For the home country, this can impact as “Brain Drain”. Investigating the migration pattern from non-metropolitan region to metropolitan one’s Mills and Hazarika analyzed the underneath reasons and motivation. They empirically analyzed the Initial earning gaps between non-metropolitans to metropolitan area works as the key motivator for the young generation. Their study resulted in, the young people tend to move to places where they receive a more initial hourly wage. The further wage growth and the migration cost also impact the decision-making process. Brain drain from region influence firms and organization not to invest their capital in such regions. They described how firms also tend to set up their premises in areas with existing concentrations of skilled workers. However, exploring the economic factors underlying such out-migration from non-metropolitan they result in that non-metropolitan areas experiencing a co-dependent rise in out-migration of skilled workers and firms may be relatively unresponsive to traditional state and local economic development efforts (Mills and Hazarika, 2001).

The creative class acknowledged by Richard Florida pursuit for places to live and work not based on traditional belongings but by openness and diversity of the place offer. They value experience and opportunity more than safety and security of the cities. Creative Class gives importance to the openness of a place rather than a financial prospect. It is not always the success of a place that attracts them, it is more the feeling that they can make a place successful drives them. They merely desire to feel comfortable in the cities they want to grow a career in. Creative people do not only look for better jobs in established firms, they want to create and establish their own innovation. And most importantly, they select places to live and work where they can express themselves as creatives (Florida, 2002).

Although many studies have been done on brain drain. This phenomenon of the movement of skilled or talented people from developing countries developed nations is mostly done on a national or country perspective. The studies on brain drain mainly portray in the economic sense of the country of origin rather the expanding factors of the person moving. Brain Drain is often presumed as a negative phenomenon in perspective of the home country’s potential economic loss. However, if one looks at this issue as a “mobility opportunities for the transnational human capital”, it is the ultimate freedom of human capital blessed by the globalization. From a macroeconomic perspective, the brain drain can be seen as an adverse economic aspect. With a micro-economic interpretation, it is a catalyst for an individual’s growth and prospect.
Bangladeshi student’s movement abroad
The recent economic boom in certain industries and education reformation has induced a growing number of student’s inflow in higher education in Bangladesh. Increasing investment in the different economic sector also influenced more students to pursue higher studies. As recent economic sectors and industries require more acquainted and educated individuals, higher education demand in Bangladesh is growing in an emergency pace, Nonetheless, lack of quality higher education pushes a great number of the students from Bangladesh to study abroad. Traditionally The US, UK, Australia, and Malaysia have been the four top host countries for Bangladeshi students ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DAAD Landersachstand”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “24”, “title” : “Kurze Einfu00fchrung in das Hochschulsystem und die DAAD-Aktivitu00e4ten | 2017”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8565b1d7-44f3-46ec-98f8-445f5f343a47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2017). Linguistic affluence, quality education and already established of ethnic communities influence the pattern of movement to these specific countries. However, recent 10-15 years even with a language barrier, Germany has become an attractive destination for international students especially among Bangladeshi students for tertiary education. Having an excellent education system, growing demand of labor market, tuition fees exemption in most universities are few of the prime reasons that influence commendable students from developing countries to study in Germany.
This research focuses on the Bangladeshi student’s motivation and future insight for selecting Germany as the study destination. The case study done for the purpose is based on students from Bangladesh studying and already completed their education in Germany. Observing and analyzing their motivation and future perception can determine them as the future potential human capital for both home and host country. Also, as part of the future prospect, transition opportunity and obstacles to entering into the German labor market after completion of the study are analyzed. The research question thus for this thesis will be “How international students perceive their higher educational achievements and prospects in Germany? A case study on Bangladeshi students in Germany”. Classifying the international students as transnational human capital, the push factors of the home country to select study abroad option and pull factors of Germany to attract the international students will be thoroughly examined.
As reported by Bundesagentur Für Arbeit Statistik, Germany is undergoing a skills shortage in certain industries ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bonn”, “title” : “Fachkru00e4fteengpassanalyse”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5826202f-fb8f-4cca-84c0-74a370d0a5d2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BfA, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bundesagentur für Arbeit, 2018). As Germany has a long tradition of being a manufacture industry-based economy, new emerging technology industry is facing a deficit in the labor force. The detail deficit and issues will be discussed in the later part of the research. At the same time, Germany has a share of 265,484 international students are studying in tertiary level education ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bielefeld”, “title” : “Foreign Students in Germany”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e717a287-08a3-45a3-b7bb-f96fab626638” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2018). Considering international students as human capital, it will be analyzed if the German labor market demand and the supply of international students in Germany can be interconnected. The factors most important for the international students to accustom of the demand and what are the obstacle confronted will be examined. One of the core focus of this research is to figure out international student’s perception of future endeavor after studying in Germany, who wants to settle and work in Germany. the hypothesis of this study is elaborated in two parts:
Study to work transition for international students impartially depends on the studied program field in relation to labor market demand.

The international students can be perceived as potential human capital for the labor market in Germany.

Identifying International students as transnational human capital for the global market.

By analyzing the conducted survey, the hypothesis of the research will try to witness the phenomenon.

Parts of the thesis
Commencing the research with scholarly provisions on the theory of Human capital and the specific section of the theory Transnational Human Capital discourses. The additional possible theory that relates to international students, the Push-Pull migration theory will also be discussed according to the notion of international student migration. The Analysis Section of the thesis will contain two main parts. In the first part, the push factors of Bangladesh and pull factors of Germany will be analyzed through studies by scholarly articles and collected information from both country’s database records. The second part of the analysis will contain the survey investigation in detail. An Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) method is followed to analyze and interpret the survey responses. In brief, the survey questionnaire is segmented into three categories i) The academic period ii) Interpersonal growth and iii) Professional Achievement and prospect.
The indicators are determined according to a pre-academic, during-academic and after-study period of the students. This will give us an overview of the student’s perception on their study intent and perception about the future aspect of the chosen program in Germany. The difficulty level of the study program is also an important indicator as Bangladesh has completely different education system than Germany, adaptation, and understanding of the subject will ensure that if students from Bangladesh, in general, are well adjusted in German education system. For example, Bangladesh has a different language as a medium of instruction and only few education institutes practice English as a study medium, the official language in education in German university is also a crucial factor to analyze. As in Germany, only a few undergraduate and graduate programs are conducted in English, most of them have either solely German or German mixed with English as the medium of course language. Deciding to study in Germany has the pressure of learning a new language before or after coming to Germany. In that case, Bangladeshi students must learn German either for the course or to ensure a part-time job. This indicator will give an insight into the linguistic capital of Bangladeshi students are gaining by deciding to study in Germany.
In Germany, some graduate program offers internship option during or after completion of the study within German or European companies, If the Bangladeshi student is required to do an internship program during or end of the study, it will surely give them an insight of the job market, at the same time many interns get hired by corporations if they perform well during internship. This indicator will give us an insight into initial market exposer for the Bangladeshi students in the German labor market.
Receiving a scholarship to study abroad requires good educational achievements and adequate future plan. Probing the number of Bangladeshi students studying in Germany with the scholarship will give the insight of merit share among total students. At the same time, the maximum number of scholarships are given by the home and host country. Very few international funding is provided to ensemble study abroad opportunities. Through this indicator, it can be identified how and what is the ratio of students choosing to study in Germany without scholarships. This will indicate voluntary selection without funding option, which in a way, determines the student population willingly deciding to leave Bangladesh and choosing to study in Germany. Losing talented students to the developed country may fall under the brain drain concept in terms of Bangladesh.
In the interpersonal growth segment, the focus is given towards personal and interaction adaptability quality of the Bangladeshi student. The first indicator is being the German language proficiency. Matching the duration of the student’s stay in Germany and language proficiency level, it can be measured how well they adapt a language and as German is the official labor market language in Germany, having proficiency in language will give them the good prospect of interaction and job search opportunity. Learning the host country’s language also influence a lot of cultural integration. So, having a good grasp of the language ensures then students cultural integration ability in Germany. The next indicator focuses broadly on the motive of the study abroad. As per the human capital theory, people migrate to study or to work to another country either because they do not have the similar opportunity in their own country to the enhancement of their skill or the labor market opportunity is better in the migrated country. Another part in the personal growth category is the reason to choose Germany over other countries. As Germany is not implementing tuition fees in universities as federal law even for international students, many students from developing country tend to choose Germany over other countries with tuition fees. This indicator also will have the optional choice of academic excellence or after job prospect. These options will give us an overview of the knowledge gathered by the students and also the reason for the flow of Bangladeshi students in Germany. The last part of this category holds some more critical indicators such as discrimination faced as an outsider, the difficulty level of admission and visa obtaining and last but not the least a recommendation. These parts will give the insight for the struggles Bangladeshi the students have to face during and after their study abroad. If the response for these questions is compared with the number of meritorious students coming with scholarships and the number of students contributing towards the German labor market, we can observe a particular insight that if there is significant contribution happening in the German labor market the diplomatic relation between both Germany and Bangladesh should be given importance regarding making it easy for the students to obtain visa and after study job in Germany.
The final category of the survey, professional achievement or the prospect of studying in Germany perceived by Bangladeshi students. The first indicator in this category demonstrates the career prospect of the study program they are pursuing or completed. if their chosen program matches the demand of the labor market and are the students aware of this. The following question is although more applicable for the graduates who already completed the study but can also be applicable for students currently studying. The transition from study to work is a very important indicator both for the education sector as well as for the labor market. On one hand, if the transition is not easy and smooth both parties suffer from economic issues. On the other hand, a comparatively smooth integration process for international students ensures a positive attribute as an influence. International or non-EU candidates are only hired for a given position if the position cannot be filled by a German. If the corporation cannot find a German national the second choice goes for an EU national, and if they cannot find a match from EU only when the position is given to an international candidate. As an international student, the transition from work to study is not very easy for Bangladeshi students. This indicator will help us get that perception in real life from the students. The following indicator is about the usefulness of the acquired knowledge. If the knowledge is helpful in the practical labor market and if the students are aware of the demand of the acquired knowledge. If the students perceive that their acquired knowledge from the German university will be useful in their future career path it will give the insight human capital development. The last two indicators of this categories revolve around returning to the home country after study. These questions will define that the Human capital these Bangladeshi students are acquiring through the education system in Germany.
As in this global world of today, after acquiring skills and knowledge which convert them into human capital, individuals are not bound by location, region even by country. The capital goes where the individual goes. Analyzing these indicators will give us proper insight into the perception of the Bangladeshi students on their future prospect and their potentiality as human capital.

The scope of the study-3It is believed, the purpose of this study will generate important observations for both the country’s economic and the education system. As highly educated individuals are considered as the stimulant factors of a growing economy, this research may generate critical considerations for both Bangladesh and Germany.

Firstly, this study will engender an understanding of the motivation of the student’s selection process of the destination country to study. Based on the survey design, this research will also give an insight into the research conducted by the students prior to reaching the destination country. The observation of the selection process for the Country, University and subject program they are pursuing to study and its impact on the host or home country. This will give the insight into their motivation to remain in the host country or return their country of origin. For example, their selection in subject areas which has direct implication to the host country resonates the will to remain and work for Germany. However, studying on a subject related to the development of Bangladesh’s industries and economy resound student’s desire to return to Bangladesh. Difficulties faced by international students and adaptation capability demonstrates the interpersonal development and cultural absorption. Overall, this research will give an insight into an international student’s thinking process and future.

Secondly, as Bangladesh is a developing country with a recent history of higher education sector development. The education sector, however, is not yet adequate to deliver quality education comparing to world standard. Thus, many of the bright and commendable students adopt for studying abroad. From the UNESCO report, the data obtained on Total outbound internationally mobile tertiary students studying abroad to all countries shows the number of student’s mobility to study abroad went from 36,357 in 1999 to 60,390 in 2017 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://data.uis.unesco.org”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “10” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “UNESCO Institute of Statistics”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Outbound internationally mobile students by host region”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64c9aaba-bea9-4221-94f9-808139b08a7b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018). This estimation is on Students who have left Bangladesh for the purpose of higher education and are now enrolled outside their country of origin.

Highly skilled individuals opting for studying abroad and remaining to a foreign labor market can be considered as “brain drain” for Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh can achieve human capital retention initiatives by taking active policy reformation on expected earnings and wage equality. Also enhancing the monitoring and evaluation authority of education sector the standard of higher education can be amended. Bangladesh can observe the out-migration of a student in specific fields, quality education availability on those subject areas can benefit retaining related skilled personnel. Lack of initiative in education to work transition can be identified accordingly to smoothen the process for graduates.
At the same time, Bangladesh can introduce innovative collaborations with the German education system to provide the human capital German labor market requires. Introducing a range of public and private scholarships will also influence students in Bangladesh to gain knowledge from studying in Germany.

At the same time, Germany can detect the inflows of certain clusters of potential Human capital for specific industry sectors. Utilizing them in the given industries where the German labor market has the shortage of skills can help to boost the German economy in consequences. Providing appropriate policy leverage to transit into the work market for the required skilled international students could be advantageous for Germany. This study can bring mutual understanding in both the political and economic aspect of Human Capital mobility for both countries. Future endeavor regarding education partnership and diplomatic relation also may influence through identifying the inflow and outflow of students. Overall, this research can contribute towards the decision-making process of both political and economic sector of Bangladesh and Germany. Methodology -3Research Design- This research is formulated based on a self-rating online survey consisting of 7 demographical and 16 categorical question. The survey questionnaire comprised both close and open-ended queries. In addition, there was an individual open statement field. Performing a descriptive survey analysis method, the responses are analyzed with an understanding of Bangladesh and Germany’s education system and the push-pull factors consequently. The entire case study of Bangladeshi student’s perception of study in Germany and after study achievements are analyzed in comparison with established data and sources of both countries. According to Guy G. Gable, integrating a survey in a case study that includes interpreted concepts is explained as a combined research of qualitative and quantitative or a mixed method study ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gable”, “given” : “Guy G”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “European Journal of Information Systems”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1994” }, “page” : “112-126”, “title” : “Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information systems”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4b22d900-c819-4ca4-bcf6-8fe9e228f00a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gable, 1994)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gable, 1994)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gable, 1994)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gable, 1994). To identify the hypothesis, the research is designed as a mix method study of quantitative sources with qualitative interpretations. Prior to preparing the questionnaire, an initial research was done for the recent phenomenon on the studying abroad and complication of transitioning into the foreign labor market. Identifying the issues and benefits of the education system of both countries and relating them to push and pull factors were done with the thorough investigation.
Data collection- The conducted survey questionnaire was generated based on an understanding recently researched works of current issues and areas. The data collection process was done with the online survey questionnaire. To get the responses a categorized questionnaire indicating specific achievement and prospects perception is used as the data collection method. This provided a substantial outlook on the chosen indicators. The basic country information was collected from secondary resource and country database. A simple survey data structure has been followed for the questionnaire. Using the data in the survey, raw numbers of responses were extracted and converted into statistical percentages. The primary understandings were made by the gathered information by categorical indicators.
Sample Size- Selecting the sample size was a constraint for the research. As there is no open source database and information available for Bangladeshi students studying in Germany, a private forum for students and alumni residing in Germany was selected as sample pool. To select the sample size for the thesis, the Bangladeshi Student Forum BSAAG (Bangladeshi Student and Alumni Association in Germany) having more than 65,000 alumni and current student combined is selected as the resource pool. However, to regulate the response time and length of this thesis, the survey is restricted the survey to 135 students. This sample includes students from three different sample categories; students who completed or studying the bachelor, masters or post-doctoral in Germany. The respondents were selected based on convenience sampling technique due to time constraint. The online survey platform was open for two weeks for receiving the responses. A total of 135 questionnaires were acknowledged for further data analysis. This sample size is considered adequate for a descriptive survey analysis method for determining the required information.
The Questionnaire- The demographical queries consists 7 questions regarding the age range, Gender, University in Germany, study period, current occupational status, and the level of study. The categorical questions were divided into three distinct parts as a) Academic the b) Professional and c) Personal Development. Out of 16 categorical question, 5 questions were closed-ended with the option Yes or No. 4 questions was the close-ended but open the ion centric. Rest of the 7 questions had 3 to 4 given options with open end options to provide a personal opinion as a response. There is an open-ended question at the end of the survey to generate personal statements and opinions for the analysis. All questions are considered while performing exploratory analysis for this thesis.

Analysis method- Analyzing the generated responses with collected data interpretation percentage value were used. Connecting the survey respondents with the prior interpretations of both German and the d Bangladeshi education system and push-pull factors the finding determined the focus on the complimenting the hypothesis of this research. understanding International student’s conversion as the transnational human capital is a subjective process.
Theoretical Background-18Human Capital TheoryThe human capital theory is a major theoretical aspect for understanding a country or communities’ profound socio-economic changes. The importance of this theoretical ideology relates to strategizing how to outgrowth creation of capital. It is the theory of an investment made in humans so that those humans are better in producing other forms of products and services. Those investments can be education, on the job training, an experience that makes the individuals more skilled and productive. Ultimately, higher worker productivity then leads to higher individual value and more opportunities in labor markets. The classical human capital theory assumes education is a form of human capital. Meaning those who invest in education are strategically calculating to increase their capital which will, in turn, lead to higher income. The economic value of people is based on educational achievements, skills, and knowledge. investing in one’s education would improve the quality of worker and therefore, increase the wealth of the community, it is believed by theorists that investment in growing proper human capital will ultimately end poverty. Theodore Schultz first introduced the term Human Capital in the 1960s. he believed that people and nations should invest in education to improve job performance and economic growth of a nation. After the entry of the post-industrial era, the economy of the world no longer depends on heavy industries. A shift is perceivable from blue collar workers to white collar labor force. The work of today and future will require more highly educated and academic workforces. Ultimately Human capital is the assets inside of a worker’s head. Basic intelligence, education, work habit, experiences, energy level, judgment, initiative, creativity are the assets needed in the post-modern world of work. With effective education, training and evaluation process the general human resource of a country can be transformed into a human capital asset. By actively pursuing the initiative, the transformation of human resource into human capital as possible in countless ways. This proactive approach can help human capital development. It is growing as the most vital concept of today’s economic world.
Traditionally human capital was known indirectly as manpower or labor force, linked with capital and production for the industrial era ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/sl0649-007-9105-l”, “ISBN” : “9780231152648”, “ISSN” : “0002-8282”, “PMID” : “8736517”, “abstract” : “It has been widely observed that increases in output in the U.S. have been large compared with the increases of land, man-hours, and physical reproducible capital. Investment in human capital is probably the major explanation for this difference. Much of what we call consumption constitutes investment in human capital. Direct expenditures on education, health, and internal migration to take advantage of better job opportunities are clear examples. Earnings foregone by mature students attending school and by workers acquiring on-the-job training are equally clear examples. Yet nowhere do these enter into our national accounts. The use of leisure time to improve skills and knowledge is widespread and it too is unrecorded. In these and similar ways the quality of human effort can be greatly improved and its productivity enhanced. Economists have long known that people are an important part of the wealth of nations. Measured by what labor contributes to output, the productive capacity of human beings is now vastly larger than all other forms of wealth taken together. Among the few who have looked upon human beings as capital, there are three distinguished names. One of them is Adam Smith, philosopher-economist, who boldly included all of the acquired and useful abilities of all of the inhabitants of a country as a part of capital.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schultz”, “given” : “T. W.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The American Economic Review”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1961” }, “page” : “1-17”, “title” : “Investment in Human Capital”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “51” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=03f0ba3d-c7e9-4f57-9242-ca278eaa1fd4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1961)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1961)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1961)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schultz, 1961). Converting human resource of a country or community requires investment in form of education and training. According to Author Gary S Becker, the human capital is a distinct asset that can stem from education, skills training, and knowledge gathering from other means and can induce productivity and efficiency. It can also generate from the family formation and support of parents. In his perception, Human capital has an equal and even more important in the economy as any other form of capital. He emphasis the investment in human capital can occur through education, on the job training and other means of knowledge acquisition. Where financial capital and investments can be perilous to provide profit, as it may or may not evident. Human capital, on the other hand, is embodied within individuals and cannot be dismantled through time. This makes the human capital a non-depreciable asset possessed by individuals or otherwise.

