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A CASE STUDY CAUSES OF DELA Y IN CONSTRUCTIO N PROJECTS FOR RAJK OT CITY BY USING AHP METHOD A Project Submitted to GUJARA T TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY In partial fulfillment for the award of DE GREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Submitted by1. Lodhiya yashkumar140030106 5322.Ra valiya Prashant1500301065 383.M ehta Bhargav1600331060 214.Zala Hardiksinh150030106 1245. Chaudhari jayprakash140030106 507 Under the Guidance of Mr. Hiren Ramani ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT CERTIFICATE Atmiya In stitute of Technology and Science, Rajkot Civil Engineering Department 2018-19 DECLARATION We hereby declare that the Project Reports, submitted alo ng with the Project Report for the project entitled A CASE STUDY CAUSES OF DELAY IN CONS TRUCTION PROJECTS F OR RAJKOT CITY BY USING AHP METHOD submitted in fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in civil engineering to G ujarat technological University, Ahmadabad, s a bonafide record of the project work c arried out at Amiya Institute of Technology and Science under the supervision of Asst. Prof. hiren ramani and that no part of any of these Project reports has been directly copied from any student step or sort taken from any other source, Wit hout provide in due reference. NAME SIGN OF ST UDENTS Page i ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Abstract Construction projects contain numerous interdependent and inter related activities. The studies reveal that most of th e construction project faces time and cost o verruns mostly due to management failures. The p roject planning is commonly perceived as creating Gantt Chart alone, which is incorrect. Gan tt chart is merely visual representation of project schedule. In fact, project plan is quite broader concept. Planning is the process of a time-b ased plan of action for coordinating various activates and resources to achieve specified objectives. It is slipping over its planned schedule and is co nsidered as common problem in constructi on projects. Delay in construction project is cons dered one of the most common problem s causing a multitude negative effect on the project and its participating parties. In this study compari son between planned schedule and builted schedule and therefore finding the delay when the pr oject is not completed on planned schedule and finding the factor is effect on project e.g. delay of material supply and poor workmanship etc. After the finding delay, to suggest the minimize of de lay. Page ii ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Index DescriptionPage No.Title PageCertificatesI-IVDeclarationVAcknowledgementVIAbstractVIIList of figuresXList of tablesXIChapter-1 Introduction11.1General21.2Objective41.3Need of Study41.4 Literature Review51.5Theory101.5.1 Project Planning101.5.2 Construction Project Definition111.5.3 Planning Benefit121.5.4 Scheduli ng Benefit121.5.5 Application of WBS131.5.6 Scheduli ng project work and resources141.5.8 Delay in Construction161.5.8 Delay in Construction171.5.9 Causes o f Delay in Construction191.5.10 Minimi zation of Construction Delay201.5.11 Delay C ategories221.5.12 Project Delay Classification23Chapter-2 Design Analysi s, Design Methodology and24Implementation strategy2.1Research Methodo logy252.2 AEIOU Summery262.3 Empathy Summer y282.4Ideation Canvas292.5Product Developm ent Canvas30Chapter-3 Implementation313.1Data collection32 Page iii ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 3.2Data analysis493.3Delay observed57Conclusion58Reference59Appendix60 List of Figure DescriptionPage No.AEIOU Summery26Empathy Mapping Canvas28Ideation Canvas29Product Development Canvas30 Page iv ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Chapter 1 Introduction Page 1 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.1 GENERAL Construction has created many wonders in the world and has provided many facilities for the benefit of the mankind. Construction is a major component of the new investment. The construction industry is esse ntial for the growth of the economy of any country. Construction projects contain numerous interdependent and interrelated activities. The studies reveal that most of the construction project face time and cost overruns mostly due to management failures. A schedule can be def ined as a work program that is set date-wise in a logical sequence. In other words, it can be defined as a time table for action. Time scheduling is the process of developing a work program. I t implies program of the chosen work plan o n a calendar basis and provides the base against which time progress is measured. A work sche dule is an action plan with calendar date targets, w hereas, network is a planning technique. A network needs to be scheduled in order to determine commencement and termination date of each activity, by using the optimum resources or working within resource constraints. A project planning is not complete until all the activities are scheduled and forecast of major resourc e is developed. The scheduling of resource in a project and multi-project envi ronment is a complex process, but the focus should be to make it simple by scheduling a few vit al resources and derive the forecast of the remainin g resource. The project management software can aid in speedy development of network and project time schedule. The scheduling metho dology varies with the nature of project, pl anning technique, and resource constraints. Simple project can be scheduled using the bar ch art methodology. The line-of balance technique is widely accepted for scheduling the repetitive work project while, network scheduling is suitable for all type of project. Page 2 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT The construction indu stry is one of the main sectors that provide important ingredients for the development of an e conomy. The construction industry is the tool through which a society