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4.4.2.1 Total recycling in Namibia – value addition processes for plastic
Plastics undergo various processes during recycling as highlighted in the table 4.18.
Four major processes of value addition for plastics were recognized, that is recovering, processing, manufacturing and selling. At the time of study, seven companies (53%) were involved in recovery activities of plastic. Only one (7%) company was involved in pelleting to produce raw materials; three companies (20%) were into manufacturing of plastic products like pipes and plastic packaging as well as selling to whole sellers. Figure 4.5 shows a diagrammatic illustration of the value addition process for plastic as given by Botswana Recycling Guidelines of 2012.
Table 4.18: Value addition by Company for Plastics in Namibia
Company Value Addition Processing

A, F, N, L,H, G,N Recovery
• Collection,
• sorting according to type, texture, color
• cleaning (smelly ones e.g. fish for plastics wrapping)
• crushing, cutting/shredding, chipping bottle caps
• balling
• transportation to final destination

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D processing
• collection
• Chipping, crushing, cutting,
• Washing and drying
• Heating and Melting
• molding injection/ molding / extrusion
• Pelleting (chipping and packaging )
• Selling

B,C,H Manufacturing plastic pipes and packaging
• Injection molding/Blow molding: extrusion, injection and injection stretch
• Packaging
• Selling

Source: research data

Figure 4.6: Simplified schematic diagram for plastic recycling
Source; Botswana Recycling Guidelines, 2012
4.4.2.2 Value addition for Paper
Paper undergoes varying processes during recycling. The different processes carried out in Namibia are highlighted in the table 4.19.

Table 4.19: Value addition by Company for Paper in Namibia
Company Processing
A,N Recovery
• Collection
• Sorting
• Shredding
• Baling
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
Only two companies (A and N) were involved in paper processing that is recovery.
4.4.2.3 Value addition for Glass Bottles
Companies A, N and F were into glass bottles recovery. It undergoes varying processes during recycling at different companies in Namibia. The different processes are highlighted in the table 4.20.
Table 4.20: Value addition by Company for glass bottles in Namibia
Company Processing
L Transportation
• Glass bottles
A,N, F Recovery
• Collection
• Transportation
• Sorting
• Crushing
• Baling
transportation to final destination

Source: research data
4.4.2.4 Value addition for Cans
The main processes of value addition for cans are highlighted in the table 4.22
Table 4.22: Value addition by Company for cans in Namibia
G,L Transportation
• steel and aluminum cans
A,N, F Recovery
• Collection
• Transportation
• Sorting
• Compaction
• Baling
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
Five companies were involved in recycling cans. G and L were involved in the transportation of these cans while companies A, N and F were involved in recovery and the other value addition processes identified in table 4.22.
4.4.2.5 Value addition for Scrap Metals
Scrap metals were reported and observed to undergo various processes. These are summarized in the table 4.23.
Three companies (E, J and N) were involved in scrap metal recycling, which involved separating metals from the mixed scrap metal stream or the mixed multi-material waste stream.
Table 4.23: Value addition by Company for Scrap Metals in Namibia
Company Processing
E,J,N Recovery
• Collection
• dismantling
• sort
• Shredding
• Compaction
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
4.4.2.6 Value addition for E-Waste
Only one (1) company K in Windhoek was involved in e-waste recycling at the time of study. The company was involved in all the processes highlighted above plus transportation to South Africa for further processing.
The e-waste recycling process was observed to be highly labor intensive. According to literature, e-waste recycling involves the following further steps: use of over-band Magnet, non-metallic and metallic component water separation. Components e-waste retrieved are sent to recyclers of plastic and metal.
Table 4.24: Value addition by Company for E-Waste in Namibia
Company Processing
Trans-world (E-waste) Recovery
• Collection,
• sorting,
• dismantling,
• cutting
• baling
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
4.4.3 Benefit chains associated with recycling processes.
Recycling is known to have a lot of benefits according to literature and the study sort to establish the situation relating to Namibia. The researcher posed the question: “What are the benefits associated with recyclable raw material wastes in the area you are involved in.” Responses of individual companies are summarized in the table 4.24.
Table 4.25: Benefits of Recycling
Benefit Company
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
Environmental
Reduces waste dumped at landfill ? ? ?
Promotes sustainable development ? ? ? ?
Cleans the environment ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
saves natural resources ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
waste reduction measure ? ? ?
reduces pollution ? ? ? ? ?
Economic
creates employment, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
source of income ? ?
defer investment on landfill ? ?
creates and promotes new businesses ?
Cheap raw material ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Cheaper goods ? ? ? ?
Cost saving on wastes removal operations ? ?
Local economic development ? ?
Potential Source of revenue ? ?
Social
source of livelihood for the poor ? ? ?
Source: research data
The table 4.25 summarizes the views of the different participants regarding recycling benefits.
Table 4.26: Participants View of recycling
Benefits Number of Respondents %age
Environmental
Reduces waste dumped at landfill 3 20
Promotes sustainable development 4 26.7
Cleans the environment 9 60
saves natural resources 8 53.3
reduces pollution 5 33.3
Economic
source of income 2 13.3
defer investment on landfill 2 13.3
creates and promotes new businesses 1 6.7
Cheap raw material 8 53.3
Cheaper goods 2 13.3
Cost saving on wastes removal operations 2 13.3
Local economic development 2 13.3
Potential Source of revenue 2 13.3
Social
source of livelihood for the poor 4 26.7
creates employment, 14 93.3
Source: research data
Table 4.26 shows benefits that recycling in Namibia has. Ninety three (93%) of respondents highlighted that the industry creates employment, while 53.3% revealed that it saves natural resources, 53.3% pointed out that it is a source of raw materials and 60% noted it keeps the environment clean.

Figure 4.7: Benefits chains of recycling solid waste
Source: research data
Figure 4.6 gives an illustration of the cause and effect diagram to represent primary and secondary benefit chains of recycling. Secondary benefits can further be sub-divided into further indirect benefits.
4.5 Local network linkages in the industry;
local and regional backward and forward operational network linkages in the industry in Namibia are presented. Information gathered showed that most companies had both local and regional linkages.
4.5.1 Forms of linkages
Table 4.26 shows forms of network linkages in the industry from secondary sources.
Table 4.27: Forms of linkages
Institution Recycling Companies Linkages
Government institutions Recycling Companies
Education information flow
Promotional information flow
Waste Generators Raw material flows
Promotional information flow
Waste Pickers Raw material flows
Promotional information flow
Transporters
Corporate World transport and logistics
Promotional information flow,
Funds flow,
Education information flow
receptor material linkages,
transport logistics linkages
Partnership
Academic Institutions Research information flow
Source: research data
The predominant forms of linkages are material flow, and promotional and education information flow. Due to the infancy of the industry the later are very important linkages.

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