Education and HC: Observing the US education scenario, Becker conveys, how the education system to labor market relation changed over time. Investment in education has gone up significantly since the 1970’s. From a non-knowledge-based industry worker demand, the job market shifted towards knowledge-based labor industry demand. During the 70s and 80s, young people with a college education in the US performed better in modern economies. Realizing the impact of education on the economy and industries, even with an increasing college tuition fees the enrolment in college increased significantly in past decades. The comprehension of better education results in better work ethics and better self-management in modern workplaces created a revolution for human capital. Not only in the USA but all the developing countries shows the similar indication. In past years, those countries involved in quality education experienced growth in income per person significantly. While the focus of human capital is more on institutionally gained education, society also portrays the significant role in their individual human capital accumulation.
It works not only on an individual level but also from the policy level of the labor market. In this growing global economy, the labor market requires worker or employees with specific skills and competencies. Obtaining human capital through education increase the possibilities for a job opportunity in the world of work, career growth and wage increment for individuals and commercial growth for industries. Having acquired human capital, also makes the transition from education to work much easier. Noticing the benefits, labor market started giving priority to more educated resources. Although the labor market does not identify potential human capital in employees through educational achievement directly, the attaining of higher education imposes the attainment of higher performance for the workplace. Better self-management, high morality, and cultural adaptability are perceived as characteristics gained or enhanced through education. Calling it the crisis of “credentialism” author focuses on the spread of education in the modern economy. Apart from institutional education, human capital can also be gained or enriched through on the job training and communities. Although higher education can be specified towards specific industries, on the job training provides more practical knowledge gain.

On the job training acts as a leading role regarding gaining and enhancing human capital. Education can induce more general human capital, training on specific job role is a more tailored way of gaining specific human capital. Investment in training is as important as in education. On the job training can instill specific industry-based knowledge in individuals. Preparing them as a competent resource for the workplace. It works as an engaging situation for both employee and employers. Having on the job training system also decreases the employee turnover ratio for a workplace. As individuals getting skilled training tend to stay in the same workplace for a longer time, the workplace can optimize the cost of turnover and materialize it into economic growth. As the author states, “Through history the countries those consistently had growth in income can be seen investing heavily in education and labor force training.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004”, “ISBN” : “9788578110796”, “ISSN” : “1098-6596”, “PMID” : “25246403”, “abstract” : “applicability for this approach.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Becker”, “given” : “Gary”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “chapter-number” : “2”, “container-title” : “National Bureau of Economic Research Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education”, “edition” : “3rd”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “9”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1994” }, “page” : “15-28”, “publisher” : “The University of Chicago Press”, “title” : “Human Capital Revisited”, “type” : “chapter”, “volume” : “53” }, “locator” : “24”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e47c1780-0f85-45cb-9f3a-f765a2842a02” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Becker, 1994, p. 24)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Becker, 1994, p. 24)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Becker, 1994, p. 24)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Becker, 1994, p. 24). Developing countries in Asia are an ideal example of how well-trained individuals can act as a catalyst for the economic growth. Not having enough material resource many Asian countries solely focused on improving their human capital in the last decades. Observing the recent tremendous growth in Japan, Taiwan, and other few Asian developing countries, it can be stated the crucial asset for their growth is the well-trained, educated and reliable Human Capital. These human capitals from developing countries are not only limited within Asian periphery. Globalization of the working world unlocked new opportunities and possibilities for them to demonstrate and utilize their skill. Well-trained individuals are an asset to an organization, community, country or industry.

However, not all human capitals are possessed to gain direct monetary benefit. It also creates a sense of appreciation for culture and humanity. It also promotes awareness of society, influence better physical and mental care and influence cultural appreciation. These characteristics are also important indirectly for micro and macroeconomic growth. Having rational decision-making capability enhance an individual’s perspective on utilizing their human capital. In one hand, a higher number of accumulated human capital is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth as well as increased productivity. On the other side, upright human capital act as a better citizen, community member and contributor to the society. This work both for the individual and industry level. Attaining the individuals with in-depth knowledge and the critical reasoning give the labor ur market boost towards growth. Becker mentioned that although the initial discussion on Human Capital started to in the crease the existing worker’s productivity, in today’s global world it has opened many doors to many new possibilities. (Becker, 1994).

Bénédicte Gendron identified another notion of human capital in his literature. He proclaims, how an individual gathers and practice his human capital in academic institute and workplace depends highly on his strength of emotional adaptation capabilities. Emphasizing the importance of emotional intelligence of individuals in economics Gendron defines the relationship between human n capital and emotional adaptability more precisely. This study focuses on the specific framework of human capital called “emotional capital”. In his word, “emotional capital enables an individual to formulate, accumulate and exploit human capital to their fullest” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “From the perspective of the Chicago school, there is no behaviour that can not be interpreted as economic. In this paper, through our conceptual framework named u201cEmotional Capitalu201d (EC), I discuss the assertion in the perspective of an optimal constitution and exploitation of Human Capital. In reference to emotional intelligence, I show that emotional capital, more than an additional capital, is a booster capital potentializing, which energizes or empowers the human, social and cultural capitals. EC is critical to enable human capital formation, accumulation and its optimal exploitation for individuals. Also, it is crucial in knowledge management in the today’s increasingly complex and competitive global workplace for companies and organisations. Our conceptual model enables to understand student academic success or failure on the one hand, the different occupational and jobs choices and career prospect between men and women, and organisations or companies successes as well, on the other hand.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gendron”, “given” : “B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Les Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “September”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “1-37”, “title” : “Why Emotional Capital Matters in Education and in Labour ?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “113” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2a9156f1-ec24-47ec-898a-ae6419b50a72” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gendron, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gendron, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gendron, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gendron, 2004). Taking the observation of student’s academic selection process and occupational choices between men and women as working models he proposed this specific fragment of human capital. As mentioned, human capital has a fundamental role in today’s knowledge-based global economy. Nonetheless how an individual acquires and adapts this capital into his life and transform into productivity vastly depends on his emotional capability of dealing with his emotional intelligence. Identification, perception, and expression of the emotional thought process depend on how someone will manage the emotional intelligence and ultimately materialize his human capital.
In today’s knowledge accentuated global world, Human capital is a wider aspect which increases individual’s ability to involve in productivity and efficiency. Distinguishing the concept of human capital in three categories of knowledge accumulation he portrays the importance of having the proper emotional intelligence to obtain and utilize human capital. Firstly, the Basic knowledge accumulation of information processing, per say, using general language and literacy capability to learn and use of the accumulated information. This can differentiate from individual to individual. Processing information depends on upbringing and early childhood habitations. Practice and training can help individuals enhance this skill of information processing through time. Secondly, specific knowledge gathering regarding the specific industry, this part of emotional intelligence is more customized and detail. Knowing the industry individual is aiming to work for, and adapting the ongoing features of the industry, individuals can maximize the human capital gain. Finally, gaining expertise on technical and scientific knowledge of a difficult level. This part of accumulation evolves the analytical capability to advanced technology in individuals. The ability to sense, understand, and effectively apply the accumulated human capital in real life makes each individual unique. The judgment of emotions as a source of energy, information, creativity, trust, and connection helps a person to interact with and respond in certain ways. It is the use of the knowledge gathered that make the individual a prominent human capital. And the maneuver of expression of accumulated knowledge depends strongly upon the emotional capital. Nevertheless, just having strong and competent skillsets does not depict someone as human capital in terms of economy. It is until the utilization of the skill sets and expertise in a real scenario in particular way brands them competent human capital. Having human capital with only higher degrees or specialization in technical areas may not bring the optimal profit for the labor market. The human capital needs to exploit and operate the gained knowledge into the practical fields of work in an efficient way. And how an individual will apply his obtained human capital will depend on his manipulation of emotional intelligence. Gendron defines how taking critical decision of capital utilization depends upon the Emotional capital of individual. a conceptual model such as emotional intelligence and competencies he defined the term emotional capital. Identifying the importance of Emotional capital as the catalyst to maneuver human capital he describes how the process works. (Gendron, 2004). Having strong emotional intelligence and adaptability boost the individual’s learning process. This trait influences any individual on self-emotional understanding and how-to response towards other’s perception. Identifying emotional response and triggers, expression of the right emotion at the right situation, emotional control of thought, and managing emotional traits are depicted as a core characteristic of emotional intelligence ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “From the perspective of the Chicago school, there is no behaviour that can not be interpreted as economic. In this paper, through our conceptual framework named u201cEmotional Capitalu201d (EC), I discuss the assertion in the perspective of an optimal constitution and exploitation of Human Capital. In reference to emotional intelligence, I show that emotional capital, more than an additional capital, is a booster capital potentializing, which energizes or empowers the human, social and cultural capitals. EC is critical to enable human capital formation, accumulation and its optimal exploitation for individuals. Also, it is crucial in knowledge management in the today’s increasingly complex and competitive global workplace for companies and organisations. Our conceptual model enables to understand student academic success or failure on the one hand, the different occupational and jobs choices and career prospect between men and women, and organisations or companies successes as well, on the other hand.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gendron”, “given” : “B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Les Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “September”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “1-37”, “title” : “Why Emotional Capital Matters in Education and in Labour ?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “113” }, “locator” : “7”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2a9156f1-ec24-47ec-898a-ae6419b50a72” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gendron, 2004, p. 7)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gendron, 2004, p. 7)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gendron, 2004, p. 7)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gendron, 2004, p. 7). here self-regulation and self-awareness act as personal competencies social awareness and social skills concerns more competencies on social interaction. Both aspects of emotional intelligence are equally domineering for building human capital. Describing the relation through 2 case scenario he proceeds. In today’s Education scenario, having the student and lecturer coming from vastly diverse cultural and social background, it is often relatable that different students will perceive the given knowledge by the professors in different 256540043180000ways. in image 1, it can be predicted in a given scenario, How the learner will perceive and process the given education by the educator greatly depends on the learner’s emotional capital. This interplays a significant role to build their human capital. Thus, having strong emotional intelligence and adaptability boost the learning process.
left117919500The same is true for workplace scenario. How an employee will capture and response towards their employer not only depends on their educational qualification and skill training but also how they are processing the given knowledge in the workplace itself to demonstrate their human capital. This often goes both directions as employers also use human capital exploitation through the degree of Economic intelligence. Understanding given job role, performing according to employer’s need and self-analysis of the performed job makes an individual an ideal employee. Emotional capital is to have competent emotional adaptation capability which leads to thought and that to action. Having strong emotional capital influence individual towards taking rational decision making and decision management. It acts as a catalyst component to acquire Human Capital. From his point of view, it can be identified not all individuals perceive and process information in the same way. Even in a same or similar environment and stimulants, accretion of human capital will always be different from one person to another. To boost and advance the human capital in a society it is also necessary to enhance the emotional capital in the individuals.
Theodore W. Schultz
HC and divisions- Examining the policy issues and research interactions referring human capital, American economist, Nobel Laureate, and chairman of the Chicago School of Economics Theodore W. Schultz explained Human capital in its origin, progressive and prospective stages. Focusing on the aspect of investment in human capital, the author reasoned the classification of human capital in eight distinct divisions. First, schooling and higher education and the importance and influence of investment. Later, postschool training and learning knew as on the job training. Third, the preschool learning activities are also mentioned as a medium for human capital investment. The following division involves migration, health, information, and finally investment in children are discussed as a human capital investment. “All these investments portray human capital as a valid and legitimate form of capital as all the mentioned forms can be the source of future earnings, or of future satisfactions, or of both.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0-87014-255-0”, “abstract” : “Human capital is a new research area in economics. It was the unex-plained rise in the economic value of man that led to the concept of human capital. Extensions of investment, theory to analyze the formation of human capital set the stage for empirical studies of a wide array of such investments. Then, seeing the associated rise in the value of time of human agents, this led to the further extension of economic theory to cope with the allocation of time, a development that has greatly increased the possibilities of analyzing nonmarket activities with reference to the economic activities of the household. Human capital research has important policy implications, as I shall show. My purpose in this survey is to examine some of the interactions between policy and research with special reference to human capital. As I proceed, I shall attempt to appraise the more important parts of this researchu2014with a view to assessing the need for additional work in this area that may be useful in making policy decisions.’ In thinking about these interactions, I find it helpful to approach them in terms of the supply of and demand for economic information. It is the intercept of the supply of this research and of the demand for it that should reveal the research opportunities. In short, then, the central purpose of my endeavor is to winnow the research opportunities in the area of human capital. Ideally, I would like to identify these opportunities and rate them in accordance with the potential value of their contributions to private and public decisions. But I shall settle for less because of the limitations of my knowledge and because of the uncertainty of the nature of the advances in knowledge that can be achieved by means of”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schultz”, “given” : “T W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Economic Research: Retrospect and Prospect”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1972” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-84”, “title” : “Human capital: policy issues and research opportunities”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “I” }, “locator” : “5”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4f866c2e-9958-4f2a-beb0-d772798ba7b8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1972, p. 5)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1972, p. 5)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1972, p. 5)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schultz, 1972, p. 5)
Humans as capital- According to Schultz’s tri-party approach, the factors of productions were treated by the origin of its characteristics. If land was assumed the capital which is given by nature, and labor from workers free of capital and capital was determined by reproducible materials which can be used and re-used (in this case the land). But in recent times, laborers are treated as the capital of any corporation or industry. Through an understanding of human capital and its importance laborers became an integral part of the economy, has great economic value. At the same time, having acquired knowledge and particular skills, laborers started to move from place to place, giving them the freedom of migration and still using their knowledge wherever they want. Workers started pursuing the locations those are best suited to their skill set, living condition, and future aspects. Opportunities became wider for the new age human capital. As he mentions “The most critical attribute of human capital arises from the fact that the person and his human capital are inseparable. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0-87014-255-0”, “abstract” : “Human capital is a new research area in economics. It was the unex-plained rise in the economic value of man that led to the concept of human capital. Extensions of investment, theory to analyze the formation of human capital set the stage for empirical studies of a wide array of such investments. Then, seeing the associated rise in the value of time of human agents, this led to the further extension of economic theory to cope with the allocation of time, a development that has greatly increased the possibilities of analyzing nonmarket activities with reference to the economic activities of the household. Human capital research has important policy implications, as I shall show. My purpose in this survey is to examine some of the interactions between policy and research with special reference to human capital. As I proceed, I shall attempt to appraise the more important parts of this researchu2014with a view to assessing the need for additional work in this area that may be useful in making policy decisions.’ In thinking about these interactions, I find it helpful to approach them in terms of the supply of and demand for economic information. It is the intercept of the supply of this research and of the demand for it that should reveal the research opportunities. In short, then, the central purpose of my endeavor is to winnow the research opportunities in the area of human capital. Ideally, I would like to identify these opportunities and rate them in accordance with the potential value of their contributions to private and public decisions. But I shall settle for less because of the limitations of my knowledge and because of the uncertainty of the nature of the advances in knowledge that can be achieved by means of”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schultz”, “given” : “T W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Economic Research: Retrospect and Prospect”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1972” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-84”, “title” : “Human capital: policy issues and research opportunities”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “I” }, “locator” : “8”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4f866c2e-9958-4f2a-beb0-d772798ba7b8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1972, p. 8)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1972, p. 8)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schultz, 1972, p. 8)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schultz, 1972, p. 8).The knowledge and skill move along with the individual.
HR ; HC- Although the term human resource has been linked with human capital through time. In terms of economic analysis, these two has stark differences in economic worth. Labor has been classified by demography and education. Human resource defined by the author as similar to other resources having attributes and characteristics of biological, physical, psychological and cultural origin. It can be identified as the general population or active individuals of a country or community. Human resource is not necessarily involved in economic activities. On the other hand, Human capital can be explained as a share of the human resource who are actively participating in economic activities. The economy of a country or community has a preference on investing in human or non-human capital to perform the economic activities to gain economic growth and profit. The process will accumulate the form of capital which is best suited for the activities and profit. The demand for human capital in the share of the labor market has a different perception. The direct demand of the knowledge in certain industries and indirect demand to handle new age technical machinery. In this modern era, every organization, corporations, and industry are opting for using modern technology and machinery, the importance of human capital to operate that modern technology is still in high demand. However, he also emphasized the fact that human resource act as human capital only when the economic capability of the cohort has an active market demand. The acquired skills and competence as knowledge of the human resource must be required by some parties to call it human capital. Having a pool of highly specified skilled human capital will not be much fruitful if there is no specific demand for that special field in the labor market. Which can lead to the obsoleting of certain human capital.

Obsoleting- A changing technological advancement and progressing production requirement can demand new skills from the human capital in a short span of time. In case of this situation, the previously learned knowledge can turn obsolete in the present labor market. Often this is a very critical aspect of human capital. As humans need time and effort to learn newer skills or advance the knowledge level. If the industry, corporation decides to enhance the knowledge level of their human capital it imposes a short-term loss for them. On the other hand, if corporations decide to directly import a newer skill set instilled in human capital, the existing cohort with obsolete knowledge becomes depreciable to the economy. This often creates job loss and unemployment. But according to his study, higher level and the better-quality education obtained by students turns them into more smarter employees. They are eager to adapt to newer technology and they put effort to enhance their skill set on a personal level to best align with advancing technology. The highly educated individuals are more prone to invest and gain from on-the-job training after he has completed his formal schooling. Individuals take personal skill enhancing courses and training to make themselves competent for the targeted industries. Training regarding specific jobs gives competence to the individuals as human capital in the labor market.
The study of economic research- His study to define human capital involved taking economic research as a specialized activity that requires specific skills and knowledge. According to him, economic research is performed in need to figure out the specific economic issues. They are involved and employed to develop information and analysis related to the economy. However, if there is no demand for these researches in the practical economy, their knowledge and skill set will be of no use. Their analytical ability is only applicable to resolve an ongoing or forecasted economic problem or possibilities. The same is true for every other knowledge and human capital. In this globalized world, the economic demand of a country or community and the knowledge gained by the human capital pool has to be right aligned to gain the optimal benefit from growth. Governments and education economic sectors in many developed and developing countries are focusing on this issue now. Certain misalignment of the supply of human capital and demand or workforce may lead to unemployment, economic collapse and also frustration in the country’s economy.

