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1 Understand the pattern of development that would usually be expected for children and young people from birth to 19 years.

1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of all aspects of development that would usually be expected in children and young people from birth to 19 years.

Healthy Development

The early years of a child’s life are very important for his or her health and development. Healthy development means that children of all abilities, including those with special health care needs, are able to grow up where their social, emotional and educational needs are met. Having a safe and loving home and spending time with family?playing, singing, reading, and talking?are very important. Proper nutrition, exercise, and sleep also can make a big difference.

Developmental Milestones
Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye-bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking).

Children develop at their own pace, so it’s impossible to tell exactly when a child will learn a given skill. However, the developmental milestones give a general idea of the changes to expect as a child gets older.

0-4 weeks
In their first few weeks, babies like looking at faces. If a face is close they’ll focus on it and follow it. By 2 weeks most babies begin to recognise their parents.

1-4 weeks
Babies can respond to sights and sounds from an early age. Reacting out to loud noises is all part of development. You can help babies learn by holding them close, making eye contact and talking to them. They’ll look back at you and begin to understand how conversations work.Even making baby noises will teach babies how to listen, and about the importance of words and taking turns in a conversation.

4-6 weeks
Babies begin to smile at around 4 to 6 weeks. You can encourage development by making faces and noises, and talking about what’s going on around you. For example: saying simple things like, “Are you hungry now?” or “Do you want some milk?”.

4-12 weeks
Babies will try to lift their head while lying on their front, almost like they’re doing a mini press-up. They’ll soon start to wriggle and kick, and it’s not long before they can roll over, back to front or front to back.
3-5 months
As they develop their arm and hand muscles babies will start to reach for objects. Children need time and attention from someone who’s happy to play with them to grow and develop. You can teach them through playing, singing, reading and talking.

4-6 months
Babies enjoy making new and different sounds, and by 6 months they’ll also make repetitive noises.

Singing with babies is ideal stimulation because it involves language and music. Music without words can be good for young minds at this time, too.There are many ways to help their development, through playing, reading, music and more.If you repeat the sounds babies make back to them, they will learn to copy you.

By 5 months, babies can lift and hold objects, but are unable to let go of them. They will often put things in their mouth to explore the taste and texture.They’ll enjoy shaking things that make a noise, so rattles are great.

At around 6 months babies learn to pass things from hand to hand. Find toys they can pick up and move around, as this will help them improve their co-ordination.

Health experts agree around 6 months is the best age to introduce solid food. This is called weaning. Before this, babies digestive systems are still developing, and weaning too early can increase the risk of infections and allergies.Weaning babies with healthy foods such as fruit and vegetables and yoghurt may increase the chance of them being healthy in the future. You can also allow babies to feed themselves using their fingers as soon as they show an interest.

6-8 months
As babies get stronger they’ll start to sit without assistance.

Most babies get their first milk tooth at around six months, usually in the front of their mouth at the bottom. During teething babies may become restless, but there are ways to relieve the discomfort. Giving baby something hard to chew on, such as a teething ring, a crust of bread or breadstick, or a peeled carrot, however ensuring that they are monitored to prevent risk of choking.

Babies will now turn to you when they hear your voice across the room. They can also respond to very quiet noises on either side if not distracted by something else.The more you chatter with them, the better their vocabulary and communication skills will become.Babies under 12 months pick up the tone and warmth of the voice, and listen to the tune of your conversation.

9-11 months
Babies will now enjoy letting go of things or handing toys to someone. Encourage this new skill by playing with them. Children need time and attention from someone to grow and develop.Some babies learn to crawl backwards before they crawl forwards. Some learn to walk without ever crawling. Others are bottom shufflers.

At this stage of development children will start to pull themselves up and can stand while holding on to furniture.

10-18 months
When babies start to walk, they can be unsteady on their feet, but can move very quickly. They trip and fall often.Teach children how to climb stairs, but never let them go up and down on their own.Encourage children to walk with you (using reins for safety) as soon as he or she is able.
You can start to teaching children about shape when they’re around 12 months old. Toys that require children to put different shapes through matching holes are useful to develop fine motor skills.

15-18 months
children will gradually learn to entertain themselves some of the time, but they have to learn from someone first. Spend time playing with the child to help them learn the skills they need.Finding ways of involving children in what you’re doing. Children learn from everything they do and everything that’s going on around them.