achieves its goals of urban and rural development. However, it is becoming more complex because of the sophi stication of the construction process itself a nd the large number of parties involved in the constr uction process, i.e., clients, users, designers, regulators, contractors, suppliers, subcontractors, and consultants. Delay could be defined as the time over run either beyond completion date specified in a contract or beyond the date that the parties agree upon for delivery of a pro ject. It is slipping over its planned schedule and is c onsidered as common problem in construct ion projects. Delay in construction project is cons dered one of the most common problem s causing a multitude negative effect on the project and its participating parties. Therefore, it is essential to identify the actual causes of delay in o rder to minimize and avoid the delays and their corresponding expenses. Page 3 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.2 Objective The research is aimed at identifying the major causes of delay, effect of delay, and methods of minimizing delays in construc tion projects. To achieve the aims, objective s have been identified as following To identify the main reason s of delays in construction project. To identify the means of minimizing delays in construction project. To give suggestions on encountering delays on case study undertaken. 1.3 Need of study Delay in construction project is considered one of the most commo n problems causing a multitude negative eff ect on the project and its participating parties. Therefore, it is essential to identify the actual causes of delay in order to minimize and avoid the delays and their corresponding expenses. Delays in construction can cause a number of changes in a project s uch as late completion, lost produ ctivity, acceleration, increased costs, and con tract termination. A delay caused by a p arty may or may not affect the project compl etion date and may or may not cause damage to another party. A delay may occur concur rently with other delays and all of them may impact the project completion date. Page 4 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.4 LITERATURE REV IEWS Identification of the Ca uses of Construction Delay in Malaysia Author – N.Hamzah, M.A. K hory, I. Arshad, W.H.W. Badaruzzaman, an d N.M. Tawil Construction delay is un avoidable in developing countries. It is de fined as time overrun or extension of time for c ompletion of a project. Project delay is the project which is experiencing delays in the construction period where there are different gaps between the actual in-progress sites wor k compared to the work scheduled. The causes of delay are collected from the previous research paper. The purpose of this study is to open up a door for future study about the causes of delay in projects in the higher learning institutions. Construction Projects D elays and Approach of Management Author – Dhiraj S. Vijekar a nd Ashish B. Ugle Delay in project of const ruction industry is usual and common problem, as it found as it is found in each and every stu dy of performance of industry thus it is the subject of serious attention.The common soluti on for problem of delay is useful to any project of construction as each and every part of delay i s studied covering as boundaries and scope of construction projects. Causes of Delays in construction projects A case study Author – Prakash Rao, B. a nd Joseph Camron Culas Delay could be defined as the time over run either beyond completion date specified in a contract or beyond the date th at the parties agrees upon for delivery of a project. . A delay in an activity may not result in th e same amount of project delay. Delay is a situation when the contractor, consultant, and client jointly or severally contributed to the non-completion of the project within the original or agreed contract period. Page 5 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT CASE STUDY OF DE LAY IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LOST PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION PR OJECTS Author – Kuei-Mei Huang a nd Jyh-Bin Yang For analyzing the situ ations of schedule impacts caused by lost p roductivity, this study discusses a case of delay anal ysis with lost productivity in Taiwan. Throu gh the study case, this study has proposed an appro ach to calculate schedule impact from lost p roductivity. The study results will be a basis for developing a comprehensive delay analysis method considering lost productivity. ANALYSIS OF DELAYS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS Author – Aedwin Regi Varg hese and Shibi Varghese In this paper, the st udy of delay and their improvement. The com mon problems in civil engineering project all arou nd the world are mainly due to delay in construction. Thus its essential to study and analyses causes of construction delays. In this st udy carried out list of construction delays. In this s tudy, the major delays in construction is delay in payment, slow decision making, poor site m anagement and supervision, storage of ma terials, rework due to error etc. this is mega delays in construction. Causes, Effects and Mi nimization of Delays in Construction Projects Author – Divya.R and S.Ram ya In this paper, the st udy of delay and their improvement. The mai n construction delay is Contractors improper planning, Contractors poor s ite management, Inadequate contractor experience, Inadequate clien ts finance and payments for completed work, Problems with subcontractors, Shortage in m aterial, Labor supply, Equipment availabili ty and failure, Lack of communication between parties, Mistakes during the construction stage a nd the improvement of this delay is minimization of construction delays are effective strate gic planning, frequent progress meeting, accurate i nitial cost estimates, proper project planning and scheduling, site management and supervision. Page 6 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 7. Study