Human Capital Approach to Migration. He then mentions the important relation of Human capital with migration. “Although in policy level migration has a clear differentiation between internal migration and external migration, in terms of human capital does not restrict migration through policies.” Human capital is an instilled asset and in non-transferable from individual to individual, Human capital moves along with its career. A new era of globalization made the opportunity for Human agents to migrate and utilized instilled knowledge at the location of high demand. This may work in two ways. As industries and corporations tend to cluster in regions and areas that can provide the best material resource for their related business. Human agents also tend to migrate to those locations to utilize their capital with related activities. This is true for most production and consumer-based industries. (Jacob). The other way is where there is existing human capital for the related skillset an industry need, corporation and industries tend to locate there (Florida). As Schulz mentioned, the constantly changing economy of the world and the demand for skills and knowledge is changing accordingly.

While the policy demand for economic information pertaining to migration is inadequate, the supply has benefited from the application of the human capital approach. The central hypothesis is that the act of migrating is an investment and that the lifetime expected returns associated with the differences in job opportunities among labor markets or in consumption opportunities among locations as places to live determine the alternative investment opportunities pertaining to migration. Acquiring right kind of human capital allows individuals to migrate towards a country or region that has better opportunity and prospect on their related field. International students studying abroad have the opportunity to migrate after finishing the higher study in the host country. This thesis is to see the opportunities and prospect of the capability and perception of international students and contribute as a human capital agent in the host country.
Transnational Human Capital – Conducting an empirical study Jürgen Gerhards described the studying abroad opportunity as a new form of Human Capital naming the typology transnational Human Capital. He claims the likelihood of obtaining transnational human capital by completing a study abroad can depend on various reason due to the economic capital and family influence of a student’s background. Even though the study was done specifically on German Student’s early life exposed to study abroad and the impact, the findings of the study show some significant finding in the process of gaining transnational human capital. Gerhard proposes, with the globalized and connected world of today, studying abroad not only influence an individual’s human capital it has become a necessity for the economic growth of nations. International exposer helps students to gain linguistic capital and cultural diversity. Apart from gaining educational enhancement, they also enhance their other prospects which come as plus point later in their career. Adapting to a new culture and society enhance the ability to deal with change. He claims although human capital can be acquiring in several ways, studying abroad can be a specific genre of capital that individuals will result in gaining countless opportunities in professional life. The transnational human capital can be mobile, international and global, making the individual acquiring them a very important agent in the world economy. While Returning to home country after studying abroad can devalue the acquired human capital from the perspective of the host country. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1515/zfsoz-2013-0203”, “ISSN” : “03401804”, “abstract” : “Summary: Due to globalization, skills such as foreign language proficiency and intercultural competence, here referred to as transnational human capital, are becoming increasingly important. A study-abroad program during schooling is one of the most efficient ways to acquire transnational human capital. Until now, class-specific access to transnational capital has remained largely unexplored. With recourse to the literature on the sociology of education and to the work of Pierre Bourdieu, we have developed hypotheses and tested them using German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) data. The findings indicate that the likelihood of studying abroad is determined a) by the capital available to the parents, b) by the cultural capital and the commitment of the child, c) by the opportunity structure, and d) by family conflicts. Attendance of a ‘Gymnasium’ has a crucial filtering function. Overall, the probability of acquiring transnational human capital through study abroad differs significantly according to the economic capital of the child’s parents.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gerhards”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hans”, “given” : “Silke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Zeitschrift fu00fcr Soziologie”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “99-117”, “title” : “Transnational Human Capital, Education, and Social Inequality. Analyses of International Student Exchange”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3e19ac9b-b4be-4777-945a-ae9a054d44eb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gerhards & Hans, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gerhards & Hans, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gerhards & Hans, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gerhards ; Hans, 2013)
Theories of International MigrationGlobalization and migration go hand in hand. Since the 1960’s with the increasing pace of globalization of commercial industries and world economy, worker’s mobility and migration have been on the surge. Governments of different countries introduced and adapted newer policies to best fit the growing migration rate of individuals. Theories on migration derived from different scientific fields focusing on distinct aspects of migration. Approaches of migration theories are applicable to study the different field of research. To identify and narrow down the appropriate approach of migration theory for international students, it is imperative to go through the core migration theories in general. What makes the people move from country to country? The reasons are infinitely wide and originate from different interest. Migration theories are studied and analyzed in different perspectives by many renowned researchers. From wide understanding of migration as a whole by Russel King and Douglas Massey ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “King”, “given” : “Russell”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “Willy Brandt”, “container-title” : “International Migration and Ethnic Relations”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “number” : “3/12”, “page” : “3-48”, “publisher-place” : “Malmu00f6”, “title” : “Theories and Typologies of Migration : An Overview and a Primer”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1f417db7-27d1-4b86-a8c2-e800e5400401” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Massey”, “given” : “Douglas S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hugo”, “given” : “Graeme”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kouaouci”, “given” : “Ali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrino”, “given” : “Adela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Taylor”, “given” : “J Edward”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Population and Development Review”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1993” }, “page” : “431-466”, “title” : “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “19” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50441e5-a232-469f-906f-1c16541ad49d” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Massey”, “given” : “Douglas S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Espana”, “given” : “Felipe Garcfa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “August”, “given” : “I”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1983” }, “title” : “International Migration”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4624dece-23d3-4a47-a702-566840c1d48e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993; Massey, Espana, & August, 1983)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993; Massey, Espana, & August, 1983)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993; Massey, Espana, & August, 1983)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(King, 2012; Massey et al., 1993; Massey, Espana, ; August, 1983) to narrow aspect of push and pull factors of migration by Mazzarol and Lam ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0389213780”, “ISSN” : “15116670”, “PMID” : “66717756”, “abstract” : “- Students around the world have recognised Malaysia as the preferred choice for college and tertiary education because of its low cost of living and high quality education. – a preliminary study was conducted to understand the factors that motivate these students to choose Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) as their institute of higher learning. – A total of 130 respondents ranging from undergraduate and PhD students participated in the study. – pull factor such as u201cinstitution imageu201d significantly influenced the satisfaction level of the international students to choose UKM. Meanwhile, push factor of u201cjob prospectu201d significantly influenced these students to recommend UKM as a study destination.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lam”, “given” : “Jason M.S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ariffin”, “given” : “Ahmad Azmi M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ahmad”, “given” : “H. J.Azhar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Business and Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “63-78”, “title” : “Edutourism: Exploring the push-pull factors in selecting a university”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9a2696c0-cb9f-4dd0-8175-88614f3b02ae” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/09513540210418403”, “ISBN” : “0263450031”, “ISSN” : “0951-354X”, “PMID” : “229222590”, “abstract” : “Examines the factors motivating international student choice of the host country. It describes a u201cpush-pullu201d model motivating the studentu2019s desire to seek overseas education and influencing the decision process in selection of a final study destination. Drawing on the findings from research studies undertaken in Indonesia, Taiwan, China and India, the paper examines the factors influencing host country selection and additional research that examines the factors influencing choice of final host institution. Based on these findings the paper argues that economic and social forces within the home country serve to u201cpushu201d students abroad. However, the decision as to which host country they will select is dependent on a variety of u201cpullu201d factors. After drawing together the findings, the paper then examines the implications for governments and education institutions seeking to recruit international students.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mazzarol”, “given” : “Tim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Soutar”, “given” : “Geoffrey N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Management”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2002” }, “note” : “Mazzarol, Kemp and Savery (1997) discovered six factors that can influence student selection
of a host country. First, overall level of knowledge and awareness of the host country in the
studentu2019s home country, which was influenced by the overall availability of the information
about the potential destination country and the ease with which students could obtain the
information.
Second, the level of referrals or personal recommendations that the study destination received from parents, relatives, friends and other u201cgatekeepersu201d prior to making the final decision. This is very important especially if someone had gone to the host country before and gained some experience that could position some judgment related to the host country for the potential candidates who are going to select a host country.
The
The third factor relates to cost issues, including the cost of fees, living expenses, travel costs
and social costs, such as crime, safety and racial discrimination. The presence of their peers from the same home country (social cost) and the availability of the part-time work (financial costs) also formed part of this factor

The fourth factor relates to the environment, which is the
perception about the study u201cclimateu201d in the destination country as well as its physical climate
and lifestyle. The fifth factor is geographic proximity, which relates to the geographic (and
time) proximity of the potential destination country to the studentu2019s country. The final factor is
social links, which relates to whether a student has family or friends living in the destination
country and whether family and friends have studied there previously.

selecting a
final study destination appears to involve at least three distinct stages. First, the student must
decide to study internationally rather than locally. As noted, this can be influenced by a series
of u201cpushu201d factors within the home country. Once the decision to study abroad has been made,
the next decision is the selection of host country. Second, u201cpullu201d factors become important,
making one host country relatively more attractive than another. Finally, in stage three the
student selects an institution. A variety of additional u201cpullu201d factors make a particular institution
more attractive than its competitors. Such factors include institutionu2019s reputation for quality,
market profile, range of courses, alliances or coalitions, offshore teaching programmes, staff
expertise, degree of innovation, use of information technology, resources, size of the alumni
base and promotion, and marketing efforts”, “page” : “82-90”, “title” : “u201cPushu2010pullu201d factors influencing international student destination choice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ad7dddc-48af-4c36-8d73-aa917d2a9a36” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mazzarol”, “given” : “Tim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemp”, “given” : “Steven”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Savery”, “given” : “Lawson”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1997” }, “number-of-pages” : “17-37”, “title” : “International students who choose not to study in Australia : An Examination of Taiwan and Indonesia International Students Who Choose Not To Study In Australia An Examination of Taiwan and Indonesia”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3f2d3a20-8dca-44fb-bb04-a4f8f2216a8b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lam et al., 2011; Mazzarol et al., 1997; Mazzarol & Soutar, 2002)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lam et al., 2011; Mazzarol et al., 1997; Mazzarol & Soutar, 2002)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lam et al., 2011; Mazzarol et al., 1997; Mazzarol & Soutar, 2002)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lam et al., 2011; Mazzarol et al., 1997; Mazzarol ; Soutar, 2002) studies have been done in extensive measure. However, the specific sector of student migration is still a seldom researched area. Researcher such as Donata Bessey, Shanthi Robertson, and Parvati Raghuram tried tapping emphasis on the newly emerging form of migration as student migration in today’s globalized world. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-010-0417-0”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bessey”, “given” : “Donata”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “42”, “container-title” : “Empirical Economics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “note” : “Why student choose Germany as the destination”, “number” : “6”, “page” : “345-361”, “title” : “International Student Migration to Germany”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3326c935-ae1d-442b-b5be-531f94e87ad6” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01204.x”, “ISSN” : “03091317”, “abstract” : “u2018Educationu2013migration nexusu2019 policies in Australia between 1998 and 2010 linked international education with different forms of temporary and permanent migration. This resulted in a blurring of boundaries around student, worker, consumer, migrant and ethnic identities. While the exploitation, marginalization and vulnerability of international students in Australia has gained a great deal of media and scholarly attention, less consideration has been given to the varied forms of subsequent protest undertaken by student migrants in Australian cities. This article analyses three case studies of protests involving student migrants in Melbourne: a protest against unfair assessment; a fight for a campus prayer room; and labour protests within the retail service and taxi industries. It draws on theoretical work on new social movements and social transformation in urban spaces to find ways to conceptualize this activism in relation to the scales of campus, city and nation. In doing so, it argues primarily that these sites of protest are socio-spatial experiences that encompass shifting and socially produced spatial scales, as well as complex networks of association across different communities, which in turn reflect different student-migrant identities.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robertson”, “given” : “Shanthi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Urban and Regional Research”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “972-988”, “title” : “Campus, City, Networks and Nation: Student-Migrant Activism as Socio-spatial Experience in Melbourne, Australia”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “37” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a249b0a0-0268-43ef-b1cc-08239fa4da01” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/psp.1747”, “ISBN” : “15448444 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “15448444”, “abstract” : “Student migration is a key component of knowledge migration. However, as knowledge becomes a central part of migrant selectivity, labour and family migrants too are involved in knowledge acquisition, both prior to and after migration. At the same time, student migrants are involved in work and family, just like other migrants. What then is distinctive about student migrants? This paper attempts to address this challenge. It begins by reviewing how migration theories have analysed student mobility. It then suggests that migration theorists need to extend existing analyses, which have primarily focused on the spatialities of migration, to take account of the spatialities of knowledge. It is argued that knowledge institutions need to reach out to people in different parts of the world and to produce in prospective students a desire to circulate. This is necessary if the institutions are to obtain a global presence and to maintain their legitimacy as knowledge brokers. An analysis of student migration where the inducements that the Higher Education Institutions offer to prospective students and the subjective responses of such students to these invitations will throw light on how the spatiality of knowledge is achieved and also highlight the distinctiveness of student migration in a knowledgeable migrant world.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Raghuram”, “given” : “Parvati”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Population, Space and Place”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “138-154”, “title” : “Theorising the Spaces of Student Migration”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “19” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4372fc66-836b-4e5d-b07e-3ba822c596f4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bessey, 2012; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bessey, 2012; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bessey, 2012; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bessey, 2012; Raghuram, 2013; Robertson, 2013)
According to Russel King “migration is too diverse and multifaceted to be explained in a single theory”. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “King”, “given” : “Russell”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “Willy Brandt”, “container-title” : “International Migration and Ethnic Relations”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “number” : “3/12”, “page” : “3-48”, “publisher-place” : “Malmu00f6”, “title” : “Theories and Typologies of Migration : An Overview and a Primer”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “locator” : “11”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1f417db7-27d1-4b86-a8c2-e800e5400401” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(King, 2012, p. 11)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(King, 2012, p. 11)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(King, 2012, p. 11)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(King, 2012, p. 11). Reviewing Regenstein’s laws of migration on neoclassical economics study King summarized the important aspect of how migration impacts the development of industrial commerce and transports of the host country, the inflow of migrants always develop certain country or city. As migrants start to reside in the certain territory of the host country, the commercial transactions, and industrial activity increases. Through more human resource the financial activities and monetary flow rise. Investment also surges in those territories by global investors and industries. At the same time, large cities get more structural development by migrants. As people tend to move towards the country or city where there are available ample opportunities. Bigger cities tend to accommodate more people from different ethnicity and communities. To accommodate and transit migrants on daily basis the infrastructure of those cities grows faster. Looking at the highest developed cities in the world such as New York, Tokyo, Frankfurt or London, it can be confirmed that these cities accommodate the maximum number of labor migrants.
To simplify different migration process and theories in an understandable measure the given figure can be used in accordance with the discussion by Massey and King
center-38100
Not all countries encounter the same approaches of migration theories. Based on the host country’s labor market demand and government policies the theories applicable to that specific country’s migration can be different. Also, the diverse nature of migration requires understanding specific theory. As for Refugees and irregular migration Push-and Pull theory and Network theory could be applicable but for Transnational elite’s Social capital Theory and Institutional theory might be respectable.
While not all the core migration theories may not appropriate for the student migration, applying a certain aspect of migration can be prolific to explain the driving force for international migration. Why do students choose a specific country or region? Is it only about studying abroad and acquiring knowledge? Or the motivation extends towards permanent migration later and settling into the host country? The most relevant theories of migration are discussed in terms of student migration.