18 months – 2 years
As they develop new skills, encourage children and tell them they’re doing well. They’ll respond by laughing and getting excited.If you want to encourage good behaviour, it’s important to be as positive as you can around them. At this age, children should be physically active for at least 180 minutes (3 hours) each day.
By the age of 2, a child will be able to say a range of single words, and many children will be talking in short sentences.If a child is trying to say a word but gets it wrong, say the word properly. For example, if the baby points to a cat and says “Ca!”, say “Yes, it’s a cat”. Don’t criticise or tell them off for getting the word wrong.
Some children may also be able to point to parts of their body.

1.5 – 5 years
Children may start becoming ready to be potty trained around now, however there’s no perfect time as every child is different. There are several signs when a child is starting to develop bladder control. They will know when they’ve got a wet or dirty nappy, or when they’re passing urine. They may also tell you in advance if they need a wee.
Children love scribbling and painting. At first, you’ll need to show the child how to hold the crayon or paintbrush.Name colours by saying, for example, “This is red”. This will help a child understand the concept of colour.

Learning how to make friends is one of the most important things a child can do, which they will develop by going to nursery and spending time playing with other children.You can also increase children’s vocabulary by giving them choices, such as, “Do you want an apple or a banana?”
Children’s drawing will depend on how much practice and encouragement they get on a regular basis.

Children may take time to eat their meals as they become used to using cutlery.

5-7 years

At this stage, children will be refining the skills developed so far, they will have more confidence and more control over the fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing.

Children become more social and have wider experiences. They ask large amount of questions and will be able to talk about things in past and future tenses with greater confidence.
They will start looking for adult approval and will be starting to learn how to read.

Children will start to play with peers and socialise using imaginative play. They will start to learn to understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary. They will still seek approval from adult.

At 7-12 year
Children would start to have hobbies and interest such as sports, dance, drama, and songs.

Children will continue to develop and refine many of their skills.
The girls will start to show signs of early puberty from age 10-11. Puberty in boys usually start later.

By now most children will be fluent in speaking a language, they would be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way.
At this stage, children will be developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. They will be more able to think and discuss ideas.

Children will be increasingly aware of what others may think of them. At this age children’s friendship becomes more settled and they have more friends.

At 12-16 years.

The boys will be starting to go through puberty and many of the girls would be completing their puberty and having regular periods, because of the different stages of puberty, the boys and girls would vary in height.
At this stage most girls are taller than boys and the young people will be growing stronger.

Young people will be selecting and taking GSCEs and A levels, they will usually now have a clear idea about their favourite subject. This is the stage young people want to feel like they belong.

At this age young people find themselves under the pressure of growing up and with increasing expectations from adults. Their self-esteem can be very vulnerable.
They will want to be independent of adult, therefore spend more time with their friends. They may look all grown up but at time they still display childish behaviour.

At 16-19 years.

Young people are considered as adult, although many girls may be physically matured at this stage, the boys will continue to grow until their mid-20s.

Most young people are leaving school and are thinking of the career path to take and university choices. They will be able to focus on their area of strength and be able to develop it more.

At this stage the young people have now moved into adulthood, however they will still need advice and guidance from more experienced adults. They will lack experience and emotional maturity in the ways they interact with others.

1.2 Analyse the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and the importance of this distinction
Sequenced Development
There is a definite pattern to a child developing e.g. a toddler being able to walk before they can run. Another may sit up, walk, run missing out rolling over & crawling. Even though elements are missed the development still proceeds in what’s viewed as an expected pattern. Sequenced development also involves patterns and an order of development of intellectual growth – sequence can include an order that’s both positive and negative deterioration.
Rate of Development
Rate involves a time frame linked to age in which a child develops. An example is where one baby may achieve walking independently at 10 months, but another may be able to at 12 months and another at 16 months.If a child develops by sequencing it enables the carer to plan effectively and at the right time. When recording the rate of development it helps you to identify any concerns that you may have within the development area, this enables you to further investigate why this is happening.

Why is it important?
It is important to know the difference between the sequence and the rate of development as it helps to identify the Child’s needs during the stages of their school years. It is crucial to plan effectively ensuring the child receives the support they need in the areas they find most difficult in.

