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2.4 Spray Coating
Silica nanoparticles and dodecyltrimethoxysilane were coated on glass and stainless-steel substrates by using brush-coating, dip-coating and spray-coating methods for SC and highly effective oil/water separations 63. SHP-SCS were obtained a mixture of cool orange-gray paint coating by sprayed onto fiber cement boards with white basecoats 64. The transparent, stable and robust SHP surfaces were prepared by simple spray coating process. The SHP surfaces shows excellent stability under pressurized jet water, ultraviolet radiations and abrasion. These unique fabricated surfaces produces a promising candidate for outside SC applications 65.
2.5 Spin Coating Technique
A mixture of hydrophobically modified silica particles and polystyrene were used for preparation of SHP silica coatings by spin deposition technique. The durability and anti-corrosion performance of SHP coating was confirmed by using resistance to water jet impact and corrosion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution with long immersion time 66. Photocatalytic SiO2-TiO2 coatings on polycarbonate were prepared by using to spin coated techniques for SC applications. A very thin water layer made on the SHP surface can easily clean-off the dirt particles while flowing were studied 67.
2.6 Electrospray/Electrospinning Coating Technique
The polystyrene/Al2O3 nanocomposites SHP coatings were prepared by new electrospinning techniques and effect of electrospinning parameters on morphology, surface roughness and wettability tests were performed by these coating at different techniques 68. SHP coating was prepared for electro-spun ultrathin fibers and electro- sprayed nanostructure silica micro-particles for easy emptying packaging applications 58. The step-by-step methodology charted to prepare the nanostructure multilayer LDPE/PCL/SiO2 film are presented in Fig. 5C.
2.7 Chemical Etching Technique
SHP coatings on brass surfaces were deposited by a chemical etching technique with a mixture of two etchants of HCl and HNO3. The durability of these coatings was observed by acting chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability tests and also coatings exhibit SC and anti-fogging properties 69. Actual SC yellow SHP polycarbonates were synthesized by simple nitric acid treatment and MTCS modification, the yellow SHP SC was simply organized by handling immersion time in nitric acid and it shows mechanical stability and SC properties 70.
2.8 Chemical vapor deposition
A hierarchical micro / nano-structured transparent SHP polytetrafluoroethylene films were prepared on glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD), showing a water CA of 168°, a water SA 90%. The films exhibited SC and anti-corrosion properties 71. CVD is a technique, it is established to be technologically reasonable because of its easiness once achieved at atmospheric pressure and their stoichiometry may be precisely controlled. The enhancement, challenges and prospects of CVD at atmospheric pressure on vanadium dioxide structures were studied 72.
2.9 Lithographic patterning technique
A simple and robust developed method to produce well-defined hierarchical micro/nano structures over large areas were fabricated by photolithography and reactive ion etching. This coatings showed reproducible way to design and manufacture of SHP surfaces, these hierarchical structures are applicable to SCS 73. Han et al. 74 fabricated and enhanced SHP tungsten hierarchical surfaces, which could survive 70 abrasion cycles, 28 min of solid particle impact or 500 tape peeling cycles to retain CAs of greater than 150 and SAs of less than 20, which established for durability test. This type of research elucidates to achieve high durability of the SHP surfaces and it was capable of improving the durability of SHP surfaces for practical applications.

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