Neoclassical Economics Macro theory: Massey
According to the macro theory of neoclassical economics, International migration occurs because of aggregated demand for labor or human capital differentials. The country has ample supply of Labor resource has a comparatively low market wage. While the country is being in lack of related labor resource or human capital provides a higher market wage. The impact of the differential in wages causes worker from low wage countries to move towards high wage countries. as a result of this movement, the supply of labor decreases and wage rises in the capital-poor country, leading at equilibrium, to an international wage differential that reflects only costs of international movement. At the same time, while the lobar force flows from the poor capital to high wage countries, the investment capital from capital-rich to capital-poor countries also increases.
According to Massey, Neoclassical economic: Macro theory can be explained in the following an ideology, First, the international labor migration takes place mostly because of the wage difference between host and home country. Secondly, Labor migration will stop if there will be no wage difference anymore. Thirdly, he mentions the inflow and outflow of highly skilled worker called as human capital react and respond to the rate of return to human capital. It is in fact not only the wage difference but involves more catalyst as influence such as the lifestyle of the host country, growth opportunity etc. Fourth, he mentions that a country’s labor market mechanism is the prime influencer of international migration flow to that given country. And finally, he claims the ultimate option for governments to regulate migrations flow is to control and shift their own labor market mechanism. Per say the flow of migration will be more or less to a country, depending on the opportunity available in that country’s labor market. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Massey”, “given” : “Douglas S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hugo”, “given” : “Graeme”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kouaouci”, “given” : “Ali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrino”, “given” : “Adela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Taylor”, “given” : “J Edward”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Population and Development Review”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1993” }, “page” : “431-466”, “title” : “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “19” }, “locator” : “434”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50441e5-a232-469f-906f-1c16541ad49d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Massey et al., 1993, p. 434)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Massey et al., 1993, p. 434)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Massey et al., 1993, p. 434)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Massey et al., 1993, p. 434)
Neoclassical economics: Micro Theory
The micro theory of Neoclassical economics focuses on the more individual level. Individuals decide to migrate for monetary gain, calculating the cost-benefit aspect compared to the home country. The investment made for the migration requires gaining return in monetary terms for the individual. People move to a foreign country where there are more opportunities regarding their skill and knowledge. Prior to the migration, the individual needs to investigate certain monetary involvement as an investment. Material costs of movement, settling expenditure and psychological cost of change in the community. After the migration, learning a new language, adapting to the host country’s culture and integrating to the economic market also requires prior analysis by the person moving.
Massey researched the several aspects of the micro theory of neo-classical economics. According to her understanding, firstly, this theoretical aspect depends on individual earning and employment opportunities available in the host country. Secondly, the opportunities available in the host country and comparing them with the country of origin gives a clear idea of the benefits and disadvantages of migration. Following, the social sphere per say, the community comfort of the newly migrating individual. The fifth point mentioned by Massey, the aggregated migration flows from the country of origin to the host country, traditional movement, political and cultural affiliation, and collaborations between governments influence the individual to decide the migration. Sixth and a very important cost-benefit analysis done by the individuals prior to migrating is the expected employment earning and living cost compared to the net cost of migrating. High investment with a lower chance of return is often times influence in a negative way to migrate. in micro theory also, the labor market holds the optimum importance rather than any other kind of market. however, if individuals are psychologically attracted towards the given host country the migration cost may consider a negative matter. Finally, Government regulation of the migration flow and control. For instance, if the home country government increases the expected earnings influence individuals not to migrate to a foreign labor market. At the same time, the home country’s policy restriction on migration inflow can also influence the decision-making process negatively for the prospective migrant. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Massey”, “given” : “Douglas S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hugo”, “given” : “Graeme”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kouaouci”, “given” : “Ali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrino”, “given” : “Adela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Taylor”, “given” : “J Edward”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arango”, “given” : “Joaquin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Population and Development Review”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1993” }, “page” : “431-466”, “title” : “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “19” }, “locator” : “435-436”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50441e5-a232-469f-906f-1c16541ad49d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Massey et al., 1993, pp. 435u2013436)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Massey et al., 1993, pp. 435u2013436)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Massey et al., 1993, pp. 435u2013436)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Massey et al., 1993, pp. 435–436)
The push-pull theories are used both in economics and in migration studies. The theory is built around the combination of push factors which drive people away from their country of origin and pull factors which make the new host country more attractive as a destination. The push factors may include poverty, low living standards, political tensions and repressions, high unemployment rates or rapid population growth, etc., while pull factors may be connected to high labor demand, better living standards, better education possibilities, better welfare system, better environmental conditions, political freedoms, etc. The main assumptions are based on the individual as the decision-maker who is rational and decides whether to migrate or not under perfect information. The individual person after a benefits-costs analysis decides whether it is worth for him to move to a country if it offers better standards/opportunities than his country of origin or in other words if the move will lead to him maximizing his utility.
The problems with the push-pull factors are intrinsic also to the study of economics. First, it generally neglects the role other family/relative/friends relations have on an individual’s decision to migrate. It also suggests that people are well-informed about every detail of the standard and conditions of living in the host country before choosing it which is rarely the case. Additionally, the role of state policies is seen as a distortion of the rational market but is not addressed in more details. By highlighting only, the economic rational factors this theory encounters some inconsistencies with actual migratory events such as incapability of explaining why people move to more densely-populated countries such as Germany rather than to less-populated areas. Moreover, they emphasize the decision which the individual takes are rational and voluntary only based on self-interest, but this fails to account for people practically forced to migrate due to political conflicts, wars or extremely poor economic conditions in the country of origin.
Push -Pull factors for Student migration
The education system is expanding globally at an intense pace. The enrolment of international students demands also increased for the tertiary level education. While in some aspect students are migrating for higher studies with the push factor of higher home country education cost, mostly from developed countries to developing countries such as Malaysia, China. Lack of quality education and low wage of developing countries are acting as the push factor for students to migrate towards developed countries.
Studying abroad at a tertiary level has increased tremendously since the 1960s. Which was mostly assumed as an activity by social aristocrat class action in previous eras is now spread to the meso level. Globalization and more mobility increase the set of opportunities available to prospective students who study abroad. The push and pull factors of a student who decides to study abroad are slightly different than general international migrants. Highly qualified students are willing to migrate to receive the best education. The focus is given towards the quality education and transition process to the labor market. Many of the students tend to settle in the host country after completing their study abroad. The viability of the desired study field, lifestyle in general also considered as important indicators for studying abroad.
Student migration in Germany- Donata
Using gravity equation on student migration causes to Germany, Donata found out that income differences from home country to host country does not hold that much importance for the students. Political unrest on the other hand significant influence on student migration. Distance from the home country to host country also plays a vital role in student migration. Although having a language constrain Germany is one of the most favorable destinations for higher studies from Asia and Pacific region students. Germany is consistently on 3rd position by international student destination choice. Germany’s universities occupied the fourth place with respect to the number of universities among the top 500 cite . The high-quality education and no tuition fee scheme for international students makes Germany one of the most desired destinations for developing country’s students. The enrollment of the students in German universities is also a very important field of discussion. The nature and efficiency of students are important to analyses for the German labor market. The return rate and settlers rate of international students are also a crucial part of analyses. Considering the elements of international student migration to Germany, the policies and migration patterns of can be analyzed empirically using a gravity equation approach. The studies for student migration seem to suggest that this migration follows a similar path to international migration. Cite. Highly qualified students are willing to migrate in order to receive the best education. Finding out which are the driving forces of international student migration? How does this special type of migration follow or a similar path to migration that requires more research and analysis.

Annual inflows of foreign students to Germany have witnessed a rather impressive growth during the last years. According to BFA, from 1997 to 2002, the total incoming foreign students from non-EU countries nearly doubled ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bonn”, “title” : “Fachkru00e4fteengpassanalyse”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5826202f-fb8f-4cca-84c0-74a370d0a5d2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BfA, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bundesagentur für Arbeit, 2018). The regional alignment of German to international student ratio changed in many educational institutes. The share of students from Europe and the former Soviet Union has dropped by nearly 10%, and this loss has been outweighed by an increase of incoming students from Asia (including Australia and New Zealand). The largest part of Asian students comes from the People’s Republic of China. The share of African students has remained quite stable (about7%), while the percentage of students from the Americas has declined slightly (from 10% to 8%).
Mazzarol Student migration not only happens in expectation of increasing economic and social status of the graduate. Access to the quality education, the expense to return on Investment and study to work transition also influence students to look for study abroad option. Similar to international migration, the push-pull factor for student migration also depicts the scenario of host and home countries. While the Push factor denotes the poor education quality, availability of wide education field, and expenditure and transition process of the home country. The pull factors can be higher quality education, study to work transition feasibility, the standard of living after migration and so on. In another study Mazzarol, Kemp and Savery found out six factors that can influence student selection of a host country.
The student’s motivation to study abroad begins with the awareness and knowledge gathering on the host country in general. The country’s economic aspect, education institutes and their validation in the world and also the future aspect after studying in a foreign university. With this globalized age of information, information is now accessible from any corner of the world. Available information on the desired destination country in the student’s home country influence them to take further actions. Secondly, recommendations and referrals from alumni, currently studying students, relative and parents work as the validation for selecting the desired destination country to study. The third factor relates to cost issues, this cost can include the cost of tuition fees, living expenses, travel costs and social costs. Another lifestyle cost, such as crime, safety, and racial discrimination also influence a student’s decision-making process. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mazzarol”, “given” : “Tim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemp”, “given” : “Steven”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Savery”, “given” : “Lawson”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1997” }, “number-of-pages” : “17-37”, “title” : “International students who choose not to study in Australia : An Examination of Taiwan and Indonesia International Students Who Choose Not To Study In Australia An Examination of Taiwan and Indonesia”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3f2d3a20-8dca-44fb-bb04-a4f8f2216a8b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mazzarol et al., 1997)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mazzarol et al., 1997)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mazzarol et al., 1997)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mazzarol et al., 1997)
Mazzarol-Choice Exploring the choice influence for selecting University of international students, Tim Mazzarol, Steven Kemp, Lawson Savery conducted a mixed method study on Taiwanese and Indonesian Student’s decision of not selecting Australia as the destination country to study. Australia has been on one of the top choices for international students after the UK, the US and Canada since the 1980s. This education industry in Australia reached 1.9 billion USD in 1995.
They explained numerous factors affecting a student’s choice of the country are grouped into four categories:
1. Educational service quality: The quality of education is one of the main important factors while students decide to study abroad. The administration of the University, Linkage to the labor market and the education reputation of the country. In terms of returning to the home country Students also take into consideration the reputation of the university ranking and studied the subject’s acceptability in both host and home country. To measure this service quality students mostly prefer acquiring knowledge through existing students group or communities in the host country published the report and a world ranking of Universities.

2. Information availability and source: The affluence of acquiring information about the given university and study program, country’s overall safety and security and recommendations are also essential characteristics that influence a student’s selection process. The detail information related to program and procedure to enroll mostly obtained through the internet nowadays and also from the blessing of information share of social media.
3. Overseas study environment: Geographical location, ease of travel to the home country impose great influence while selecting a study destination. Having an ethnic community, cost of living, linguistic comfort, availability of part-time jobs and racial discrimination are also considered by the students. Overall, having some positive criteria for these categories acts as the “pull factors” for the destination country.

4. Student individual characteristics: Student’s decision of selecting a country or a specific university also depends on how they are as individuals. And their personal motivation for their future aspects. Whether the student is intending to immigrate to the overseas country sometime in the future; the level of education the student is seeking and personal motivation of the study abroad endeavor also act as a catalyst.
International students can be segmented in many ways, those who look for an exchange semester abroad or studies abroad as a part of their home education tend to overlook the criterions mentioned above. On the other hand, students who aim for studying bachelor abroad, tend to stay for Master’s degree too. They oftentimes consider residing in the host country and settling as migrants later on. The influence factors are very important to them. There is also a student share who go for studying only postgraduates as a mean of enhancing their present career and personal skills. However, it can be mentioned that students who tend to stay overseas more than one year for study purpose measure the cost and benefit more carefully than those who are staying abroad for a short span of time.
AnalysisSection AGeneral Overview of BangladeshBangladesh is one of the promising developing countries in South Asia. With an estimated population of 160 million and population density over 1,237 individuals per square kilometer, Bangladesh reached per capita income of 1,610 USD in 2017. From 2005 to 2016 the economic growth has been a significant 6% each year. Even with political instability, lack of infrastructure and prolonged period of economic policy implementation, the GDP of Bangladesh has increased to 7.1 % in 2017 from 6.8% in the 2015 fiscal year. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “7”, “11” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “CIA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The World Factbook”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “9-11”, “title” : “The World Factbook”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b2a00241-6069-4840-b1fd-e493484905d8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(CIA, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(CIA, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(CIA, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(CIA, 2018). Primarily, agriculture was the leading sector for Bangladesh economic growth for centuries. However, certain industry growth in recent 20 years brought a new era of economic development in Bangladesh.

Import and export of a country define its strength in the global arena. In 2015 Bangladesh assimilated the place of the 55th largest importer and 58th largest export economy in the world ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “7”, “11” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “CIA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The World Factbook”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “9-11”, “title” : “The World Factbook”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b2a00241-6069-4840-b1fd-e493484905d8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(CIA, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(CIA, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(CIA, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(CIA, 2018). Out of 73.41 million labor force involved in Bangladesh’s economy, a greater 47% are still working in agricultural and only 13% are involved in industries. The rest 40% are engaged in different services. The prominent industry in Bangladesh is Garment textile with significant 4,482 Garment factories in small and large scale. This industry sector is employing approximately 4 million workers. Garment and textile industry in Bangladesh has an export share of a significant 81% of the total export in 2016-17 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.bgmea.com.bd/home/pages/TradeInformation”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “7”, “2” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “BGMEA”, “given” : “Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BGMEA B2B web portal”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Trade Information”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=65dfddea-ead8-4139-9731-279074cd3951” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(BGMEA, 2018)”, “manualFormatting” : “(BGMEA, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(BGMEA, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BGMEA, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(BGMEA, 2018). Other mentionable industries in Bangladesh are paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, tea and natural gas etc. This substantial number of the labor force working in these industries in Bangladesh, however, does not require considerable high skill knowledge. Most of these industries necessitate people with minimal knowledge and skill. The requirement of this industry’s work is typically physical aptitude. It is commonly assumed that with a fast pace of economic growth, the demand for high skilled labor force should also increase. However, that is not the case in Bangladesh. The general human capital requirement in Bangladesh, in general, is not a highly skilled labor force based on the current economic dimension.
Education System in BangladeshApart from poverty reduction policies and initiatives, Education is now one of the major agendas of Bangladesh government. With the “Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)” Bangladesh has significantly improved the access to education ratio in the last 20 years. The gross enrolment in primary education reached 18.60 million (112.1%) in 2016, increasing from 94% in 2005. In the post-secondary level which is recognized as a college in Bangladesh was 3.77 million enrolment ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “BANBEIS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BANBEIS-Educational Database”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-11”, “title” : “Bangladesh Education Statistics”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61e55cb3-1ed7-43d6-94be-8f791712f79b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(BANBEIS, 2016). This section of the education system is normally the pre-university. Intermediate degree (high school certificate) is a mandatory requirement as the entrance to the Tertiary education in Bangladesh.
The main education system in Bangladesh is divided into a) Primary school with class 1 to class 5 (since 1990 primary education is compulsory for all, public schools are free of cost) b) Secondary school consist of class 6 to class 12 (The education in secondary are not compulsory but encouraged, public and private both includes a small amount of fee). The third part is the tertiary education which encloses Diplomas, Bachelor, Master and Post-doctoral level. The Bachelor level can be from three to four years duration depending on the genre of university or college. Master degree is one to two year and Post-doctoral degree can range from 2 to five years. Most tertiary level education in Bangladesh includes Bengali and English both language as a medium of instruction. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DAAD Landersachstand”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “24”, “title” : “Kurze Einfu00fchrung in das Hochschulsystem und die DAAD-Aktivitu00e4ten | 2017”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8565b1d7-44f3-46ec-98f8-445f5f343a47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2017)
Brief Background of Bangladesh Tertiary EducationStructure- The tertiary level education in Bangladesh is still an emerging stage. Only 13% of students enrolled in tertiary level education in Bangladesh. Structure wise the tertiary level education sector in Bangladesh is multifaceted. The institutes for tertiary level education can be divided into two categories. 1. Universities that are authorized by the state supervisory body “University Grants Commission (UGC) and may award degrees in its own power 2. Colleges that operates under National University, which is the state authority and most decisions for colleges are taken by this governing body. The degrees obtained by Colleges are not generally considered as academic degrees until the National university grants the certificate. The colleges do not hold any autonomy. These institutions have different structural and functional attributes regarding regulatory, institute staffs, academic standards and in general interests. Below a chart is prepared to understand the education system of Bangladesh more clearly.

52387512700Secondary School Certificate (SSC)
Master’s Degree
(Degree College)
PhD Doctoral Degree
(University)
Master’s Degree
(University)
Bachelor’s Degree (Pass)
Degree College
Bachelor’s Degree (Honours) (University)
Degree College
Higher Secondary School Certificate (Class 11-12)
University Entrance exam
Secondary School (Class 6-10)
Certificate
(Vocational Education)
Diploma
(Vocational Education)
00Secondary School Certificate (SSC)
Master’s Degree
(Degree College)
PhD Doctoral Degree
(University)
Master’s Degree
(University)
Bachelor’s Degree (Pass)
Degree College
Bachelor’s Degree (Honours) (University)
Degree College
Higher Secondary School Certificate (Class 11-12)
University Entrance exam
Secondary School (Class 6-10)
Certificate
(Vocational Education)
Diploma
(Vocational Education)

789305336550Primary Schools (Class 1-5)
Primary Schools (Class 1-5)

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Education System structure of Bangladesh
During the 1990s the tertiary education sector of Bangladesh was opened for the private investors and institutions. Since then, an exceeding number of private universities submerged in Bangladesh. This opened doors to many students to pursue higher education which unless was not possible due to limited seat issues in public institutes.
Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) has been working on collecting and analyzing educational data for investment and growth purpose. From their recent report, it is estimated that the total number of students in tertiary education reached 823,102 in 2016. The general share of the youth population with a tertiary education degree is projected to rise from 11% in 2010 to 20% by 2035. From Annual Education Survey (AES) by BANBEIS, it was estimated that in 2016 there were only 130 registered Universities in Bangladesh. 38 of them are public universities and 92 were private. Where in 1971 after the independence of Bangladesh there were only 4 public universities in the country. A total number of students in public and private universities was 823,102 combined. An average number of students per University was 6,331, the average number of student in public University was 11,900 and private University was 4,032 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “BANBEIS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BANBEIS-Educational Database”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-11”, “title” : “Bangladesh Education Statistics”, “type” : “report” }, “locator” : “7”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61e55cb3-1ed7-43d6-94be-8f791712f79b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 7)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 7)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 7)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 7).
The recent growth of tertiary education derives from the market liberalization of the 1990s. Since the market liberalization many international and multinational organizations started investing in Bangladesh. Highly skilled individuals with tertiary education completion degree have been in high demand since these organizations desire the specific skilled individuals. But the number of available job opportunities are gradually being disproportionate with the number of graduates. While to meet the growing demand of market influenced Bangladesh to invest in establishing new universities, the education standard in the private universities is not promising enough to compete with the global standard. Lack of proper governance and monitoring inducing the degradation of higher education in Bangladesh.
The characteristics of Public universities can be either research or teaching oriented, whereas private universities are typically teaching oriented. Each public university is governed by a charter, which must be approved by Parliament. Private universities, on the other hand, are governed by the Private Universities Act, which was passed in 2010. As a whole, the university subsector is regulated primarily by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which oversees their financing, governance, and quality assurance arrangements (BANBEIS 2016). Even with a growing number of universities they are not capable of providing quality education which leads to qualified professional to contribute to the national or international economy.
The number of institutes available is struggling to satisfy the inflow of students equipped for higher studies. Although the educational institutes grew in number over the years, the education curriculum and quality are not maintained as per standard. Poor education quality and lack of market integration inducing dissatisfaction among higher education students in Bangladesh. Because there is a policy implementation on the primary level of schooling the number of school goers increased in considerable number in recent years. Establishing mediocre quality private universities may enroll the students to give a degree but most of the degree holders are not qualified to perform professional work. These conditions are pushing many intelligent students to leave the country and look for quality education abroad.
The Millennium Development Goals (MSDS) program to improve the education system of Bangladesh still focuses mainly on school education to reduce the illiteracy rate and basic knowledge level in the country. A number of student’s enrollment has more importance in the agenda than the standard of the education. The budget and funding for higher education is not protruding and is given little priority on a government level. The share of human capital in Bangladesh’s modern economic growth in major portion does not derive from university graduates. The university graduates nevertheless struggle to best fit in a related industry to their study program. In general, there is no to little links to the higher education system with the world of work in Bangladesh. There are numerous factors that pushing the bright and talented students of Bangladesh to study abroad. Some of the primary reasons are discussed below:
Push Factors in context of Bangladesh:Dissatisfied with the education system, the unstable economic condition of Bangladesh, politicization in educational institutes and lack of university and market integration encouraging students to study abroad to attain a better-quality higher education and life in general. Leaving the country of origin has always some decisive factors involved. So, what are the general factors that push the bright and talented students away from Bangladesh? If the higher education system of Bangladesh is observed through a critical lens we can identify following push factor that influences and motivates the students to opt out for studying abroad.
Entree to Universities -After completing the high school education level, the number of students prepared to enter the Universities is growing in Bangladesh. However, a limited number of higher education institutes makes it difficult for the students coming from high school to access into university. If we observe the numbers of students mentioned in the primary school enrolment and University enrolment we can see a stark difference. Accommodating the substantial number of students transitory through the intermediate degree to University is not conceivable. Only one-third of the students completing intermediate level education receives higher education in universities. The number of students able to enroll in standard universities is even lower. The average students per university in Bangladesh is around 6,331 and the teacher to student’s ratio is 1:35, enrolling more students in a current number of institutes are going to degrade the education reception standard even further. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “BANBEIS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BANBEIS-Educational Database”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-11”, “title” : “Bangladesh Education Statistics”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61e55cb3-1ed7-43d6-94be-8f791712f79b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(BANBEIS, 2016)
Quality Assurance: Quality assurance mechanism is a critical issue in Bangladesh tertiary education sector. Even though there is a central authority to grant and monitor the enrolment and examinations, the quality assurance for the standard of study and curriculum are absent. Public universities depend on their own quality management. Curriculum committee assessment of achievement and enrolment standard is fixed by the academic council. There is no government authority to evaluate or monitor the standard whatsoever. The UGC (University Grant Commission) only have the authority to monitor the private universities. This monitoring also reaches to a very limited extent. Permission of establishing a private university, location, physical infrastructure and teaching staff standard is monitored by the UGC, but the standard of education given, and evaluation process is an individual preference by the private universities. There is no external review process to review the quality of education or evaluation. There is no establishment for external review of quality for the universities. Because of the high corruption level in government offices the limited requirement to establish and operate a private University if often overlooked.
Low Budget – Although through “Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)” Bangladesh government introduce special educational achievements by 2022, the focus is mostly on the school level. The total expenditure on primary level education was 44% of the total Tk. 295,100 million where for the tertiary level it was only 17% ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “BANBEIS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BANBEIS-Educational Database”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-11”, “title” : “Bangladesh Education Statistics”, “type” : “report” }, “locator” : “8”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61e55cb3-1ed7-43d6-94be-8f791712f79b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 8)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 8)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 8)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(BANBEIS, 2016, p. 8). The most expenditures occur in the universities are spent at a high ratio for the salaries of university staffs, infrastructure, and expansion. There is not enough funding for the adequate study related aspects. Equipment, computers and books and access to global libraries are not given any importance when it comes to funding. ICT funding in Universities is also very low. In this era of globalization, shortage of technological tools and facilities makes the students lag behind compared to the world standard. That leads the education standard to be backward comparing the world level.