Developmental Monitoring and Screening
A child’s growth and development are followed?or monitored?through a partnership between parents and health care professionals.
At each well-child visit, the doctor looks for developmental delays or problems and talks with the parents about any concerns the parents might have. In addition, doctors conduct developmental screening. Developmental screening is a short test to tell if children are learning basic skills when they should, or if they might have delays.

Children with special health care needs should have developmental monitoring and screening just like those without special needs.
Monitoring healthy development means not only paying attention to symptoms related to a child’s condition, but also to the child’s physical, mental, social, and emotional well-being.

If a child has a developmental delay, it is important to get help as soon as possible. When a developmental delay is not found early, children must wait to get the help they need. This can make it hard for them to learn when they start school.

1.3 Analyse the impact of adolescent development on a young person´s thoughts, feelings and behaviours.

Social changes and emotional changes: what to expect in adolescence
During adolescence, you will notice changes in the way a child interacts with their family, friends and peers. Every child’s social and emotional development is different. A child’s development is shaped by your child’s unique combination of genes, brain development, environment, experiences with family and friends, community and culture.

Social changes and emotional changes show that a child is forming an independent identity and learning to be an adult.

Social changes
searching for identity: young people are busy working out who they are and where they fit in the world. This search can be influenced by gender, peer group, cultural background and family expectations
seeking more independence: this is likely to influence the decisions a child makes and the relationships a child has with their family and friends
seeking more responsibility, both at home and at school
looking for new experiences: the nature of teenage brain development means that teenagers are likely to seek out new experiences and engage in more risk-taking behaviour. But they’re still developing control over their impulses
thinking more about ‘right’ and ‘wrong’: a child will start developing a stronger individual set of values and morals. Teenagers also learn that they’re responsible for their own actions, decisions and consequences. They question more things. Parents/carers words and actions shape the child’s sense of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’
influenced more by friends, especially when it comes to behaviour, sense of self and self-esteem
starting to develop and explore a sexual identity: a child might start to have romantic relationships or go on ‘dates’. These are not necessarily intimate relationships, though. For some young people, intimate or sexual relationships don’t occur until later on in life
communicating in different ways: the internet, mobile phones and social media can significantly influence how a child communicates with friends and learns about the world.
Emotional changes
shows strong feelings and intense emotions at different times. Moods might seem unpredictable. These emotional ups and downs can lead to increased conflict. The child’s brain is still learning how to control and express emotions in a grown-up way
is more sensitive to parents/carers emotions: young people get better at reading and processing other people’s emotions as they get older. While they’re developing these skills, they can sometimes misread facial expressions or body language.
is more self-conscious, especially about physical appearance and changes. Teenage self-esteem is often affected by appearance – or by how teenagers think they look. As they develop, children might compare their bodies with those of friends and peers 
goes through a ‘bulletproof’ stage of thinking and acting as if nothing bad could happen to them. The child’s decision-making skills are still developing, and the child is still learning about the consequences of actions.
Changes in relationships
wants to spend less time with family and more time with friends and peers 
has more arguments with parents/carers: some conflict between parents and children during the teenage years is normal, as children seek more independence. It actually shows that the child is maturing. Conflict tends to peak in early adolescence. If parents/carers feel like they are arguing with their child all the time, it might help to know that this isn’t likely to affect your relationship with their child in the longer term
sees things differently from parents/carers: this isn’t because the child wants to upset them. It’s because the child is beginning to think more abstractly and to question different points of view. At the same time, some teenagers find it hard to understand the effects of their behaviour and comments on other people. These skills will develop with time.
A child’s relationships with family and peers will undergo dramatic changes and shifts. Strong relationships with both family and friends are vital for healthy social and emotional development. Parents tend to influence a young person’s long-term decisions, such as career choices, values and morals. Friends are more likely to influence short-term choices, such as appearance and interests.

Supporting social and emotional development
Here are some ideas to help to support a child’s social and emotional development.