of Delay Managem ent in a Construction Project – A Case Stu dy Author – B. Indhu and P. A jai The study summarizes the main causes of delay that affect construction project. Case studies of two construction pr ojects were done to identify and analyze the reasons and affects of the delay. The most importa nt causes identified were delay in payme nt by the head office, frequent change of staffs, po or site management, improper management of the engineers, delay in supply of material and lack of manpower. improvement of this delay is proper management of site, availability of material, skilled labor, skilled contractor etc. Causes of Delays in any Construction Project Author – Naikwadi Sumaiyya R. and Khare Pranay R Study concludes that t here exist various factors affecting completion time of project and their effects put construction projects at high risk that have effect on the ir performance. These causes are delays in payme nt to contractor, information delays, poor project management, compensation issues, design changes, whether effects, labor strikes. Effects of these delays are cost overruns, time overruns, disputes and negative social impact. Analysis of Critical Cau ses of Delays In Indian Infrastructure Proj ect Author – Prof Siddesh K Pai and Prof J. raj Bharath In this research pepar the study of delay in the construction p roject. Delay is most common problem arias in co nstruction. In this study questionnaire form is designed and this form is circlet in the owner, contractor, consultant and the collect this form. Analyzed the collected data and solution o f the delay in the construction project. Mos of the delay like rain labor dispute and material av ailability. This delay is reducing by followin g factor planning and scheduling, site management and supervision, shortage and low productivity of labor etc. Page 7 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Analysis of delays in construction projects Author – Aedin Regi Varghe se and Shibi Varghese In this paper, the st udy of delay and their improvement. The com mon problems in civil engineering project all arou nd the world are mainly due to delay in construction. Thus, its essential to study and analyses causes of construction delays. In this st udy carried out list of construction delays. In this s tudy, the major delays in construction is delay in payment, slow decision making, poor site m anagement and supervision, storage of ma terials, rework due to error etc. this is mega delays in construction. A case study of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Building Author – K. O. Kadiri and Ob afemi Awolowo The major reason why this was not done was the political nature of the project, which was one of the avenue to settling political associates. However, in the contemporary global order the government needs to find other means of settling politician so that the right environment for construction procurement where delay would not be taken with impunity can be created. Construction Dela y Analysis Techniques A Review of A pplication Issues and Improvement Needs Author – Nuhu Braimah This paper seeks to de velop such knowledge and understanding via an evaluation of the most common DATs based on a case study, a discussion of the key rel evant issues often not addressed by the techniques and their improvement needs. To ensure a more reliable delay analysis results, it is important to use resource-loaded and levelled basel ine programs, as such programs provide for reliable task duration, network logic, and realistic float values in non-critical activities. Page 8 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Critical Causes of Delay in Residential Construction Projects Case Study of Central Gujarat Region of India Author – Megha Desai and R ajiv Bhatt The delay in constru ction projects in India is studied through field survey. It studied frequency, severity and importance and relative importance of the causes o f delay. Causes and Effects o f Delay in Public Construction Projects in Jordan Author – Dr. Ashraf Samara h and Dr.Ghanim A. Bekr The paper presented the most significant factors causing the delay to the four groups. This is bases on the importance indices for the delay factors. Number of factors that showed significant effect on the perfo rmance of the projects is six factors are related to clients group, eight factors are related to c ontractors group, four factors are related to consultant group and four factors are due to externa l factors. Study factors affectin g of delay in residential construction proj ects for Nashik city Author – Desai madhura and Prof.s.v.desale The aim of this pape r was to identify the delay factors in construction projects, since delays are considered to be a serious problem in the construction industry. Through detailed literature review and intervie w with experts from construction industry, total 93 different delay factors were identified. Page 9 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.5 Theory 1.5.1 Project planning Project Management is the use of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to plan and implement activities to meet o r exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. The construction planning process is stimulated through a study of project documents. These documents include, but are not limited to, the available technical and commercial studies and investigation, designs an d drawings, estimate of quantities, construction method statements, project planning data, contract documents, site condition, working regulation, market survey, local resources, project envir onment and the clients organization. Planni ng aims at formulation of a time-based plan of action for coordinating various activities and resources to achieve specified objective. Construction project planning is a method of determining What is going to be done, How things are going to be done, Who will be do ing activities and How much activities will cost. Before commenceme nt of