Governance and pollicization- The main four largest universities in Bangladesh are the hub for the political program among young students. Every political party has their share of student supporters for them in the Universities. This influence university authority’s decisions to skewed towards the party in power. The students make a union like groups in Universities who demonstrates political agendas and general chaos. Violent aggression between two groups of student parties is a very common sight in the public universities in Bangladesh. Political influences disrupt not only the educational process, it creates prolonged strikes and closed schedules.
Integration with Labor Market – As there are not many research institutes or national strategies especially in the education sector, the relevance factor between higher education and the labor market is rarely researched. Students do not represent much knowledge on the future impact of their higher study. The labor market demand in Bangladesh is not analyzed by any professional activities, so universities can ensure producing relevant graduates. This issue generates frustration in higher educational graduates after completing their degree. The education to labor market transition is disrupted. However, there are some private initiatives that generate organizations “in campus recruitment” but the number of these initiatives is very few to accommodate the huge number of students completing their higher educational degree. Only a few standard private universities organize and follow this procedure. In government level, there is no procedure to perceive and initiate the university to work transition for the graduates by the government.
Unequal Pay- As there is no standard payment scale for specific professional graduates, the labor market has the autonomy and full control in deciding the pay scale of the graduates. Students graduating from the same university and study program can be employed with a stark dissimilarity of the pay scale. The pay scale somewhat depends on the organization they have employed not the study program or attained knowledge. Where multinational organization pay scale can be 2 to 3 times more than local private organization recruiting the similar candidates with identical knowledge skills. There are no government policies and minimum standard for graduates pay scale in Bangladesh. This often creates huge frustrations among graduates.
These are some of the prime factors that are pushing Bangladeshi students to look for higher education opportunities abroad. Some other prominent factors include lack of variation in the study program, industry shortage of the interested program and financial accommodation, especially for private universities. Unable to do that many students compromises all these situations and enter the labor market. Many of them settle down in the host country after study.
Bangladeshi students Studying abroadFrom the UNESCO report, the data obtained on Total outbound internationally mobile tertiary students studying abroad to all countries shows the number of Bangladeshi students to study abroad went from 7,169 in 1999 to 33,139 in 2016. Total outbound internationally mobile tertiary students studying abroad are 60,390 in 2017 from 36,357 in 1999. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://data.uis.unesco.org”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “10” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “UNESCO Institute of Statistics”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Outbound internationally mobile students by host region”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64c9aaba-bea9-4221-94f9-808139b08a7b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2018) According to UNESCO, most of the outbound students from Bangladesh select Malaysia, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, and Canada are the top destinations.

Why Germany as the Destination?
The idea of studying abroad derives from expecting a better education, opportunities for job, convenient life and in general upgrade of lifestyle. As scholars observed the main pull factor to a host country can be the educational quality, there should be also the implication of the quality of education in real work life. The quality of education is assessed by the transition to the labor market and the future prospect after the study ” In 2014, 358,895 foreign students were enrolled in Germany. That is a record: as compared with 2013, the number has risen by 7%” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bielefeld”, “title” : “Foreign Students in Germany”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e717a287-08a3-45a3-b7bb-f96fab626638” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2018).
According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany by DZHW calculation in 2017, the total number of international students studying in Germany was 22.2 % of the total students. This number includes both students coming to higher education directly from other country called “Bildungsauslaender” and students who completed their schooling in Germany but obtain a foreign nationality “Bildungsinlaender”. The share of international students in University is 13.9% of total and 10.8% in University of applied science. The number of international students coming directly from other country is 9.5 % called and 6.8 % accordingly ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bielefeld”, “title” : “Foreign Students in Germany”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e717a287-08a3-45a3-b7bb-f96fab626638” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2018). Having one-fifth of the university students from a different nationality portrays a positive image of individuals to choose Germany as the study destination from a third country.
Among this number of international students, China has a 13.2% and India 5.8% share. Other prominent countries are Russia, Austria, Italy etc. Continent-wise Asian students have the largest share in German higher education system as 29.1% which is more than western Europe (20.1%). Observing degree level there is a stark difference between the University and University of Applied science. While in university, the international students coming for master’s level degree is 10% higher than a Bachelor degree, the applied science university has 40% more international students in Bachelor degree than masters. So, what are the main pull factors or motivation to choose Germany as the study destination? Which subject areas are more attractive for the international students? Statistics shows, 37% of international students are studying engineering out of which 32.2% in university and a significant 52% at the Applied science institutes. Other prominent subjects studied by international students are Law, Economics and Social Science, Humanities, Mathematics and Natural Science. These subject areas combined more than 85 % of the total international students studying in Germany. Apart from the ERASMUS program, which has already fixed university collaboration, the identification of regional preference of university shows a significant contrast between 2012-2017. The highest share of international students in Germany is in Thuringia being 61.1 % and Bavaria 56.7%. Other prominent federal states that attract most international students are Saxony, Lower-Saxony and NRW (North Rhine Westphalia) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bielefeld”, “title” : “Foreign Students in Germany”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e717a287-08a3-45a3-b7bb-f96fab626638” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2018) So why International students choose Germany even after the linguistic obstacle? A respondent from the survey answers the question in following words,
“The education system in Germany is the one that I am enjoying the most. It needs a lot of effort to make a good grade in this program but who cares if I have the possibility of good career prospects. I am totally satisfied about my studying and want to be a mathematician in the future.”
Pull Factors for Germany as Bangladeshi StudentsTuition fee exemption for International students
Where in the United States or the United Kingdom, where tuition fees can reach up to 40,000 euros per year, Germany is offering full tuition-free even for the international students. With a very small amount of semester contribution ranging from 100-300 Euros. German Public universities do not take any tuition fees from German or international students since the winter semester of 2014/15. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Studying in Germany”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d64a7394-32fc-4223-aad6-45277e18735e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018) However, there are some private universities which take tuition fees from international students. education cost is a very important factor while choosing a country of destination for students. The higher education around the world is not free in every country, students from developing countries also pay a great amount of money for their education in private universities per year as tuition fees. Exemption of tuition fees made Germany as one of the most desirable countries of choice even after having a language barrier. A conducted survey by Studying-in-Germany.org  on 4,339 participants 32% confirmed that free tuition fee is the prime reason to choose Germany as their Study destination. The next factor is the optimum education quality of the German education system. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Study-in-Germany.org”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-4”, “publisher” : “Studying-in-Germany.org”, “title” : “International Student Survey”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=db6f16ce-6e87-4474-900b-d79edfe45c21” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)
Quality education
In this globalized world of today, information about universities and the ranking is not difficult to obtain. Being in the fourth position after the US, UK, and Australia, Germany attracts international students with its high-quality education standard. Standard and qualified university staffs, efficient curriculum, and assessment procedure ensure the standard of received education at a professional level. Labor market from all over the world recognizes German education degrees as standard. The overall standards are maintained thoroughly by the federal states and education ministry. That gives the education quality a homogeneity and monitoring equality. Students graduating from a German university is acceptable not only in Germany or the home country but the whole world opens up in front of the individual. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Study-in-Germany.org”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-4”, “publisher” : “Studying-in-Germany.org”, “title” : “International Student Survey”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=db6f16ce-6e87-4474-900b-d79edfe45c21” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Study-in-Germany.org, 2018)
Part-time job facilities
As an international student, it is not always easy to find a part-time job in the host country. Government policies, ethnic discrimination, and linguistic obstacles make it hard to get a part-time job even in countries like the US and UK. Germany has a legalized working opportunity for international students for 120 full days or 240 half days. International students coming to Germany without scholarship must bare their own expenses. This option gives them a secure minimum 450 euro per month. German employers are also eager to employ students as part-time employees. (Cite). Although most of the part-time jobs require basic to medium German knowledge students coming from outside countries adapt to that requirement. All universities provide free of charge language course for the enrolled international students. From the same conducted survey on international students, it is observed significant 37.5% confirmed they finance their study period in Germany through part-time work.
After study job search option
For the international student who wants to enter in the German Labor Market, the German government provides 18 months residence permit to graduates. This period is often called the “job search visa”. This window of opportunity is given to search a study related job in any organization. Within this given time period, individuals can perform any kind of jobs without any time limit. During this time individuals can also seek help from the national job centers and authorities to find a suitable employment. This leverage of job search option naturally invites international students to select Germany as a study destination.
The Higher employment rates for graduates
Considering the OECD report 2011, the employment rate in Germany has been statically higher than any other European country after the recession period. The ratio of employment rate for the university graduates is also considered as high skilled labor in Germany increased by 0.6 percentage point from 2008 to 2009 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011). Along with Australia, Germany was the second country where recession did not hit the high skilled labor force. According to the OECD report, around 86% of the university graduates are employed in Germany. The ratio increased 4% from 1997 to 2011. The unemployment rate among university graduate cohort is the lowest in Germany across all the OECD countries ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “locator” : “3”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 3)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 3)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 3)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011, p. 3).
Especially the employment rate for individuals with tertiary education increased by 0.6 percentage from 2008 to 2009 in Germany. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “locator” : “2”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 2)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 2)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 2)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011, p. 2) An individual with a tertiary degree can earn 9% more than high school or technical degree graduates in Germany. “Graduates of university-level programmes earn 68% more than those with an upper secondary or a post-secondary degree” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “locator” : “4”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 4)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 4)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011, p. 4)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011, p. 4).
A survey was done by The Boston Consulting Group (BCG), and a StepStone co-founded global association of leading online job boards in 130 countries, The Network with approximately 366,000 employees in the first four months of 2018 from 197 nations resulted in Germany as the second most popular place to have a work life for a foreign individual. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Strack”, “given” : “Rainer”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Booker”, “given” : “Mike”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kovacs-ondrejkovic”, “given” : “Orsolya”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hermann”, “given” : “Anastasia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lu00f6wer”, “given” : “Philipp”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Decoding Global Talent 2018”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “DEUTSCHLAND ZWEIT- BELIEBTESTES ARBEITS- LAND WELTWEIT”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c9b6a2c-9c1f-41ee-9c75-781434b63c87” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Strack, Booker, Kovacs-ondrejkovic, Hermann, ; Lu00f6wer, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Strack, Booker, Kovacs-ondrejkovic, Hermann, ; Lu00f6wer, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Strack, Booker, Kovacs-ondrejkovic, Hermann, ; Lu00f6wer, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Strack, Booker, Kovacs-ondrejkovic, Hermann, & Löwer, 2018) the employment rate among foreigners rises because of fair treatment and equal opportunities.
Standardized remuneration
As industries are becoming more knowledge-based and technological, employers start to recognize the merits of having qualified workers with a proven standard of knowledge. German employers recognizing the benefit of having skilled employees pay more than any other OECD countries. Although labor cost increases, the retention of employees becomes higher for the employers. “The difference between the labor costs for a 25-64 year- old worker without a higher secondary degree is Germany is amount to USD 51 000; for a worker with a higher secondary degree, they average USD 58 000” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011) This number goes up a few notches when it comes to employees with tertiary education qualification. The average annual pay for a worker with a tertiary education is USD 20,000 more than OECD average of the same cohort. Although, the salary range differs based on industry sectors and states of Germany. Investigating salaries in different industries, the salary report published by the online job platform Stepstone revealed the highest paid fresh graduate is in Hessen and ranging from 63,353 € to Baden-Wurttemberg with 62,096 €. The lowest range is in Mecklenburg- Vorpommern 42.648 € and Sachsen-Anhalt with 44.223 € ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stepstone”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Gehaltsreport 2018”, “type” : “report” }, “locator” : “5”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7416c3f2-ee8f-42c2-98a0-c2fd1523b988” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stepstone, 2018, p. 5)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stepstone, 2018, p. 5)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Stepstone, 2018, p. 5)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stepstone, 2018, p. 5). The industry shares of salary shows, the top five subject which is having highest paid remuneration such as Medicine, Engineering, Computer Science, Law Sciences and Industrial Engineering ranging an initial salary range of annual 69.298 € to 79.695 € ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stepstone”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Gehaltsreport 2018”, “type” : “report” }, “locator” : “8”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7416c3f2-ee8f-42c2-98a0-c2fd1523b988” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stepstone, 2018, p. 8)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stepstone, 2018, p. 8)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Stepstone, 2018, p. 8)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stepstone, 2018, p. 8)
Growing number of English program
In the last 10 years, Germany introduced more study program in English than before. Attracting international students was one of the prime reason for including Only English or English with German mixed study programs. Currently, in Bachelor level, Germany offers 107 programs in full English, 17 more programs in English + German language. However, at the master’s level, this number reaches to a significant portion. 905 programs are offered in full English in diverse subject areas. With additional 100 more programs having English and German both. On the Ph.D. level, the total number of programs offered in English is 249 and around 50 more having both languages as a medium of study. As Germany uses German as the first language and also as an official language in workplaces. Studying in university in full English course gives the international student a certain ease. Most of the international students who desire to stay and work in Germany after study focuses to learn the language. As mentioned previously, the universities in Germany does provide free of cost language courses which students can benefit from.

Apart from mentioned pull factors, there are also cultural and societal aspects. Germany is also considered as one of the safest countries to live in. Culturally diverse and acceptability attracts the international students into studying here. Overall lifestyle in Germany is classified as a healthier and high quality. As a whole, international students benefit personally, professionally and culturally by choosing Germany as the study destination.
From the above-mentioned push and pull factors two perspectives can be identified. The push factors that motivate students from Bangladesh to option out to study abroad and the Pull Factors of Germany that attracts international students to study and work as a host country. In the following section, the conducted survey on Bangladeshi students studying or studied in Germany and their perspective will be analyzed. Section BIndicator wise analysis-Demographic ProfileAge range: As mentioned in an OECD report, Germany’s industries are facing a shortage of labor of age group of 25-34 skilled talent pool. This age group contains only 3.1% of the total of 6.3% of highly educated individuals involved in the German industries ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011). To understand the age cohort of the Bangladeshi students in Germany the Survey asked 135 currently studying or already studied individuals about their current age range. The motive of asking this explicit question is to see the potential human capital age cohort that has the possibility to enter the German labor market. The response shows a 52.7% responses being age cohort of 26-30. Another 27.5% is with the age range of 22-25-year olds and 18.3% is the age range of 31-35. The rest of the individuals is at 36-40 age cohort. Because of the categorical design of the questionnaire, the age cohort does not relate to the study level. As the education system of Bangladesh is distributed among 3 different types of schooling. Students graduating from English medium schooling finishes the study earlier than the Bengali medium schooling system. That may differentiate the level of study according to the age group. Also, it is an unofficial tradition in Bangladesh to have a working experience before enrolling in a Master degree. It is presumed in Bangladesh education institutes that having work experience before specific subject master degree makes them more coherent and specialized. Which in the future can turn them into a better candidate for the professional world. From the age cohort, we can undertake the current Bangladeshi students in Germany are suitable to enter the shortage positions German industries are encountering. The report also shows that the tertiary education attainment among German students is lower than any OECD countries. That explains the higher pay the individuals with tertiary education receives. It is the prime reason why international students are attracted to study in Germany.
Gender: Out of the survey respondents 131 answered on this category of gender. Out of which 102 individuals are male and 32 are female. This stark difference shows the gender imbalance in Bangladesh education system. In a male-dominated country, general education in Bangladesh has more male students than females. Although recent initiatives on girl education have induced some growth in numbers of female participants. At the higher education level, it is still very low. On the primary level of education, the ratio of the female participant is 50% of the total enrolled students, which gets slightly lower on the secondary level to 47.38% and in the tertiary level, it is only 31.43%. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “BANBEIS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BANBEIS-Educational Database”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-11”, “title” : “Bangladesh Education Statistics”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61e55cb3-1ed7-43d6-94be-8f791712f79b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BANBEIS, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(BANBEIS, 2016). From that trend, the female students pursuing study abroad from Bangladesh is even lower due to societal and cultural pressure.