They require a role model for forming and maintaining positive relationships – with friends, children, partner and colleagues. A child will learn from observing relationships where there is respect, empathy and positive ways of resolving conflict.
Getting to know the child’s friends, and making them welcome in the home. This will help to keep in touch with the child’s social relationships. It also shows that the parent/carer recognises how important the child’s friends are to the child’s sense of self, providing gentle and consistent guidance if any concerns come to light.
Listen to the child’s feelings. If a child wants to talk, stop and give the child your full attention. If you’re in the middle of something, make a specific time when you can listen. Respecting a child’s feelings and trying to understand the child’s perspective, even if it’s not the same as yours. For example, ‘It sounds like you’re feeling left out because you’re not going to the party on Thursday night’.
Be explicit and open about feelings. In particular, tell the child how others may feel when the child behaves in different ways. For example, ‘I felt really happy when you invited me to your school performance’. This helps the child learn to read and respond to emotions. It also models positive and constructive ways of relating to other people.
Be a role model for positive ways of dealing with difficult emotions and moods. For example, there will be times when you’re feeling cranky, tired and not like interacting with the child. Instead of giving your child the silent treatment, you could say, ‘I’m tired and cross. I feel like I can’t talk now without getting upset. Can we have this conversation after dinner?’
Talking with the child about relationships, sex and sexuality. Look for ‘teachable moments’ – those everyday times when you can easily bring up these issues. This is often better than having a ‘big talk’. Find out what the child already knows. Correct any misinformation and give the real facts. Use the conversation as a chance to discuss appropriate sexual behaviour and values. And always let the child know you’re available to talk about questions or concerns.
Focus on the non-physical. Teenagers are often self-conscious and anxious about their bodies and appearance. So reinforce the positive aspects of the child’s social and emotional development. For example, you could praise the child for being a good friend, or for having a wide variety of interests, or for trying hard at school and so on.
It’s easy to get caught up in the children’s needs. There’s also the day-to-day business of getting children to do the sporting and social activities that are important for their development.
Mental health and wellbeing
Research shows that teenagers are at increased risk of poor mental health, antisocial behaviour and risk-taking behaviour such as substance misuse.

This might be because of stronger emotional responses in adolescence, changes in motivation, or difficulties balancing emotions and behaviour. These activities and behaviour can affect the child’s health later in life and can have long-term effects.

If you feel that the child’s behaviour is more than just ‘teenage moodiness’, speak to the child about your concerns. Also consider talking to a health professional.

2 Understand the factors that impact on children and young people’s development.
2.1 Analyse how children and young people´s development is influenced by personal factors. A child’s development can be influenced by personal factors such as:
• health status
A child’s development can be influenced by genetic health problems or problems caused by the environment in which the child grows up in. If the child lives in poor quality houses with damp this could trigger asthma and other breathing problems in the same way that having a poor diet could affect their development. These problems may lead to a child missing school so they may miss out on developing relationships and social skills. Physical development would also be effected if a child feels unwell or restricted and are unable to join in.
Nutrition plays an important part of a child’s development, Calcium is needed to develop healthy bones and teeth, and protein and fats are necessary to provide energy to help them grow. If children don’t get these nutrients in their diet, they may suffer mentally as well as physically. As they get older, children at high school have more choices and may end up choosing more sugary drinks, chocolate, sweets and chips rather than a well-balanced meal with the nutrients their growing bodies and developing brains need.

• disability
Physical disabilities can put a child at a disadvantage in many ways for example if a child had restricted movements they may find it difficult to join in with things such as sport and other physical activities. In more severe cases this could also affect the child’s motor skills, making them unable to join in with other activities such as arts and crafts for example. They may have difficulty learning their way around new places such as school or day centres. Most types of disability could have a negative effect to other areas of the child’s life.

• sensory impairment

If a child has a hearing problem then this would also influence their development, they are more likely to have their speech affected which may make them feel they are unable to join in with other children’s games if they can’t communicate properly with them. Visual impairment can also influence a Childs development as they are unable to watch and learn from what others are doing.

• learning difficulties
Physical or mental disability of themselves or a family member which can cover mild learning difficulties to extreme physical disabilities. Obviously the development of children with any disability will be effected resulting in the child needing extra and sometimes specialist support. Their disability can have an effect on their confidence, ability to join in with friends and can effect their development greatly. Another aspect of this is if a child’s parent or other family member has a disability, they could find themselves the main carer for that person or simply spend their time worried or unhappy. They may face a huge range of added pressures that other children don’t, all effecting their development.