any project, the first thing that we need to do is project planning. Any reasonable pr oject manager certainly understands importance of planning a project well. Carefully planned project takes into account necessary asp ects of a project (e.g. tasks, milestone, schedule, ris ks, communication, quality, etc.) and provid e a plan which project team can refer during executi on. The project planning is commonly perceived as creating Gantt Chart alone, which is incorrect. Gantt chart is merely visual representation of project schedule. In fact, project plan is quite broader concept. A project plan expresses the objectives requirements of the project in terms of Project Scope Project Schedule Resource Requirement project cost estimation Project Quality Page 10 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT A project planning en ables project manager to translate project requirement into Work breakdown structure (WBS), t asks list, Gantt charts, resource assignment a nd risk register, etc. Once project charter is approved, the project is formally initi ated. Project planning activity can begin based on the project charter document, project requirem ent document When projects are sim ple, consisting of few defined activities, it might be possible for a single person to grasp the t otal construction effort with little difficulty . Unfortunately, most projects for which formal pla ns are prepared tend to be defined with doze ns or even hundreds or thousands of activities the larger the project, the greater the number of a ctivities and higher the level of detail managers have to handle. When a project plan c onsists of numerous activities, it is often ad visable to organize the activities in some way to allow communication of plan information to oth ers and to maintain an understanding of the various aspects of the project. While there are many ways that a plan can be organized, one common practice is the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). 1.5.2 Construction proje ct definition In the project cont ext, construction implies designing build ing, installation and commissioning of items of civil, mechanical, electrical, telecommunic ation and other utility works, necessary for building a specified construction-related facility or service. A construction project is a high -value, time bound, special c onstruction mission of creating a construction facility or service, with predetermined performan ce objective defined in items of quality specificatio n, completion time, budgets cost and others specified constraints. Each mission starts with a p roject go-ahead and ends with the accomplishment of the mission purpose. The projects unique construction mission is accomplished withi n the complex project environments, by putting together human and non-human resources into a temporary organization (like a special mission army operation in the war), headed b y project manager. The term project used hereafter in this book, relates to Construction Project unless otherwise stated. Page 11 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.5.3 Planning benefits Planning is the proces s of a time-based plan of action for coordinating various activates and resources to achieve spe cified objectives. The project plan shows ho w the project is to be directed to achieve the assig ned goals. It specifics a pre-determined an d a committed future course of action, based on dis cussions and decisions made on the availab le knowledge of future trends. Whatever mode of construction is taken by the client or contractor, sufficient time should be given for construct ion planning prior to starting of construction. Good planning will get the construction sequence right avoid delays and reworks. The object of plannin g construction project is to pre-determine ho w the project objective will be achieved. Planning precedes all managerial activities and t he process combines systematic creative thinking with planning technique to develop. The pr oject plan comprises a time plan, resources plan for controlling the project. It also includes schedules of design and drawing preparation, work quantities, of work planned resource allocation , budget costs and cash flow estimates. 1.5.4 Scheduling benefit Scheduling means putting the on a calendar time scale. During the execu tion stage, monitoring brings out the progress made against the scheduled base line. Work sched uling serves a fivefold purpose. Scheduling simplifyin g a project plan. The bar chart type wor k schedule provides a simplified version of the work plan which can be easily understood by all concerned with planning, co-version, execution and control of projects. Scheduling validates time objectives. Work schedule shows the planned sequence of activities, data-wise. It takes into considerations, the reduction in efficiency resulting from climatic effects on resources while putting the planning t he plan of work on a calendar basis. A schedule verifies the accomplishment of the tasks on dates imposed for completion of the project and the achievement of milestones. Page 12 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Schedule aids in the optimization of resources employed. The work schedule is based on economical employm ent of the resources of man, materials, and machinery. It avoids abrupt changes from ti me to time. Schedules enable forecasting of input resources and earned value to indicate the pattern of requirement and th e financial state of the project in terms of investment, expenditure, output and income. Schedule brings out im plication of time and resources constraints. 