Study Level: A stimulating observation of study level of Bangladeshi students in Germany is, out of 135 respondents 84.1% are selected in Germany for studying in Masters level. Only 12.9% for Bachelor and rest 4% for Ph.D. The reason behind that can be explained in two parts. Firstly, Universities in Bangladesh both public and private have wide options for Bachelor study fields. While in Masters level the study fields are narrowed down to few. As an example, in the most prestigious private University in Bangladesh, we can see bachelor or undergraduate programs having 23 programs in 4 department wherein masters level it is just 16 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.northsouth.edu/graduate-programs/”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “NSU”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Graduate Programs”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Graduate Programs-NSU”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=90c39936-eced-49c0-9f82-ed7383a6666e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(NSU, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(NSU, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(NSU, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(NSU, 2018). In other public and private universities, the ratio is even lower. Having fewer options of study program persuade students to study abroad for a quality masters education. Secondly, many of the master’s level programs in Bangladesh lack adequate professors and teaching staffs. The quality of professors and lecturers needed to represent a masters level program is not easily obtainable in Bangladesh. Most of the new established masters level programs are run by professionals on the subject matter. In many occasion, Public university professors work as a part-time lecturer in private institutes. This creates a lack in the quality assurance of the subject matter taught. Also, most Master’s program in Bangladesh requires a working experience in the similar field. This can create the influence of studying abroad for many students.

In the following parts of the research, the analysis is divided into three distinct parts as Academic Facet, Professional vision, and Interpersonal development. To identify the overall perception of development it is imperative to identify an individual’s holistic view. During study and after study what are the criterions that motivate Bangladeshi students to decide to study in Germany?
Academic AspectEducation Institutes of the host country (University)
One fundamental drive for determining to study abroad depends comprehensively on the educational institution’s reputation of the host country. Apart from the funded students by governments and organizations, major voluntary steps taken to study abroad act as a push from a poor educational system of the home country. In general, The chosen country to study are constantly developed countries with high ranked educational institutes. Germany has a history of the rich education system with diverse subject programs to study. Since many years German educational institutes evidently took place in the world’s best education institutes rankings. On the recent Academic Ranking of World Universities, 37 German universities got a place among 500 top universities. 4 of the universities are ranked within top 100. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2017.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shanghai Ranking Consultancy”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Academic Ranking of World Universities”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “World Top 500 Universities”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c3b38d5b-571e-46a1-8881-cd167dc915ff” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2017). It is only logical that international student research the universities they want to put your name down beforehand applying for study. Although university rank matters to the students there are other factors which impose critical influence behind deciding on a chosen university.
To recognize the motivation behind selecting specific university the surveyed individuals were asked to name their university in Germany. Generating a city map from the survey response we can identify that from 135 incoming students from Bangladesh, major students chose to study in the south-west part of Germany. There is also a large student share in Berlin, Leipzig, and Dresden which is in the south-east part. Northern Germany is clearly not a preferred region to study by the Bangladeshi students. As only Hamburg and Kiel have a minimum share of Bangladeshi students. The regional share of the university depicts the idea of selecting universities that have already established a reputation.
By University’s location share analysis, we can observe, out of 135 responses, a significant 12% are studying in Berlin. Being the capital of Germany, Berlin has a certain familiarity and reputation among non-EU countries. Well-established universities are some of the prime reasons to choose the capital city. Other major mentionable cities that host Bangladeshi students are Leipzig(hosting 8 students), Bonn and Jena both cities hosting 6 students each. However, surprisingly a small city Kleve host 9 (7%) of the total 135 surveyed students.
Traditionally it is believed that bigger and metropolitan cities attract more creative and talented people, transnational human capital thrives in cities with multicultural attributes and more opportunities. From the respondent’s selection of universities, it can be observed that most Bangladeshi students aim for cities that are comprehensively university cities.

4705353106420Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Region wise University share of Bangladeshi Students
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Region wise University share of Bangladeshi Students
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left265227Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: University share of Bangladeshi Students;
created withhttps://www.easymapmaker.com/
0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: University share of Bangladeshi Students;
created withhttps://www.easymapmaker.com/

However, for international students, the other important aspect of choosing a university is the subject of study. The choice options can go both ways. When students select a country to study some may initially look for institutes that can offer them the subject field they want to pursue the higher degree. University ranking, and size of the city come in second position preference for this cohort of students. For other, nevertheless, a bigger city with more reputed university holds more importance. One explanation of them choosing the universities and then the offered subjects by those universities can be the familiarity with the city. On the other hand, the option of selecting bigger and commercial cities can be explained as possibilities of getting part-time jobs and already established ethnic communities of the country of origin.
University Ranking ———————–Study program
Study Field Prospect ——————-University Ranking
There is always a positive association between University ranking with a destination of the international student’s choice. From the survey, it can be observed even though bigger cities like Berlin, Munich, and Stuttgart attract more Bangladeshi students, unconventional yet a smaller city like Kleve has 7% of students share of 135. The reason behind this is the characteristics of the University. As newly established universities in small cities offer more contemporary subject fields which has a growing demand in the labor market. Exchange opportunities and internship facilities to some well-known organizations are arranged by the modern and innovative universities. Subjects like sustainable development management and financial economics attract an international student who wants to contribute to the growth of their home country too. But most of the international students who are studying abroad find the future prospect select the study field and university based on the labor market demand both in the host country and Global economy.

Personal passion or Labor market demand, ultimate return of the study abroad for most individuals is the economic growth and advancement of life. Following section analyses how international students choose study field and the motivation behind it.
Study field:
The choice of study program is a crucial decision to make as an international student. Personal interest, the capability of understanding and efficiency in a chosen subject field is a necessary consideration to keep while choosing the subject field to study. At the same time, it is very significant to research the implication of the study program in the real world and especially in the labor market of the home or host country.
While some study fields do have a very high demand in the German labor market. Studying in some eccentric study program may bring a misfortune for some individuals for their career. After studying in Master of Monumental Heritage one respondent states “I came here as a master student got 1,3 as total grade and 1,0 for the thesis. By the end of my master degree, I could communicate in German. Still, I didn’t get a full-time job during my 1st year of the trial. I, however, got a Ph.D. admission and got rejected for scholarships more than 8 times during the last 3 years. Currently, I am working part-time to support my study. I have tried everything starting from applying for UN, UNESCO internship up to selling tourist company ticket on the street. I am not sure whether Germany is an international student friendly or not.” This also demonstrates only having good academic grades may not have an influence on deserving an opportunity in the host country labor market, the demand of the studied program has an important impact on the further prospect. How smooth the study to work transitions will be in Germany depends somewhat on the subject program studied. From the survey responses, we can identify the maximum number of Bangladeshi students are studying Engineering in Germany. Out of 135 surveyed students, a greater number of 22 individuals are studying in a different branch of engineering. The following most studying subject by Bangladeshi students is CSE at 13%, Economics & Social Science at 12% and informatics at 9%. Other studied subjects are IT, Health & Biology, International Business, Environment-Energy, General Science, and Textile.

7809621500003355340Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Bangladeshi Students Study Field Share
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Bangladeshi Students Study Field Share

If we compare the study fields chosen by the Bangladeshi students with the labor market demand in Germany, we can observe the skilled labor shortage in Germany has been increasing in specific industries over the 20 years. According to the state job center special occupations that are facing labor shortage are Mechatronics and Automation Engineering, Energy Engineering, Building Construction, Civil Engineering, Transport and the other technical professions. For healthcare and nursing, there is also a very big gap between supply and demand of skilled personnel. On an expert shortage, the most impacted professional areas are Automotive Engineering, Aerospace, and Naval Engineering, IT system Analysis, User Support, IT Sales, Software development, and Programming. The qualified professionals and specialist are standardized by the University degree or similar qualifications. Experts are standardized as individuals who completed at least 4 years of university studies or comparable course. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Bonn”, “title” : “Fachkru00e4fteengpassanalyse”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5826202f-fb8f-4cca-84c0-74a370d0a5d2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bundesagentur fu00fcr Arbeit, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(BfA, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bundesagentur für Arbeit, 2018). From the comparison between the studied program by Bangladeshi students and the labor demand of Germany, we can come to a forecast that most Bangladeshi students studying in Germany are qualified to enter the labor market based on their study field. However, there is no mention of skill shortage on a social science related field. So, analyzing the demand of the German labor market the students from social science may face difficulties to enter the German work market.
2. Difficulty Level of the studied Course
While asked about the difficulty level of the study course related to Bangladeshi education standard, 51.5% expressed the German curriculum being more difficult than Bangladesh. In one way it shows the excellence of the German education system is more had to attain. The other perspective can be that Bangladeshi students are able to adapt to difficult education system even after coming from the more scattered education system. 43.9% said the German education system is medium difficult compared to the Bangladeshi system. The educational structure and instruction methods and evaluation process in Bangladesh and Germany are completely different. German universities except law schools use a 5-point grading scale (GPA) to evaluate the performance of university students. Grades vary from 1 (excellent, Sehr gut) to 5 (insufficient). In general, The Bangladesh public universities follow the British grading system.
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On average, most universities where the grade points classified according to the British undergraduate degree classification system, GPA above or equal to 3 is equal to 1st Class in honors degree in Bangladesh. This means, CGPA 3.00 to 4.00 = 1st Class, CGPA 2.50 to 2.99 = 2nd Class, CGPA 2.00 to 2.49 = 3rd Class. However, there are few private universities where North American grading standards are used ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “NUFFIC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education system Bangladesh”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “number-of-pages” : “13”, “title” : “Education system Bangladesh”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aaa09bdc-4acd-428e-9afc-195a32039205” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(NUFFIC, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(NUFFIC, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(NUFFIC, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(NUFFIC, 2012).

The minimum requirement of enrolment in a German University for international students is grade point 3 for most master’s level program according to British grading system, which means only students having a first-class degree in Bangladesh education system can apply for study in a German university. That demonstrates the Bangladeshi students are enrolling in German universities are more commendable than average Bangladeshi students.

3. The language of the program
For international student’s language of the study, the program keeps significant importance as studying in a foreign language can be extremely tough and may bring down the performance level. In the survey, the students were asked to mention the language of their study program; if it is in English or German or a mix of both. 87.9% of the 135 students mentioned medium of instruction as English where 9.1% said it is in German & English combined. Only 3 % of 135 Bangladeshi students are pursuing their higher study in Germany in full German language. However, the German higher degree courses in University which have English as a medium of instruction requires IELTS 6 as minimum efficiency level from the participant students. Bangladeshi students learn English as a second language in schools, to attain the minimum required language efficiency in English they have to take the IELTS exam and acquire the least level. Where students studying in combine language courses require to take into both German B1 level and English IELTS 6 as minimum requirements. This observation follows the concept of linguistic capital for individuals. Having proficiency in both English and German other than the mother tongue Bengali, definitely increase the linguistic capital among the Bangladeshi students studying in Germany.

Internship
The respondents were asked if they require to do an internship as a part of your study program. only 52(39.4%) of 135 students mentioned internship as an obligatory in the study program. The professional exposer for the rest 60% will be lesser than the ones who did the internships.
The internship is an of exposer to the world of work in Germany and of acquiring knowledge and building networks that could be of help later when looking for a job. The fact about internships and part-time jobs are, firstly, internships are mostly in the established organization and based on the studied program whereas part-time jobs can be anything from working in a restaurant or university itself. It can be assumed in a positive note that, doing an internship during or after the study enhance the chance of a job in the related field of study. As it gives an exposure to
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the world of work and enhances the professionalism of an individual. Whereas part-time jobs may help financially but hardly some have an impact on the time of transition to work.
Completing an internship works as a training method for the specific field of work, according to Theodore Schultz, the on the job training is one of the prime ways to induce human capital into an individual. This not only generates industry-specific labor force, at the same time saves expenditure of depreciative cost. Educating students as an intern not only benefits the students but also the economic aspect of the industries.
Scholarships and Funding
Students from developed countries who aim for studying abroad often seek scholarships and funding for the study. Deriving from a poor economic condition, it is always considerate of the Bangladeshi students if they can avail a scholarship or fund. Currently, to promote academic exchange between Germany and Bangladesh, DAAD, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, and few other organizations are promoting scholarship every year for the best and brightest in Bangladesh. Scholarship such as “Grants for foreign graduate students and young scientists” “BMZ-funded third country DAAD scholarship” and “German-Bangladeshi university network for sustainable textiles and clothing sector” etc are promoted for specific areas of students. Other mentionable Individual funding is “Grants for foreign graduate 8102366142900students and young scientists” for Ph.D. students. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DAAD Landersachstand”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “24”, “title” : “Kurze Einfu00fchrung in das Hochschulsystem und die DAAD-Aktivitu00e4ten | 2017”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8565b1d7-44f3-46ec-98f8-445f5f343a47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2017)
Although there is a number of funding options available for the Bangladeshi students, the number of these scholarships available is not ample for the students keen to participate. Also, most of these funding comprehensives for all the Asian countries. Because of this, the ratio of Bangladeshi students getting a scholarship or funding becomes thin.
Also, due to current political unrest and corruption issues, DAAD recalled all the funding in for Bangladesh in 2016 until the end of 2018. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DAAD Landersachstand”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “24”, “title” : “Kurze Einfu00fchrung in das Hochschulsystem und die DAAD-Aktivitu00e4ten | 2017”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8565b1d7-44f3-46ec-98f8-445f5f343a47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2017)
From the survey, we can observe only 14 % of 132 people which is 19 individuals attained scholarships. Many of the bright students cannot afford to study abroad because of financial constraints. More collaborations between German and Bangladeshi universities can promote more funding options. Private scholarships and funding from an organization who requires a specific field of the labor force can introduce the study funding process.

Cost of education
As Bangladesh falls under a developing country, it is only recent times that higher education has been taken as an emergent growth strategy. Most of the private universities in Bangladesh required the student to pay several thousand euros per year. Only well-off families can support these required amounts ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “DAAD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DAAD Landersachstand”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “24”, “title” : “Kurze Einfu00fchrung in das Hochschulsystem und die DAAD-Aktivitu00e4ten | 2017”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8565b1d7-44f3-46ec-98f8-445f5f343a47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(DAAD, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(DAAD, 2017). Many students who are able to afford the higher education in the private universities are inclined to look for an opportunity to study abroad. For them spending a similar amount for a better-qualified degree brings more future aspects. As the cost is a vital influence to select country of choice.
Germany is still providing tuition-free higher education to the international students. Apart from scholarships and funded studies, regular students who desire to study abroad bears the expense by themselves or through family supports. However, the living expense in Germany is far more expensive than in Bangladesh. This motivates the students from Bangladesh to calculate the return on investment in their stay during the study. The main cost of the study period is thus the living expense and semester fee.

Among the surveyed students significant 84(63.2%) students mentioned no tuition fees as the prime reason to choose Germany over any other countries for the higher study. Another 21.1 % said that academic excellence of the German education system was their drive to select Germany. This observation portrays, the influencing factor for international students coming from developing countries. German higher education system is preferable for major developing country students because of tuition fee exemption. The other major reasons mentioned by the respondents are 7.5% after study prospects. The prospect of a studying abroad also relates to the subject field to the labor market. Studying in subject fields those are in demand by the labor market gives the opportunity to convert the transition process more fair and easier.
Field of Study
The subject field of study is an important indicator in terms of relating the student’s future aspect into the labor market. Apart from a better work transition opportunity, there are several other reasons behind the selection of a specific subject. Mention % of subject fields from the xl and then motivation from the graph. Although the employment policies of the host country play a vital role in employment opportunities for the international students, the studied field has an optimum importance in attaining the opportunities. In the survey, respondents were asked about their motivation behind selecting a particular study program.
From the survey it can be identified, the motivation to choose the given study program has significant 37.1% confirming better job opportunities. However, 49.2% has confirmed out of 132 responses that they had a personal interest in the subject. 6.8% of students confirm the motivation of choosing the specific study program is ease of admission.

Bangladeshi students studying and studied in Germany estimate the study field of the higher education determines the employment opportunities in Germany to a great extent. Having a perception of the study field demand in the labor market also portrays a understand and analytical capability of the Bangladeshi students. The personal interest of the studied subject field demonstrates the eagerness to learn and concentrate on the specific field.
Professional Stance7. Employment opportunities
Whether in the country of origin or in the host country, attaining a higher degree from abroad unlocks greater professional opportunities for any individuals. At one side, the individual who completes studying abroad assumed as a credential candidate for the country of origin. Attaining knowledge from a better educational system, global exposer of personal and professional characteristics makes them more competent. At the same time, influence on multicultural characteristic makes a foreign degree holder a much desirable candidate in the home country. It is viewed as a prestige in developing country to attain a foreign degree. The liberalization of market policies certainly increased the foreign investment in developing countries since the 1990s. Many multinational companies tend to launch affiliations and branches in economically growing developing countries. These companies are recruiting overseas degree holders and influencing many international students from developing countries to return home. The job opportunity not only gets higher for foreign degree holders in the country of origin the monetary compensation is also greater than candidates who completed a study in the home country. At the same time remaining at the host country after studies also expose opportunities to involve in the host country’s labor market or the even the global world of work. Depending on the host country’s employment policies for international students and skill migration individuals decides to stay in the host country ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-3-642-36708-3_2”, “abstract” : “Cross-border higher education has become an important mode for globalizing higher education. It occurs when a provider, programme, course material, teacher or student goes beyond the national boundaries. Based on the data on student mobility, the paper attempts to discuss the pattern of cross-border student flows and some plausible explanations for the observed patterns. During the colonial period, a good share of the student flow was from colonies to the world capitals. During the Cold War era, the rival powers were competing to influence the direction of the flow. During the period of globalization, it became a market-driven activity and, at times a commercial activity traded under GATS. The recent changes in the flow of cross-border students indicate that the dominant flow continues to be toward Europe and the USA. However, countries such as Australia and New Zealand are becoming attractive destinations for overseas students. These changes in the direction of flow are influenced more by the cost of education than by political considerations. Many institutions in some of the host countries rely heavily on the income brought by the cross-border education students.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Varghese”, “given” : “N.V.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Research Papers IIEP”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-33”, “title” : “Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d314d069-ae0f-4c31-96ea-10af11b87376” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Varghese, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Varghese, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Varghese, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Varghese, 2008).