• genetic
Genetic disorders are diseases that are caused by an abnormality in the genome. Abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Most Genetic disorders are present from birth and are quite rare, often affecting only one person in every several thousand or million. Genetic disorders are usually heritable and are passed down from the parents’ genes.

There are many different types of genetic disorders, all with different features of their own.

Some of the commonly seen genetic disorders include:
Cystic Fibrosis
Huntington’s disease
Down syndrome
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Sickle Cell Anemia
Celiac Disease
Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Noonan Syndrome
ThalassemiasBloom’s Syndrome
Angelman Syndrome
Kabuki Syndrome
Smith Magnenis CHARGE
Cornelia deLange Syndrome
CRIduCHAT Syndrome
Microcephali• Trauma
An event is considered traumatic if a child perceives that his life is in danger. Therefore, events like a divorce are likely to be stressful but not traumatic for a child. There are two main types of trauma: repeated trauma and single event trauma. Repeated trauma is often experienced by children who live in war zones, violent neighborhoods or homes with ongoing physical or sexual abuse. Children exposed to repeated trauma may suffer more adverse affects than children who experience a single traumatic event. Single event traumas include events such as natural disasters, serious car accidents or witnessing a sibling suffer a life-threatening injury.

Physical development
Physical development may be affected by certain kinds of trauma. Kids who are exposed to repeated trauma may become hypersensitive to physical contact, and they may develop sensorimotor problems. Physical and sexual abuse can lead to many physical health problems. Kids who have been traumatized may report a lot of somatic symptoms, such as stomachaches and headaches.

Cognitive development
Trauma can take a toll on a young child’s developing brain. Trauma can cause kids to have increased difficulty paying attention. Kids exposed to repeated trauma often have learning difficulties, and their speech and language may be delayed. Processing problems are common, and kids may have difficulty understanding the consequences of their behavior.

Attachment
Trauma can interfere with a child’s ability to develop a healthy and secure attachment to caregivers. Kids who are traumatized may become frightened of being separated from a caregiver, and as a result, they may tend to be overly clingy. For example, a child who was in a car accident with his mother may not want his mother to be out of sight. Kids who are exposed to repeated trauma may be on the other end of the spectrum where they don’t seem to develop any close relationships to caregivers. They may isolate themselves and have difficulty asking adults for help.

Fostering Resiliency
The good news is that not all kids who are exposed to traumatic events experience ongoing problems. Some kids just seem to be more resilient than others based on their genetic make-up. There are also steps that parents, caregivers, teachers and other adults can take to foster resiliency in kids after they have been traumatized. Children who receive healthy support and comfort from family members and the community are more apt to bounce back after a traumatic event. Professional help can also help foster resilience in kids. Support groups, individual therapy or family therapy can help kids cope with traumatic experiences.

• Grief and loss
Separation from or loss of parents due to death, divorce, incarceration or removal to foster care will have a major impact on the child’s psychological development and possibly on his/her cognitive and physical development as well.
Although the effects of parental separation/loss will vary from child to child and family to family, the negative impact this has can be minimized if the child can live in an environment that is supportive to the grieving process and able to offer an explanation and understanding of his life events. Unfortunately, many, many children who have suffered this trauma have not received sufficient help in resolving loss issues and are, to one degree or another, psychologically “stuck” at the age of the loss of their primary attachment objects.
Separation and Loss During the Toddler Years (Ages 1 – 3)

Short term effects:

• The balance between age appropriate dependency and independency will be disrupted.

• Interference with identity – with changes in family position, the child’s ego development may be disrupted.

• The child’s awareness of both internal and external stimuli may be dulled and there will likely be regression in terms of the most recently acquired skills.

• The normal acquisition of language may be temporarily interrupted with parental loss, especially if that parent was the child’s “interpreter.”
Separation and Loss During the Preschool Years (Ages 3 – 6)

Short term effects:

• The child’s egocentric magical thinking can cause him to misunderstand the causes of the separation and loss. It is important that adults work hard to identify the child’s personal magical thinking about the loss. Does he think he caused the loss? Does he think he can do something to reverse it?

• The child may display indiscriminate attachment to adults and have conflicting feelings about the “good” and “bad” traits in himself and others.