1.5.5 Application of Wo rk Breakdown structure Introduction and Scope The work breakdown (WBS) of a project is one of the most valuable tools of project management. It is designed and created during the initiation and planning phase. WBS finds wide and varied applications in the various phase of a construction project from inception to close out. It forms the basi s for defining the scope of work request, identifying activities, development time schedule, structuring the organization, assigning res ponsibilities costs and flows, closing project on completion and analyzing the sources of risks. The Appendix exit a mines the WBS concept and definition. t outlines the typical applications of WBS in vario us phases of a construction project. Towards the end it outlines the characteristics of a good proje ct work break down structure. Page 13 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT WBS Concept Study of the management literature reveals that the WBS definitions have under gone many successive changes fro m its original concept of task oriented family tree of activities to the widely accepted and glob ally recognized PMI current WBS definition. It states that WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarc hical decomposition of the work to be execu ed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverable with each descending level of the WBS. Each des cending level represents an increasing det ailed definition of the project work. The WBS is decomposed till the desired lowest level is reached. The desired lowest level could be up to w ork package or activities. Generally, the project time schedule is best monitored at activity level and the costs are best monitored at the packa ge level. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project. A WBS dictionary is a document that briefly covers each deliverable component and outlines its scope of work an d it defines parent and child relation. It may also include the other relevant information about th e component database (like identification(ID), start and completion dates, estimated cost and val ue of work), applicable quality specification s, organization/person responsible for accomplishment etc. 1.5.6 Scheduling project work and resources A scheduling can be defined as a work program that is set date-wise in a logical sequence. In other words, it c an also be defined as a time table for action. Time scheduling is the process of developing a wor k program. It implies programming of the c hosen work plan on a calendar basis and provides t he base against which time progress is meas ured. A work schedule is an action plan with calen dar date targets, whereas, networks is a planning technique. A network needs to be schedul es in order to determine commencement and termination dates of each activity, by using the o ptimum resources or working within resour ces constraints. Shows Page 14 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT the schedules of a small-size site development project employing the optimum level of critical resources (bull-dozers for earthwork). Depicts the bar charts program of 200 housing project. A project planning is not com plete until all the activities are scheduled and forecast of major resources is development. The project employs r esources of men, materials, and machines, and money, in order to execute the activities. Time a nd resources to be employed in an activity are inter-related. In most of the construction activities, increase in vital resources from a certain leve l decrease duration of the activity. But this uneven employment of vital resources can reduce pro ductivity, increase the cost and create management p roblems. The aim should be to schedule the work in such a manner that vital resources are optimized. The scheduling of reso urces in a project and multi-project environm ent is a complex process, but the focus should be to make it simply by scheduling a few vita l resources and derive the forecast of the remaining r esources but the project management software can aid in speedy development of network and project time schedule. The scheduling metho dology varies with the nature of project, pl anning technique, and resources constraints. Simple projects can be scheduled using the bar chart methodology. The Line-of Balance(LOB) techn ique is widely accepted for scheduling the repetitive work project while, network scheduling is suitable for all types of projects. Generally, all types of schedules use time scale along the horizont al axis. This time scale mostly uses day as the unit o f time these day ar e then related to the calendar dates, weeks, and months. Each type of scheduling technique has its purpose, merits, and de merits. But ultimately schedules are best presented in the bar chart form for ease of comprehension and communication. These bar c hart are supplemented with an appropriate planning technique for monitoring the progress of the projects. Time schedule monitoring techniq ue are covered. Page 15 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.5.7 Work Breakdown structure The WBS is a conven ient method for decomposing the project c omplexity in a rational manner into work packages a nd elementary activities. Some firms prefer t o use a standard means of identifying work package s common to all similar projects. These w ork packages are then coded so that both costs and the schedule can be controlled. A common numerical accounting system is then applied to the activities, so that the coding indicates facto rs such as the type of material involved or the physical location within the project. In essence, the WBS div ides and subdivides a project into different comp onents, whether by area, phase, function, or other considerations. The highest level in the WBS consists of a single element, the project. At the next level, there may be only a few elements or items. Naturally, the further one goes down within the WBS, the great er the granularity of decomposition and the amo unt of detail. Regardless of the means used to define the elements, individual tasks are to be defined for the lowest level in the hierarchy or at the greatest le vel of detail that is required to adequately manage and control the construction process. The level of detail used will be determined by the scheduli ng needs and the roles of the people viewing the WBS. For example, if one is a