When the respondents were asked about the future career prospect of their studied program, 64(47.8%) students mentioned the job market is competitive for an international student. Another 52 (38.8%) mentioned they have the perception of available jobs in their studied program. Another 9% mentioned they are still not sure about the outcome of their studied program. One individual mentioned having a perception of good prospect on their studied program in the beginning only later to find out that non-EU individuals are not generally hired in that area. Having a clear perspective on the future aspect of the studied field might not be accurate all the time. However, analysis the demand and shortage of skills in the current labor market can give a proper idea on the career prospect of the studied program. Adequate information gathering and knowledge about current industries can give a better view of their program demand.
Transition to the Labor Market
The academic success of a graduate is measured in real life through the post-study professional achievements. Transiting from the academic life towards the world of work is has different circumstances. Only obtaining a higher grade in academic life may not adequate to avail the specific job related to the study. On this Teichler proposed a concept on success or achievement of a graduate. Educational investment can return as either vertical term (e.g. high return for educational investment, a substantial income advantage compared to non-graduates or a high ratio of graduates adequately employed) or in horizontal term (e.g. a close linkage between field of study and occupation as well as job assignments or a high degree of utilization of knowledge on the job which has been acquired in the course of study). A horizontal transition to employment can be described as per him as short periods and limited effort for job search, short intervals between graduation and employment, no or short periods of occasional employment in the search for regular employment. He also touched upon on study in a foreign country might become essential for graduates in order to be prepared for the internationalizing labor market. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1023/A:1003761214250”, “ISBN” : “00181560”, “ISSN” : “0018-1560”, “PMID” : “2557335”, “abstract” : “The review of major research approaches and themes suggests that research on the relationships between higher education and the world of work has been closely linked during the recent three to four decades to changing themes of policy and practise. There were some indicators of research in this area being an agent of subordination of higher education to the employment system, being quantitative-structurally biased, tending to reproduce the actors’ myths and being stuck in the over-education debate. A closer look, however, reveals that the range of research approaches is very broad and that a common core of themes and approaches emerged which provides the opportunity of examining controversial hypotheses. It is finally suggested that research in this area should be based on anticipation of likely changing conditions in the future, e.g. trends towards u201cprecariousu201d or u201cflexibleu201d employment, towards a u201cmassu201d or u201cabundanceu201d paradigm, towards a ‘life-long learning society’ and towards an ‘international’ or ‘global’ labour market.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teichler”, “given” : “Ulrich”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “note” : “Author investigated the extent of influence higher education has on the transitionto the worldof work. With 4 thought provoking dimensions, he mentioned 1. what is the limit for higher education to influence an individuals future profession? 2. if higher education should be only a foundation for the future occupation or a direct preparation segment. Thirdly he mentioned a very intriguing question as should higher studies prepare the idividual for particular subject or for a wiide range or areas. Finally, he addressed the competence standard that meets the employment system’s demand. saying, what is the extent education should act as an agent to create those characterstics.

He proposed success or achievement of a graduate’s educational investment can resturn as either vertical term (e.g. high return for educational investment, a substantial imcome advantage compared to non-graduates or a high ratio of graduates adequately employed) or in horizontal term (e.g. a close linkage between field of study and occupation as well as job assignments or a high degree of utilization of knowledge on the job which has been acquired in the course of study) page 9. a smooth transition to employment, can be described as per Tchichler short periods and limited effort for job search, short intervalls between graduation and employment, no or short periods of occasional employment in the search for regular employment. He also touched upon on study in a foreign country might become essential for graduates in order to be prepared for the internationalizing labour market”, “page” : “169-190”, “title” : “Research on the Relationships Between Higher Education and the World of Work: Past Achievements, Problems and New Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “38” }, “locator” : “9”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6119bab0-493a-484f-a067-cb83cd07d91d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Teichler, 1999, p. 9)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Teichler, 1999, p. 9)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Teichler, 1999, p. 9)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Teichler, 1999, p. 9)
After completing the course of education, International students who wish to remain in the host country is requiring to lawfully enter the labor market. This transition process varies from country to country. For some developed country the procedure might be easier than others. Where in some countries the procedure might seem difficult at the beginning for it is more organized and profitable in the long run.
From the survey respondents, 89 (67.4%) individuals mentioned the process of transition from study to the labor market in Germany is complicated but attainable. Another 21.2% said it is easier than Bangladesh to transit from education to labor market in Germany. 11.4% said it is difficult. Transition into the German labor market for international students depends on few criterions. The initial opportunities international non-EU students are given is an 18 months visa of job search option after their completion of the degree. During this time period, they can take up any job they want.

However, the to attain a work permit in Germany an international student must get a job offer related to their study field. Secondly, there are two different kinds of a work permit to avail. First, is the regular work permit which is applicable only for Germany, this option requires to have a fulltime job in accordance with the studied field with a registered employer situated in Germany. In most scenario, this offer must be a professional job. Odd jobs or jobs outside their study field may not permit them the residences. The second option is for individuals who want to attain the EU blue card, which enables them to work anywhere in EU. This work permit option however tagged with a very high rated payment clause ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Studying in Germany”, “type” : “report” }, “locator” : “11”, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d64a7394-32fc-4223-aad6-45277e18735e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018, p. 11)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018, p. 11)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018, p. 11)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2018, p. 11)
A further study on students who completed their studies in any German University and are now engaged in the German labor market can give us a practical idea of the transition process. This aspect is a critical step not only for the international students but also for the German industries who are willing to employ international students.

Part-time Job
In many host countries, obtaining a part-time job can be difficult for the international student. In Germany however, most International students during their study period engage in part-time jobs. In one hand, it may seem this gives the students a financial ease in living. On the other side, part-time jobs can work for the student’s psychology for the future decision-making process. At the same time this act as exposed to the host country’s labor market. As students participate in the part-time jobs in the host country, they get accustomed to the work-life nature of the host country. This often influences them to decide to work in the given country in the future. They build networking and professional attitude during this time. That gives them the exposer to the possible entry in the labor market. As the response to the survey, 81.2% of Bangladeshi students claimed they engaged in part-time jobs during their study period. Starting from the university support role, working as studentwereker in private companies to odd-jobs such as in bakery and restaurants Bangladeshi students are working in a variety of industries as a part-time employee. Only 7.5 % said they did not involve in any part-time jobs and other 11.3 ; students are still searching for a side job. From this survey question, we can observe that out of 133 responses for this question 107 people already have an exposer in the German labor market, which requires linguistic competence and cultural adaptability. Inter-Personal integration/developmentGerman as a foreign language
11. How does learning a new language benefits an international student? Many scholars have considered in accordance and against with the concept of Bourdieu’s linguistic habitus as a symbolic power. An empirical study on class-specified access to acquiring foreign language by Gerhard and Hans explains how access to this capital can be determined by the class association of the parents and country-specific education system. (Gerhards & Hans, 2013). The mentioned study focused on German student’s early exposed to study abroad and the incorporation of a foreign language. Identifying the foreign language as Transnational Human Capital, the study focusses for the determinants of student’s study abroad influence. Two different variate analyses navigated to different finding, while the multiple variable analyses resulting in parental economic capital determining the access to transnational capital such as foreign education. Analyses 5 between only two variables resulted positive on the hypothesis, that embodied cultural capital (parental influence) can motivate the student to choose the option of studying abroad. However, the study is done on the German education system acquiring data from the GSOEP (German Socio-Economic Panel), thus the result is appropriate to Germany only.

Another theoretical article tried to identify probable solution available for the language barrier faced by the multinational and transnational organization. (Feely & Harzing, 2002). According to the authors, although there are many electronics tools available to communicate with the parent and subsidiary company, the directly spoken language barrier has been hampering business relationships and activities. To coordinate business function with the limited language barrier, they suggested the use of English as a “lingua franca”, meaning, one language suits all. Expatriates can be useful for the parent company, but nonetheless an expensive option. At the same time, also, host countries never fully accept and collaborate efficiently with expatriates. However, they suggest a most used option is inpatriate, individuals who are employees from subsidiary countries taken in the direction of the parent company to operate the business process of his country. This option will require the inpatriate to incorporate dual language as embedded skill and operate as a bilingual.

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From the survey, the Bangladeshi students were asked about their German learning levels. The response ratio for this question was not satisfactory. Out of 107 individuals who responded 50.5% mentioned their German knowledge as A2, 20.6% B1 and 13.1% as B2. Officially as a non-EU professional to work in Germany B1 level is required from the candidate. That shows around 50% of the students linguistically enriched in the German language and are able to enter the German labor market.
How do Students Decide?
13 Rachel Brooks and Johanna Waters emphasizes on how internationalization of higher education has a prominent place in the nation’s policymaking. With the case study of a few UK citizens moving abroad to study she tries to find the gap and introspective factors of student’s motivation in choosing a country or region. To understand the perspective and motivation of student to study abroad is imperative to link neoliberalism and globalization with education. The decision-making process works in two phases. In the pre-phase of the selection process depends on the background of the individual student, their family orientation, financial capability and the push to grow beyond a traditional lifestyle. The post phase on the other hand for selecting a country depends on academic institutions ranking and the field of study and the host countries lifestyle. Personal passion towards the subject and the implementation availability of the subject field into the real work holds the most importance. Linguistic comfort and part-time job opportunities are also important. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9780230578449”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brooks”, “given” : “Rachel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waters”, “given” : “Johanna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “publisher” : “Palgrave Macmillan UK”, “publisher-place” : “Hampshire”, “title” : “Student Mobilities , Migration and the Internationalization of Higher Education”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=416942cc-ef78-41aa-b959-34605821e68a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Brooks & Waters, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Brooks & Waters, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Brooks & Waters, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Brooks & Waters, 2011)
From the survey response, we can observe out of 133 Bangladeshi students 78 (58.6%) mentioned a better job and living as the prime reason to study abroad. Coming from a developing country such as Bangladeshi, having talent is not enough for doing better in life. Nepotism, corruption, and bureaucracy involved in every aspect of Bangladesh labor market pushes the young and talented

to opt out to study and settle outside of their home country. Another 32.3% individuals mentioned enhancing their skill set for the future inspired them to study abroad. This also relates to the next cohort of respondents who mentioned the lack of similar programs in Bangladesh pushed them to study abroad to pursue their desired path of career. As the majority of Bangladeshi students are coming to Germany for masters level study and the higher educational institutes in Bangladesh are not adequate to provide standard masters level education.

Post-Study plan:
When asked about the future plan after studying in Germany, a significant 62.1 % mentioned they want to remain in Germany and integrate into the German labor market. Mentioned push factors of Bangladesh in Section A are some highlighted explanations to motivate Bangladeshi students deciding to remain in Germany. A greater 24.2% are still unsure about what they want to do after the study abroad in Germany. A percentage of the student wants to pursue Ph.D. after their Bachelor and Master degree or internship. But several students are planning on returning to Bangladesh. Contradictory to the push and pull factors between Bangladesh and Germany why this portion of students wants to return to Bangladesh? Doing a detailed analysis, it can be observed that, there can be few underlying factors to motivate n individual to return from a developing country to a developing country such as Bangladesh.

Firstly, the individuals are holding scholarships. It is important to mention here, some scholarships which are provided by the home country itself requires the individual holding the scholarship to return to home country. Secondly, family responsibilities and belongingness. Thirdly, they studied subject programs which have more applicability in developing countries such as Bangladesh more than in Germany. From the survey detail, it is identified the people planning to return to Bangladesh falls under one of these three criterions.
Skill Accretion
Remaining in Germany or returning to Bangladesh, Bangladeshi students do believe that the study abroad experience has made them more confident, skilled and competent for their future career. Around 92% of the Bangladeshi students who studied and are studying in Germany said they learned and acquired new skills for their career. This statement can explain the proximity of their growth as human capital in the world market.
Defining the human capital as we discussed in the theory part, studying abroad does persuade growth and prosperity in every aspect of an individual. Those become not only skillful on the studied program but also other must required competencies such as cultural adaptation, linguistic capital, market exposer and overall self-assessment capability. One of the respondents mentioned in the open statement “The higher education in Germany has helped me to learn how to think not what to think” That shows that the studying abroad procedure not only helps individuals to explore ideas it also influences to follow the right procedure to do so.
Challenges to study in Germany
For 15. Proper knowledge and awareness about the study field and German educational system create fear and anxiety among international students coming from developing countries. Arriving from a less organized education system and lack of regulation and monitoring in Bangladesh builds the students as somewhat rigid adaptability. Adaptation in studying abroad is highly imperious to succeed. From cultural mannerism to professionalism in the host country’s labor market. Only academic education may not be sufficient. Integration requires openness, effort, and acceptance. One of the respondents mentions on their open statement segment on his experience in Germany “After facing the initial cultural shock, things started clear-up for me as I changed my mindset to be more adaptive than conservative. This approach applies throughout a wide spectrum of activities, including things in personal and professional life, study methods etc. I find this to be a less noticed obstacle for most Bangladeshi students in Germany, especially those studying in bigger cities with larger Bengali speaking population. Most of the students are here for concise 2-year-long MS programmes, so obviously they don’t find enough time to integrate all the way. Result?? Among 8 out of 10 students that I know who couldn’t finish their studies / couldn’t find a job / wasn’t motivated to work here, are because of late or no adaptation mindset.”
Respondents were asked about the most critical part of their studying in Germany, 39.2% held the study curriculum was a critical part of their studying abroad experience. Where the second mentioned point is the visa process.
Prior coming to Germany Bangladeshi students has to go through a lengthy visa process to attain the student visa. After arriving in Germany as an international student they require to fix block account with sufficient amount of money to extend the visa in the abbreviated time period. One responded mentions regarding the visa extension process as “After coming here we have to extend visa every year and visa office gives 3/6/8 months visa, which is painful and time wasting. If the program is for 2 years, then the visa office should give this 2 years visa at the beginning. It’s really a hassle. University gives a letter for an extension, but visa officers do what they want. I think this process should be changed.”. Even after studying the most relevant study programs related to German Labor market, still, 18.5% of Bangladeshi students believe that after study opportunities are the most critical part of their study abroad experience. Lack of appropriate communication and support about the after-study integration creates complications and difficulties. Another 7.7% considered the admission process in German universities was also hectic procedure. As very few universities allow a direct application procedure, and most of the international students must go through a third-party portal called “Uni-assist” to qualify to apply to their desired universities. The procedure is time-consuming and stressful. Surprisingly, only 2 individuals among the 135 respondents mentioned language as a barrier or critical aspect of their study abroad experience in Germany.
Germany as Recommendation
14. Even after facing plenty challenged before and after arriving in Germany, in the answer to the question about if they will recommend Germany as the study abroad destination to other Bangladeshis, out of 134 a significant 101(75.4%) individuals said they will recommend Germany. 17% said they will maybe recommend and only 9 individuals said no. That shows a majority of the surveyed population found it promising and beneficiary to study in Germany for their future aspects. Focusing on the learning German language one of the respondents mentioned A woman respondent mentioned “It depends, if anyone is willing to stay in Germany or wants to do a job here, then s/he should definitely focus on the language. And if someone is here for just to attain the degree program, I think they can survive with very basic knowledge of German language.” That imposes, the recommendation can be skewed to individuals who are willing to complete their study and integrate into the labor market must learn German to boost their opportunity.
On another note, as Bangladesh being a moderately conservative country, it’s socially liberating for female students to experience a society which is more open and acceptable. A female respondent stated on the given subject “It was a great opportunity to learn to be self-dependent in every way and also enjoy the freedom which is a bit tough to experience in Bangladesh esp. For women”.
Limitation of the study- 4Many studies have been conducted regarding international student’s motivation to select a country to study and their post-study achievements. However, there have been very few to no studies done on student’s mobility in accordance with the idea of the specific country of origin to the specific host country. Attaining information on Bangladesh’s mobile students was only available from the country and OECD database. There is some significant limitation occurred during this research. The limitations of this survey analysis can be categorized into 4 segments.

Only on students and graduates, not employers
Employers perception of international student’s performance from a specific country of origin can identify the validation of student’s perception of future achievements. The first limitation challenged while conducting the design of the survey is the absence of the employer’s perspective for whom the Bangladeshi students are working for in Germany. Academic excellence or partaking an uninterrupted study flow not necessarily portray a real professional scenario. The factors those make the Bangladeshi students in Germany as potential human capital for German labor market needs to be verified by the organizations and employers who are utilizing their acquired skills. Notwithstanding of gender and ethnicity fairness, employers still pursue certain preconceive notion on hiring individuals from the same origin, if the performance of similar has been efficient. Having a Bangladeshi student as an efficient employee will surely influence the employer to consider further employment of same. As with time and resource constrain this was not possible to conduct an interview survey on the employers. But a further study on the German labor market industries recruiting international students and their performance evaluation will solidify the concept of transnational human capital.
Low number response from Employed individuals
Initially, the survey was designed for 120 response feedback. The online survey collected 135 responses in two weeks period. Among 135 surveyed individuals 31(23.1%) employed people responded. As many of the questions in the survey were more suitable for the employed people and their perception of several areas of the survey were more critical. The transition from study to work, the real scenario of conversion of the studied subject program to related work, discrimination and recommending Germany to other Bangladeshis would have more profound analysis result if there were more employed individuals responded. Dividing the employed students according to work experience and industries involved can give an accurate representation of the Bangladeshi student’s human capital share in the German labor market. Students willing to study in Germany in the future can also benefit from the perception of employed Bangladeshi alumni. Conducting a further survey only on employed individuals would give these areas of research more authentic representation.

Interruption in responses
Although there were 135 respondents answering the survey, many of them opt out to avoid certain questions, which created a disruption in answer analysis. But as the sample size is already very small, rejecting any interrupted answer respondent would create the sample size to shrink more. This may create slight data noise in percentage ratios. Out of 135 respondents, for 7 demographical and 16 categorical questions, 131 individuals on average answered all queries. The lowest number of responses among 18 questions is German language learning having only 107 responses. This, however, was a technical issue while designing the questionnaire. The initial level A1 was missed out in the sample questionnaire, which was a mistake and was edited later on. After 121 responses already collected the German language level A1 was added. After that 3 individuals selected A1 as their German language level. The huge number of missing responses indicate that missing 20-25 responses on this question might select A1 as their level of proficiency. However, this is only an assumption-based explanation.
Sample size
To attain a good analysis, it is important to have a robust sample size. Combination of the online survey with personal interviews would provide a more profound representation of the research topic. This research includes only 135 students from Bangladesh. The sample size hence is not enough to represent the huge number of students studying in Germany. Detail analyzing student’s perception of a whole country this sample size is not robust or sufficient. To analyze the perception and motivation more accurately, a bigger survey on a greater number of students must be conducted.
ConclusionConcluding the results of the study, we can summarize the detail and exploratory analysis of the survey in a few remarks. we can come into a concluding remark that, Understanding the demographical representation of a group can predict the homogeneity of the choice process, trend, and tradition of culture. From the above-mentioned responses, it can be observed that significant 80% of surveyed Bangladeshi students studying in Germany are in age cohort 22-30. 3 out of 4 students are male and 84% are studying in Masters level. The indicator analysis of university share represents the characteristic trend of 135 Bangladeshi students who chose to study in well-known universities with a good reputation on their chosen subject fields. If we ignore the cities that have only one single student among 135, we can observe, the city share is Berlin, Kleve, Leipzig, Bonn, Jena, Krefeld, Anhalt, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich, Duisburg, Freiburg, and Kaiserslautern. Most of these cities are well- known as university cities in Germany.
Academic-In terms of study field share, Bangladeshi students have a specific trend to study the certain field of programs. The diverse field of Engineering, Computer science, and economics are the top fields of study along with other studied subjects such as IT, Health & Biology, International Business, Environment-Energy, General Science, and Textile. Adapting to the difficult education system than in the home country induce critical analytical power in the students. This observation fuels the concept of human capital and the learning process. Attaining skills and knowledge which is not available in Bangladesh converts the students into human capital assets. Learning German is as a foreign language is important as an international student not only to integrate into the society but also if the individual is looking forward to transit to the Labor market. From the research study, it is identified Bangladeshi students are in moderate in this indicator of linguistic capability. A a major portion of the Bangladeshi students in Germany are studying in higher studies with English as the medium of instruction and at the same time the efficiency indicator shows the major number of students are still in beginner’s level A1. Bangladeshi students are studying in some of the top universities in Germany achieving quality education in fields that are professionally efficient to build them a promising future. Although mentioning the study courses as difficult the students portray an intensive knack to learn and give the effort to sustain in the struggle. The major number of students are studying in English as the medium of course language, but at the same time, they are learning the German language to adapt to the cultural and professional demand. Out of 135 only 19 students having scholarship shows the weak collaboration between Bangladesh and German education institutes. As from the DAAD report, we can observe, they are funding for more social and development courses, whereas these areas are not in demand in the German Labor Market. There are 18 partnerships between universities from Bangladesh and German universities or colleges. The partnerships are mostly projected basis, a regular exchange of students and teachers will not take place. Building a more solidified relation among both country’s policy may flourish both Bangladesh and Germany’s economic prospect.