Separation and Loss school Years (ages 7-11)

Short term effects:

• As the grade schooler goes through the grieving process, he will have less energy available for the usual tasks of this age.

• School-age children become acutely aware of differences between themselves and their peers and these may lead to problem behaviors with peers.

Separation and Loss During the Adolescence

Short term effects:

• In order to successfully complete the tasks of psychological separation the adolescent needs to come up against and oppose parent figures who are nonetheless consistently available and caring. Parent separation and loss will disrupt these tasks.

• Control issues will continue to impact the adolescent’s behaviors, especially if he feels a large part of the decisions about his life are out of his control.
At times children may seem unaffected by the death and play happily as if nothing has happened. But watch out for any changes in their behaviour, which could be their way of expressing feelings they can’t talk about. These could include:
Clinginess. Refusing to be left or clinging to you or someone else can be how your child expresses the need for reassurance that you aren’t going to die and leave them too.

Distance. Some children can put up a barrier with remaining members of the family because they’re scared of getting hurt again. They might want to spend more time away from home, with friends or at school. 
Aggression. This may be your child’s way of expressing helplessness in the face of loss.

Regression. How children respond to death can vary a lot from day to day. Acting like a younger child can be a sign of insecurity. Young children may start wetting or soiling themselves, or want a long-forgotten bottle or dummy. They may become more prone to illness or even lose weight.

Lack of concentration. Your child may find it hard to concentrate at school and fall behind with their work.

Sleep problems. Your child may find it hard to sleep and become afraid of the dark.

Puberty
The dreaded change in hormones that can change a child’s personality seemingly overnight! However the changes usually occur between the ages of 10 and 16. It is the physical change our bodies make from being a child to an adult, unfortunately, emotional changes take place too and it coincides beautifully with exams and moving up at school. It can be very complicated and confusing, affecting each child differently and having a massive effect on their development.
English as a second languageThe development of a child can be effected greatly if they do not speak the same language as their peers. They may feel lost, isolated and struggle to keep up in class. Children adapt quickly, but they need support in all areas.
The miss use of alcohol and or other substances can effect the development of children in many ways. Having an family member who is addicted to a substance can destroy the child’s home life, children of alcoholics for example may find that their parents spend their money on drink and there is no food to eat, they may have to witness extreme mood swings and not be sure what to expect when they get home. Or the addict may be the child themselves, this presents a whole host of issues that can effect their development and health in general.

2.2 Analyse how children and young people´s development is influenced by external factors.
External factors that can influence a child’s development may include:
• Poverty and deprivation
can also be an issue on development as children from disadvantaged backgrounds may not receive the same level of education as a child from a wealthy background and therefore may not develop the same knowledge and skills. Poverty may also effect a child’s development in many ways such as poor housing which could lead to health problems, asthma for example. It may also mean that they are not able to have access to educational facilities or other places where they will learn new skills such as a play centre or school clubs.

• History of abuse and neglect
AbuseMaltreatment or abuse during younger years has been shown to enormously effect child development, including brain and cognitive development, attachment, and academic achievement. Child abuse and neglect can have enduring physical, intellectual, and psychological repercussions into adolescence and adulthood. The effects can appear in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, and range hugely in consequence from minor physical injuries, low self-esteem, attention disorders, and poor peer relations to severe brain damage, extremely violent behaviour, and death.

• Family environment and background
Parents play a key role in the child’s development. Most parents or carers will provide all the basic needs for a child; a good diet, adequate housing, education, play, love and support, all of which plays a key part in the overall development of the child. However, some parents/carers are unable to give these things to their child maybe due to a disability or illness, some parents may need to work long hours and not have the time to do things with their children. They may suffer from stress or depression or be unemployed and on a very low income. Also a child that does not receive regular attention from their parents may not develop social skills the same as a child who has more love and attention as children depend on copying and playing in order to develop their skills.
Race, religion and traditions
Many children come from different backgrounds, with some the male sex is still portrayed as the important person in the family, and therefore female are not given the same equality in life
• Behaviour of mother during pregnancy
If a mother smokes, drinks alcohol, takes drugs or becomes ill during pregnancy this can result in premature birth and health problems for the baby such as low birth weight or undeveloped organs. This can also lead to problems with sight and hearing. All of these can affect the way in which the baby develops. Some children may also be born with an illness which means they will have to remain at hospital for an extended period.