homeowner and havi ng a house built, one is interested in the completion d ate of the project, but a subcontractor will be primarily interested in information related specifically to the task this has direct responsibility. The WBS provides a clear desc ription of the projects deliverables. It describes the what is to be do ne not the process or schedule. The WBS helps Develop the work packages Define the project tasks Develop the schedule As a tool to communicate the p roject to stakeholders Page 16 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.5.8 Delay in construction Delays can be define d as the late completion of works as com pared to the planned schedule on the contract. Delays can be avoided or minimized only when their causes are identified. When delay occur red in to our project, it will have adverse co nsequences on project objectives in terms of time, co st and quality. Delays are any events that will have an impact on the final date for completion of the project. Delays in projects co me from a variety of sources. One common source is that of the client-induced delay. Where t here are contractual obligations to comment upon documents, make approvals, supply information or supply equipment, and the client is late in these contractually-defined duties, then there ma y be a client-induced delay to the expected delivery date (although in many instances the delay is presumed to be absorbed by slack). But also, a delay could be self-inflicted if the sub-assembly designed and built did not work, a delay might be expected. Projects success is ba sically to gain the project objectives that are classically defined by the need to complete a proje ct on time, within the budget, and with appr opriate quality. Hence any disruptions to the project objectives will certainly contribute to p roject delays with its specified adverse effects on project objectives. Delays can give rise to d isruption of work and loss of productivity, late co mpletion of project, increased time related costs and third-party claims and abandonment or te rmination of contract. Delays are costly and often result in disputes and claims. Furthermore, delays effects the feasibility for project o wner and retard the development in construction industry. The Construction ind ustry of India is an important indicator of the development, as it creates investment opportunities across various related sectors. The con struction industry has contributed an estimated 670,778 cores to the national gross domestic pro duct (GDP) in 2011-12 (a share of around 8). Dela y in construction projects is considered one of the most common problems causing a multitud e of negative effects on the construction projects. Construction delays can be minimized only when their causes are identified. Page 17 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Delays in constructio n can cause a number of changes in a project such as late completion, lost productivity, acceleration, increased costs, and contract termination. The party experiencing damages and th e parties responsible for them in order to recover time and cost. However, in general delay sit uations are complex in nature. A delay in an activity may not result in the same amount of project delay. A delay caused by a party may or may not affect the project completion date and may or may not cause damage to another party. A delay may occur concurrently with other delay s and all of them may impact the project completion date. Modern construction p rojects are characterized by new standards, advanced technologies, multiparty participation, and frequent owner-desired changes. Coupled with this state are inherent uncertainties and co mplexities in the physical, financial, and eco nomic environment in which most projects are perfo rmed. Such conditions have made completin g projects on schedule and on budget a difficult task to accomplish, often leading to claims on cost compensations and time extensions. This eventually leads to delay in the completion of the pro ject. Delays caused by th e client such as late submission of drawin gs and specifications, frequent change orders, and inadequate site information generates claim s from both the main contractors and subcontracto rs which many times entail lengthy court p roceedings with huge repercussions. Delays caused by contractors can generally be attributes to poor managerial skills. Lack of planning and a poor understanding of accounting and financial principles have led to many a contractors downfall . Page 18 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 1.5.9 Causes of Delay in Construction Construction delay is considered to be one of the most recu ring problems in the construction industry and it has an adverse effect on project success in terms of cost, time, quality, and safety. There are several factors that cause delay in constr uction. Delay may be caused by clients, users, cons ultants, designers, owners, contractors and suppliers. Cost, time, and quality have proven their importance as the prime measures for project success. Delay has a negative effect on clients, contractors, and consultants in terms of growth in adversarial relationships, mist rust, litigation, arbitration, and cash-flow pr oblems. A project may be regarded as a successful endeavor until it satisfies the cost, time, a nd quality limitations applied to it. However, it is not uncommon to see a construction project failing to achieve its goal within the specified cost, time, and quality. The causes of delay namely Political situation Segmentation Award project to lowest bid price Progress payments delay by owner and Shortage of equip ment. Poor ground conditions Insufficient inspectors Inappropriate design Monopoly and Natural disaster Contractors improper planning Contractors poor site management Inadequate contractor experience Inadequate clients fin ance and payments for completed work Problems with subcon tractors Shortage in material Page 19 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Labor supply Equipment availability and failure Lack of communicati on between parties Mistakes during the construction stage Preparation and appro val of shop drawings Delays in contractors progress Payment by owners a nd From the view of archit ects and engineers, the cash problems during construction, the relationship between subcontractors and the slow decision-making progress of the owner were the main causes of delay. Ho wever, the owners agreed that the design erro rs, labor shortages and inadequate labor skills were i mportant delay factors. Both owners and consult ants specify labor and contractor related ca uses as the severe and important sources of delay while, contractors indicate that the importa nt sources of delay in construction projects are own ers and consultant. 