The number of people learning German in Bangladesh grew steadily in recent years. German is taught primarily at the Goethe Institute in Dhaka, at a private language school in Chittagong. Despite-of-focus Bangladeshi study Interessierter on English-language courses, there is a willingness in principle to study preparatory to acquire basic knowledge of German and deepen this even while studying in Germany.

On a professional perception and achievement standpoint, although having the perception of the high demand of their studied fields in Germany most Bangladeshi students perceive the transition to German labor market is difficult for the international students. Complicated visa acquiring process and minimum wage level to obtain the skilled work permit makes it are for the non-EU students studying in Germany to integrate into the labor market. While getting a part-time job for an international student is relatively easier in Germany than other study destination, enrolling in the real labor market post-study is an often difficult to process. Most Bangladeshi students, however, believe that studying in Germany has enlightened them to be more skilled individuals in every aspect. Their perception of acquired skills and knowledge in Germany for their future career can be considered as a huge achievement as potential human capital. Even with the difficult transition process to the labor market a major number of Bangladeshi student expressed their will to remain in Germany and search for a job regarding their study field. Only a handful of students are planning to move back to Bangladesh. From the OECD report, we can identify the shortage of skilled individuals in the German labor market. “Trend data on relative earnings of 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education in Germany suggest that the supply of tertiary graduates is not catching up with increases in demand for highly educated workers.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/19991487”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education at a Glance 2011”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-10”, “title” : “Country Note u2013 Germany”, “type” : “report”, “volume” : “34” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f478b036-38f8-4ade-bda5-43b5de020d4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2011) in 2009, over 25% of foreign students in Germany converted their status from student to employed worker and decided to remain in the country. This is the sixth largest rate among countries with available data (Chart C3.5) and signals that foreign graduates from outside Europe are making a significant contribution to the German economy.

In terms of Inter-Personal integration/development, most Bangladeshi students perceive the language learning as the key to integrate into the German cultural and economic world.
All the above mention criterions can define Bangladeshi students as an international student as a potential human capital force for the German and also Global labor market. These qualifications to adapt and perform as a global agent of the academic and economic world, make the international students not merely human capital assets but as the transnational human capital.
In the Globalized world of today, education has opened doors towards mobility of individuals along with their skills and knowledge. Studying abroad broadens that horizon to a greater extent. In general, studying abroad expand the opportunities for individuals in many sectors of their life. The concept of Transnational Human Capital aspires individuals in many different ways such as:
EmployabilityStudying abroad opens the horizon of employability of individuals for the global economy. Observing student mobility, it is prominent that most of the movement transpires towards some specific countries. UK, Australia and the US has been at the top of the list for studying abroad for an extended period. Linguistic comfort, well-ranked universities and existing ethnic communities are some of the prime reasons to choose these countries. However, when established countries attract more talented and skilled people it creates other issues in the host country’s labor market. As a result of growing inflow, a market condition called congestion of employment starts to appear. Availability of jobs becomes harder and competitive for skilled individuals. Countries implement revised regulation towards outsiders and skill migrants. On the consequence, the transition from university to work in the host country becomes even harder for the international students. The competition to enter the labor market is not only with the host country citizens but transnational students from all over the world. The graduate labor market in established countries is an important concern which influences the host country’s policies and economy for the long term. In terms of growing host country such as Germany, because of less congestion of opportunities, international students are attracted. Acquiring linguistic capabilities and meeting the labor shortage demand in Germany, international students can place themselves as transnational human capital in the German labor market. Germany can also transform into a transnational talent hub by acquiring talented human capital from all over the world.
Cosmopolitan identitiesIt is obvious that studying abroad broadens the opportunities for the individual within the global economic market. Academic skills and knowledge contribute towards that transition in high level. It also creates a cosmopolitan identity for the individual. International exposer helps to interact with people from different cultures, influence to have an openness towards multicultural people and places and these attributes towards the labor market concepts and work ethics. The development of such behavior generates a “cosmopolitan attitude”. The organizations in today’s world are more inclined to recruit individuals with not only academic excellence, they also require an individual with openness and broad knowledge aspect of the world relation.
International Migration Opportunities
How are students influenced and motivated to select a specific region or country? Author blabla says: academic outcomes and the return of the invested financial and emotional capital are also influencing factors for a student to select a study destination. Spatial mobility in education is a very important concept to study the motivation that works for the students.
Growing number of inflows from different countries to only specific host countries such as the UK, the US, and Australia in the future will create an uneven flow of skilled and talented people across the globe. While some continents are getting enriched by more talented people the other continents are deprived of the same. The geographical perspective according to the authors holds an imperative place in the internationalization of higher education.
Education mobility has both symbolic and material meaning on an individual level. Focusing on the acquisition of citizenship or permanent residency of the host country they discuss the influencing factors can vary depending on the origin of the student’s country. Economic instability, political discourse and detreating labor market of a home country can influence people to look for opportunities outside of their country of origin. Many of developing country students ultimate aim is to settle for a permanent residence or citizenship of the host country they select to study abroad. Country policies regarding the naturalization and work permit after completing studies thus also holds significant value when selecting the country.
The globalization of the labor markets and the continuous demand for transnational talents in organizations are influencing students to take the study abroad as an investment towards their future endeavor. The drive that motivates students to study abroad is thus prominently economic than all else.
According to them, the neo-liberal influence of internationalization of higher education has a two-way approach. From the top down approach, the country policies are produced to maintain the inflow of the international talents into the country. National governments and tertiary education institutes in the established economy countries hold a most important role in this issue. The regulation of the labor market and liberal policies of talent inflow motivates the individuals to select and pursue higher education in a given country. The bottom-up approach, on the other hand, works through the individual decision-making process and selecting the country of destination. Their decision making depends upon the given choices they will have during and after the study in the host country. Some developing countries have taken the initiative to restrict the number of students pursuing higher education abroad such as Malaysia. (cite). Other countries have encouraged student migration throughout the years. Some countries hold and promote higher education scholarship as a return scheme to generate more scholar individuals for the home countries.

It is also very important to take into consideration that internationalization has very significant influence from the globalization and dominance of neo-liberalism. Selecting and residing in a given country for education and beyond is not merely a choice but an effective cost-benefit calculation. A calculation which considers not only monetary terms but also non-monetary benefits and impacts. In case of student migration from a developing to a developed country securing citizenship is often considered as a vital point. Ease of getting the citizenship, duration of stay required and post citizenship benefits.
Shanthi Robertson (2009) on her empirical research depicts that 38% of Chinese students and 66%of Indian students who graduated from Australian universities in 2002 obtained permanent residency in this way. international education and skilled migration have become inextricably linked, creating new and distinct migration pathways. The link between students from certain home country to specific destination country can also be defined in some ways, post-colonial relation, stronger foreign policy integration, and geographical distance are some important aspects for this issue. It comprises two or more states which are interlinked through prior colonial, political, trade or cultural connections. For example, this theory can explain the migration of Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani people to the UK and the migration of Algerians to France through the receiving states’ past colonial presence and influence in the sending states. In a different connection path, the migration of Turks to Germany may be seen as the result of the intentionally sought-after labor recruitment link between these two specific countries.
Extracurricular skills
The shift of higher education from a very elite class to a meso level also shifted the course of higher education worldwide. Finding the top talent also became more hectic for the labor market in general. Because of the mass number of people now can afford to pursue a prominent level of professional knowledge, only education to measure someone’s capability is not enough. Many organizations throughout the world now focus on some other aspects out of the candidates rather than only educational excellence. Having extracurricular attributes considered as openness and positive mindset of an individual.

What gives them the edge from the other competitive candidates is specialized knowledge, extracurricular activities and cultural capitals which in the labor market can be termed as “soft skills”. Leadership skills, determination, volunteer experience and involvements in a variety of sports are now prominent qualifications required by the recruiters. Interaction and expressive attributes and problem-solving attitudes are given prime importance in any global job advertisements. Within this changing labor market demand for the skilled individuals and matching the benefits of studying abroad, is it evident that international students are becoming more attractive candidates for any global recruiter. This experience is what makes them distinct from the ones that do not pursue the above-mentioned attributes. An overseas study experience gives them an opportunity to build and retain a range of soft skills and exposed to the international culture. In some cases, the informal knowledge skills become more important than the actual academic source.
Inter-cultural experiencesStudying abroad can most of the time promote the inter-cultural skills and values. It develops the openness and adaptability of the student’s cultural shocks and adjusting nature. Respondents of the survey from this research mentioned on his experience “After facing the initial cultural shock, things started clear-up for me as I changed my mindset to be more adaptive than conservative. This approach applies throughout a wide spectrum of activities, including things in personal and professional life, study methods etc. I find this to be a less noticed obstacle for most Bangladeshi students in Germany, especially those studying in bigger cities with larger Bengali speaking population. Most of the students are here for concise 2-year-long MS programmes, so obviously they don’t find enough time to integrate all the way. Result?? Among 8 out of 10 students that I know who couldn’t finish their studies / couldn’t find a job / wasn’t motivated to work here, are because of late or no adaptation mindset”
overseas education is often promoted, to students and employers alike, on the basis that it helps to develop a range of inter-cultural skills that will have value in later life, particularly within the workplace. Considerable ambivalence about the role of international education in promoting intercultural learning. While there is some evidence that educational mobility promotes a more questioning stance to one’s ‘home’ culture and a greater openness to the cultures of others, this is not experienced by all.
The relation between HE to work-Sociologist Ulrich Teichler in his review of diverse research approaches on the relationship of higher education and the world of work investigated the degree of influence by higher education on the transition to the world of work ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1023/A:1003761214250”, “ISBN” : “00181560”, “ISSN” : “0018-1560”, “PMID” : “2557335”, “abstract” : “The review of major research approaches and themes suggests that research on the relationships between higher education and the world of work has been closely linked during the recent three to four decades to changing themes of policy and practise. There were some indicators of research in this area being an agent of subordination of higher education to the employment system, being quantitative-structurally biased, tending to reproduce the actors’ myths and being stuck in the over-education debate. A closer look, however, reveals that the range of research approaches is very broad and that a common core of themes and approaches emerged which provides the opportunity of examining controversial hypotheses. It is finally suggested that research in this area should be based on anticipation of likely changing conditions in the future, e.g. trends towards u201cprecariousu201d or u201cflexibleu201d employment, towards a u201cmassu201d or u201cabundanceu201d paradigm, towards a ‘life-long learning society’ and towards an ‘international’ or ‘global’ labour market.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teichler”, “given” : “Ulrich”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Higher Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “note” : “Author investigated the extent of influence higher education has on the transitionto the worldof work. With 4 thought provoking dimensions, he mentioned 1. what is the limit for higher education to influence an individuals future profession? 2. if higher education should be only a foundation for the future occupation or a direct preparation segment. Thirdly he mentioned a very intriguing question as should higher studies prepare the idividual for particular subject or for a wiide range or areas. Finally, he addressed the competence standard that meets the employment system’s demand. saying, what is the extent education should act as an agent to create those characterstics.

He proposed success or achievement of a graduate’s educational investment can resturn as either vertical term (e.g. high return for educational investment, a substantial imcome advantage compared to non-graduates or a high ratio of graduates adequately employed) or in horizontal term (e.g. a close linkage between field of study and occupation as well as job assignments or a high degree of utilization of knowledge on the job which has been acquired in the course of study) page 9. a smooth transition to employment, can be described as per Tchichler short periods and limited effort for job search, short intervalls between graduation and employment, no or short periods of occasional employment in the search for regular employment. He also touched upon on study in a foreign country might become essential for graduates in order to be prepared for the internationalizing labour market”, “page” : “169-190”, “title” : “Research on the Relationships Between Higher Education and the World of Work: Past Achievements, Problems and New Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “38” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6119bab0-493a-484f-a067-cb83cd07d91d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Teichler, 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Teichler, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Teichler, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Teichler, 1999). With 4 thought-provoking scopes, he analyzed a very practical scenario, different from concept and ideologies. He stated in his review firstly, what is the boundary for higher education to influence an individual’s future profession. Does higher education truly prepare the graduates for the professional life or not. Secondly, if higher education should be only a foundation for the future occupation or a direct preparation stimulant. While in some subject areas, knowledge acquired from educational institutes can be directly related to the professional task, most of the higher study subjects offer theoretical knowledge with little to no practical experience. Thirdly he mentioned a very intriguing question, should higher studies prepare the individual for a particular employment task or for a wide range or portfolio. In reality, knowledge gathering from higher studies does require rendering when entered into the work life. Individuals can adapt and get training when required by specific job task. Finally, he addressed the competence standard that meets the employment system’s demand; saying, what is the extent education should act as an agent to create those capabilities. To identify and diagnose the study to work relation it is imperative to analyze these steps for a better understanding of the education economy.
As per Varghese knowledge has become an international good to be traded, and it transcends national boundaries faster than capital and people. Due to globalization, the knowledge production and accumulation has now become a market dependent trading process. And as the knowledge individuals acquire are based on the demand of the market, the institutes producing these knowledge base also has to engage in this process. As he mentions “Globalization of higher education has become a market-oriented activity attracting foreign capital, inviting competition, and producing a profit at times higher than that in other sectors” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-3-642-36708-3_2”, “abstract” : “Cross-border higher education has become an important mode for globalizing higher education. It occurs when a provider, programme, course material, teacher or student goes beyond the national boundaries. Based on the data on student mobility, the paper attempts to discuss the pattern of cross-border student flows and some plausible explanations for the observed patterns. During the colonial period, a good share of the student flow was from colonies to the world capitals. During the Cold War era, the rival powers were competing to influence the direction of the flow. During the period of globalization, it became a market-driven activity and, at times a commercial activity traded under GATS. The recent changes in the flow of cross-border students indicate that the dominant flow continues to be toward Europe and the USA. However, countries such as Australia and New Zealand are becoming attractive destinations for overseas students. These changes in the direction of flow are influenced more by the cost of education than by political considerations. Many institutions in some of the host countries rely heavily on the income brought by the cross-border education students.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Varghese”, “given” : “N.V.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Research Papers IIEP”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-33”, “title” : “Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d314d069-ae0f-4c31-96ea-10af11b87376” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Varghese, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Varghese, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Varghese, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Varghese, 2008)
The father of modern labor economics Jacob Mincer described human capital as an “analysis to explain the relation of assimilated capabilities through formal and informal education, training and experience” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3386/w0803”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mincer”, “given” : “Jacob”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES”, “container-title” : “NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “803”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1981” }, “number” : “803”, “publisher-place” : “Cambridge”, “title” : “HUMAN CAPITAL AND ECONOMIC GROWTH”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f022f635-555b-4ed1-9118-5e3e291f59b9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mincer, 1981)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mincer, 1981)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mincer, 1981)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mincer, 1981)
In one perspective from the view of the nation-state, human capital can be perceived as a factor of production which deals with physical capital. The higher value is put to human capital, the larger volume of physical capital can be produced. And it goes the other way also. Human capital as per Mincer can be a condition and consequence at the same time for the economic growth. It is not only embodied or available knowledge gathering that makes an individual human capital asset but the knowledge and skill in demand by the growing economy which required the specific human capital to validate it as such.
Human Capital generates worldwide economic growth regardless of its initial geographic location. Investment in acquiring and developing human capital is as per Mincer the most aggregated development requirement by any economy. He proposed this investment in Human capital generates two distinct expansion “individual economic growth at the micro—level, and growth of the economy at the macro— level” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3386/w0803”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mincer”, “given” : “Jacob”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “collection-title” : “NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES”, “container-title” : “NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “803”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1981” }, “number” : “803”, “publisher-place” : “Cambridge”, “title” : “HUMAN CAPITAL AND ECONOMIC GROWTH”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f022f635-555b-4ed1-9118-5e3e291f59b9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mincer, 1981)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mincer, 1981)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mincer, 1981)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mincer, 1981)
While understanding these driving forces may be subjective but study in this particular field of international migration can bring into consideration how the world political economy might shift and work in favor of the international students. Without questioning the employers of these subjects, one cannot conclude with certainty that study abroad experience contributes to the reason for hire or success within an organization. This could be a topic for extended research.

Scope: As mentioned in section A of the analysis part, Bangladesh education system is struggling to compensate the growing demand for higher education through the structural and financial side. This research can motivate policymakers to identify the required human capital for Bangladesh’s economic sector and retain the brain drain on those specific sectors by taking innovative initiations. On the other hand, the talent pool which is not in demand by Bangladesh economic industries can be given opportunity and funding to study abroad and collaborate with the host countries labor market. Sharing the human capital will not only strengthen both country’s economic growth and development it will also impact quality assurance and depoliticization of education sectors. Having only one German language institute in Bangladesh, with very high enrolment cost, makes it difficult for Bangladeshi students to have prior German language knowledge. Initiative on linguistic enhancement can be initiated by Bangladesh government to better prepare the students who are looking forward to pursuing higher studies in Germany. Current scholarship procedure and funding opportunities can be improved by involving more public and private funding sponsors. Engaging private companies as a scholarship provider will not only include a better social responsibility for the company, it will also influence more Bangladeshi students to pursue higher education abroad. The current scholarships according to DAAD are mostly for development projects and researches. Broadening this criterion of funding will also benefit both countries. Particularly, German companies having labor shortage can initiate sponsoring international students for the study fields related to their industry segment. On completion of the higher study, they can immediately employ the required resource.
This research defines Bangladeshi student’s perception of their higher educational achievements and prospects in Germany in three categories as academic, Professional and interpersonal aspects. Identifying the perception can generate the

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