• Personal choices
MediaThe amount and the content of the television children watch, the games they play, the internet sites they visit and the magazines they read can all have an impact on a child’s development. Television and other types of media can be educational, but exposing children to violent or extreme behaviour or views can be damaging and have an effect on their own characters. The articles they read can effect their own self image and the view they have of the world around them.
Peer PressureChildren can have a major effect on other children, applying pressure to be a certain way, to dress in a particular way and the act in a particular way. These types of pressure can have an enormous effect on the development of any child and at any age. The brains of young children are highly sensitive to family environment. Some studies have warned that children who’s parents don’t provide stimulating environments or who don’t talk to them, are at greater risk of developing learning difficulties and suffering from stress related illness throughout their lifetimes. As a child gets older, families present other aspects that can effect their development such as religious or political views, imposing their hopes and fears onto the child and asserting emotional pressure in order to make them behave a certain way. I think families can have the greatest effect on the development of any child.

• Looked after/care status
Looked after children may be in the care of local authorities for a number of different reasons, death, family breakdown, abusive family member etc. This may effect a child in a number of different ways, for example being taken away from one family to another could upset the emotional development of a child as they never learn to build relationships or being taken from somewhere they feel safe and secure to somewhere unfamiliar could affect their confidence and self esteem.

• Education
A good quality education will help children’s development in all areas. Learning to read and write, problem solving, physical activities such as sports, social and emotional development all help to develop other aspects of a child’s life. Some schools offer after school clubs such as sports or art which will also enhance development. Being in school is also a social environment where a child can develop important social skills.

A poor quality education will delay development and skills needed to grow and learn.
Some children have difficulty in school or don’t enjoy school. This can delay their development and lower their self esteem and confidence. Therefore they don’t benefit from the opportunities that are there for them.

2.3 Evaluate how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.

Theories of development including:
• Cognitive
Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person’s thought processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how we understand and interact with the world. Piaget proposed an idea that seems obvious now, but helped revolutionize how we think about child development: Children think differently than adults.

Theorist Jean Piaget proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development. His cognitive theory seeks to describe and explain the development of thought processes and mental states. It also looks at how these thought processes influence the way we understand and interact with the world.

Piaget then proposed a theory of cognitive development to account for the steps and sequence of children’s intellectual development.

The Sensorimotor Stage: A period of time between birth and age two during which an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli.

The Preoperational Stage: A period between ages 2 and 6 during which a child learns to use language. During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information and are unable to take the point of view of other people.

The Concrete Operational Stage: A period between ages 7 and 11 during which children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.

The Formal Operational Stage: A period between age 12 to adulthood when people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.

• Psychoanalytic
Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory
Psychoanalytic theory was an enormously influential force during the first half of the twentieth century. Those inspired and influenced by Freud went on to expand upon Freud’s ideas and develop theories of their own. Of these neo-Freudians, Erik Erikson’s ideas have become perhaps the best known.

Erikson’s eight-stage theory of psychosocial development describes growth and change throughout life, focusing on social interaction and conflicts that arise during different stages of development.

While Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development shared some similarities with Freud’s, it is dramatically different in many ways. Rather than focusing on sexual interest as a driving force in development, Erikson believed that social interaction and experience played decisive roles.

His eight-stage theory of human development described this process from infancy through death. During each stage, people are faced with a developmental conflict that impacts later functioning and further growth.

Unlike many other developmental theories, Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory focuses on development across the entire lifespan. At each stage, children and adults face a developmental crisis that serves as a major turning point. Successfully managing the challenges of each stage leads to the emergence of a lifelong psychological virtue.

• Humanist
Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual.  Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology.

• Social Learning
In social learning theory, Albert Bandura (1977) agrees with the behaviorist learning theories of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. However, he adds two important ideas:
Mediating processes occur between stimuli & responses.

Behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning.

• Operant conditioning
The work of Skinner was rooted in a view that classical conditioning was far too simplistic to be a complete explanation of complex human behavior. He believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning.
Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s (1905) law of effect. Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect – Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e., strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e., weakened).

Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938).