1.5.10 Minimization of Construction Delay When a construction d elay occurs, there is no question that the Ow ner suffers financially, but the extent to which an O wner can recover its loss of income from the Contractor, and more importantly minimize the r isk that such delays will occur, depends largely on how the construction contract was dra wn up. Owners should give special attention to the following factors Pay progress payment to the contractor on time because it impairs the contractors ability to finance the work. Minimize change orders during construction to avoid delays. Avoid delay in reviewing and approving of design documents than the anticipated. Check for resources a nd capabilities, before awarding the contract t o the lowest bidder. Page 20 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Contractors should consider t he following factors Enough number of la bors should be assigned and be motivated to improve productivity. Contractor should man age his financial resources and plan cash flow by utilizing progress payment. Administrative and technical staff should be assigned as soon as project is awarded to make arrangements to achieve completion within specified time with the required quality, and estimated cost. Consultants should look to th e following points Reviewing and approv ing design documents. Consultants should be flexible in evaluating contractors works. Finally, architects/design engi neers should focus on the following points Producing design docu ments on time. Mistakes and discrepancies in design documents have to be taken care off. Page 21 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Chapter 2 Design Analysis, Design Methodology and Im plementation strategy Page 24 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 2.1 Research Methodology General (Introduction, objectives,Needof study,literaturereview) Site selection Data collection Page 25 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 2.2 AEIOU summary Figure 2.1 AEIOU summary In Above canvas, Activities, Environment, Interaction, Objects, and Users in which we have to find all the typ es according to our project domain. Page 26 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Activity In the construction projects, there are some of activities like Exc avations work, Curing, filling Concrete, Preparatio n of Concrete, Shuttering, etc. Environment During visit at site, the Environmental condition is very noisy, dusty and water logging at the site. Interaction During our visit we in teracted with Client, Consultant, Contractor, Labors and contractors of related to causes of delay. Objects We have observed numbers of objects at the site which are Bar Bending Machine, Bar threading machine, M obile crane, Steel Bars, Wooden Planks an d other miscellaneous tools etc. Users The various users are Builders, Site Supervisors, Site Engineers, Labors, Students, etc. Page 27 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 2.3 EMPATHY Summary Figure 2.2 Empathy Mapping Canvas In above canvas, we have to write down our project stakeholders and happy and sad stories both advantag e and disadvantage relate to our problem statement and also with solution. Page 28 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 2.4 IDEATION Canvas Figure 2.3 Ideation canvas In this canvas, we write the propose idea on our problem s tatement and analysis advantages and disadv antages, and try to find whether the idea is feasible for solution in terms of users. Page 29 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 2.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPM ENT Canvas Figure 2.4 Product development Canvas In this we have to give information related to our product in terms of its Features, functions and compon ents and on the basis of customer revalidation we have to make changes in our product if any necessary. Page 30 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Chapter 3 Implementation Page 31 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 3.1 Data Collection DETAILSOFSITE NAME OF WORKCONSTRUCTION OF COMMERCIAL BUILDINGTALUKA DISTRICTCLIENTTIME LIMITSITE ENGINEERCONTRACTORSTRUCTURE DESIGNS FROMPROJECT MANAGEMENT CO UNSULTANCYTOTAL AREANO. OF BASEMENTNO. OF FLOORHEIGHT OF FLOORWORK ORDAR DATECOMPLISATION DATETYPES OF FOUNDATIONTYPES OF BUILDINGLOCATION Page 32 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT DATA ANALYSIS Data was collected to examine different types of delays in execution phase of Building and their impact on delay of project. This chapter deals with analysis and classi fication of delays into several groups. Construction delays are categorized in many ways. There a re four main groups of construction delays Critical or noncritical Excusable or non-excusabl e Compensable or non-comp ensable Concurrent or non-concurr ent The diagram displayed in Section 5.1 presents a general overview of how the construction delays can be categorized. Firstly, if the delay is critical or noncritical and concurrent or nonconcurrent should be determined in the process of analysing of effects of delay on the project. All construction delays are eithe r excusable or non-excusable as shown in the figure in following section. Excusable delays are further classified into compensable or noncompensable delays. The figure presents only one int erpretation, since excludability and compen sability of delays can change according to the contr act. Project delays are also classif ied into three main categories i.e. origin, timing and compensability as shown in Section 5.2. Delays classified by t heir origin Owner caused delays (OCD), co ntractor caused delays (CCD), third party cau sed delays (TPCD) Delays classified by their timing These are concurrent delays (C D) and nonconcurrent delays (NCD). Delays classified by t heir compensability These are excusable d elays (ED) which are Page 33 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT also classified in itself as excusable compensable delays (ECD) and excusable noncompensable delay s (ENCD), and non-excusable delays (NED). 