• Behaviourist
Behaviorists believe that psychology should focus on measureable and observable physical behaviors and how these behaviors can be manipulated by changes in the external environment. There is no room in behaviorist theory for thoughts or emotions, a contrast to other theories of psychology.

During the first half of the twentieth century, a new school of thought known as behaviorism rose to become a dominant force within psychology. Behaviorists believed that psychology needed to focus only on observable and quantifiable behaviors in order to become a more scientific discipline.

According to the behavioral perspective, all human behavior can be described in terms of environmental influences. Some behaviorists, such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, insisted that learning occurs purely through processes of association and reinforcement.

Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interaction influences behavior and are based on the theories of theorists such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner. These theories deal only with observable behaviors. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, stimuli and reinforcement.

This theory differs considerably from other child development theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are.

Two important types of learning that emerged from this approach to development are that classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by pairing a naturally occurring stimulus with a previously neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning utilizes reinforcement and punishment to modify behaviors.

• Attachment
There is a great deal of research on the social development of children. John Bowbly proposed one of the earliest theories of social development. Bowlby believed that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and continue to influence social relationships throughout life.

Bowlby’s attachment theory suggested that children are born with an innate need to form attachments. Such attachments aid in survival by ensuring that the child receives care and protection. Not only that, but these attachments are characterized by clear behavioral and motivational patterns. In other words, both children and caregivers engage in behaviors designed to ensure proximity. Children strive to stay close and connected to their caregivers who in turn provide safe haven and a secure base for exploration.

Researchers have also expanded upon Bowlby’s original work and have suggested that a number of different attachment styles exist. Children who receive consistent support and care are more likely to develop a secure attachment style, while those who receive less reliable care may develop an ambivalent, avoidant, or disorganized style.

• Transition sociology

Frameworks to support development including
• Social pedagogy

3 Understand how to support children and young people’s development during transitions.
3.1 Analyse how and why children and young people´s development can follow non-linear paths at times of transition. Times of transition including:
• emotional, affected by personal experience e.g. bereavement, entering/ leaving care
• physical e.g. moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality, from one activity to another, between a range of care givers on a regular basis
• physiological e.g. puberty, long term medical conditions
• intellectual e.g. moving from pre school to primary to post primary
3.2 Analyse support to minimise disruption to development during periods of transition.
Transitions can effect child development in a very big way.
It is important that the child forms positive relationships. This will help the child develop at a fast rate. During a young persons childhood they may have to deal with a lot of transitions, for example moving home can be stressful especially if the young person moves to a different area or school as not only must they adapt to a new environment but they must also adapt to a new set of friends and new surroundings. Moving schools can also be quite stressful for children and may affect their development. There are also emotional transitions that a young person may be faced with for example bereavement, this is a daunting and emotionally draining issue for adults therefore for a child this can be a very traumatic time and a child may deal with this in different ways as they lack the knowledge and experience to be able to deal with this. Some children may become withdrawn and they may not interact well as a result. This can all have a knock on effect to child development. Other factors like illness can also set a child back as can the transition to puberty as now the child is faced with emotions and feelings that they are not used to and this can affect them in a big way.
4 Understand how assessing, monitoring and recording the development of children and young people informs the use of interventions.

4.1 Compare methods of assessing, recording and monitoring children and young people’s development.

Methods of assessing development needs e.g. • Assessment Framework/s • Observation • Standard measurements • Information from parent, carers, children and young people, other professionals and colleagues

4.2 Explain in what circumstances each method would be used.

4.3 Explain how children and young people’s own account of their development contributes to the assessment process.

4.4 Explain how information from assessment and monitoring is used to select appropriate interventions.

Types of interventions e.g. those offered through: • social worker • speech and language therapist • psychologist • psychiatrist • youth justice • physiotherapist • nurse specialist • additional learning support • assistive technology • health visitors • counsellor/therapist • foster carers • residential care workers
4.5 Explain the importance of accurate documentation in assessing, monitoring and recording the development of children and young people.

5 Understand the use of interventions to support the development of children and young people.
5.1 Explain the importance of early identification of development issues and the potential risks of late recognition.

5.2 Analyse how types of interventions can achieve positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the pattern expected.

5.3 Evaluate the role of multi-agency teams working together to address development issues in children and young people.

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