5.1 Delay categories On-site delays are categorised into two main categories as shown in fig ure below- Excusable delay and non-excusable delay. Examples of reasons of delays are also given in the figure. Contractor is eligible to get time extension in these type of excusable delays. Unforeseeable weather, late supply of material, labour absenteeism are examples of excus able delays. Whereas slow progress of construction, poor labour productivity and poor equipment productivity come under non-excusable delay. Contractor is not at all eligible to get time extension for these delays. Sr.NoExcusable Delay1Delay due to Rain2Change orders by owner during construction3Delay in approving drawings4Difficulties in obtaining permits5Conflicts between owner and other parties Sr.NoNon-Excusable Delay1Threading of bars is not done In Column2Column bars not aligned after slab done3Dewatering is not done4Reconstruction of Diaphragm wall5Re-fixing of slab reinforcement6Rework due to errors during construction7Delay in materials delivery Page 34 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Changes in material types during construction 9Equipment breakdowns like Threading machine10Shortage of labors11Delay due to site accident12Restricted access13Delay in progress payments14Delay due to change in technical staff15Delay due to equipment failure16Delay due to RMC transit mixture17Delay due to poor site management18Delay due to shortage of unskilled labor19Delay due to unskilled equipment operator20Delay due to poor labor management21Delay due to quality control and procedure22Inaccurate early planning of project23Inadequate resources24Slow decision making by projects team25Poor Workmanship26Improper site layout Cement Storage Steel Storage27Lake of site safety28Improper workmanship29Ineffective planning and scheduling of project Poor qualification of contractors technical staff Poor labour productivity Improper storage of materials leading to damaged material when necessary Inefficient use of equipment Landsliding Page 35 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Delay occurred from contractor side Sr.noExcuseble DelayFrequency ofOccurrenceDelay ReasonDelay ( man hrs)1.Delay due to Rain224Rare Sr.noNon-Excuseble DelayFrequency ofOccurrenceDelay ReasonDelay ( man hrs)1.Land sliding48Rare2.Threading of bars is not done In Column24Rare3.Column bars not alig ned after slab done24Rare4.Dewatering is not do ne200Rare5.Reconstruction of Diaphragm wall240Rare6.Re-fixing of slab reinforcement24Rare8.Delay in materials d elivery40Moderate9.Changes in material types during construction32Rare10.Equipment breakdo wns like Threading40Raremachine11.Shortage of labors40Moderate12.Delay due to site acc ident32Rare13.Delay in progress payments24Rare ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT 3.3 Delay Observed Delays observed till now Land Sliding Change in schedule be cause of unexpected monsoon season Poor workmanship be cause of reinforcement fixing of slab Delay due to rain Water blockage Incorrect schedule Improper site layout Cement storag e Steel storage In Efficient Pumping s ystem Lake of site safety Threading for bars is not done time to time Column bars not aligned after slab done Dewatering was not d one in lift shaft Late supply of steel ba rs Delay in design of col umn Outcomes from project undertaken By this undertaken project we learn following areas of construction management Planning of project Scheduling of project Controlling of project Construction activities at site like as Excavation for foundation, Reinforcement for footing, concreting for footing etc. Use of MSP Software Current practice in ind ustries for scheduling Page 38 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Conclusion Data considered and collected for the 08-month period starting fr om March 2017 to October 2017 shows very less work has done as compare to planned schedule. Various delays are ob served, impact of these delay are hidden at th is moment by stack holder. Impact of delays and its effect on time overruns and suggest improvement to overcome these delays will be taken in next semester. Page 39 ATMIYA INSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE – RAJKOT Reference Research Papers Kuei-Mei Huang and Jyh-Bin Yang (Case study of delay im pact analysis of lost productivity in constru ction projects) Aedwin Regi Varghese and Shibi Varghese (Analysis of delays in construction projects) Divya.R and S.Ramya (Causes, Effects and Minimization of D elays in Construction Projects) Naikwadi Sumaiyya R. and Khare Pranay R (Causes of Delays in any Construction Project) Aedin Regi Varghese and Shibi Varghese (Analysis of delays in construction projects) Nuhu Braimah (Cons truction Delay Analysis Techniques A R eview of Application Issues and Improvement Needs) (Critical Causes of D elay in Residential Construction Projects Case Study of Central Gujarat Regio n of India) Referred Books O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA O_AA _wXn/g hh(yav7AjPx 00ylvQVE9deZ/[email protected] UIzHs(OL H
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