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Regulation of Cations Balance in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Heemabahen Patel
BIOL 468
September 25, 2018
2
BIOL 468 – RESEARCH METHOD
Dr. Seiser, Fall 2018
Mini-Review Article
Introduction
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, commonly known as Baker’s yeast or Brewer’s yeast, is one of the oldest domestic eukaryotic model organisms originate in 6000 B.C. Because of it has its own genome sequenced, they are used as model organism in different experiential research area, such as in pharmaceutical industries, environmental technologies, food technologies, biomedical research, health-care industries, biological research, etc. (Seiser, 2018). Most of all living organisms require nutrient minerals for their growth and development, which can be occur by the absorbance, utilization, and storage of these minerals. In the cellular environment, these elements existed as charged ions, which across the membrane by two main processes: transport and ATP. However, in excess amount of these ions can be toxic for cell, cells need homeostatic mechanisms to regulate cations level and avoid toxicity (Cyert and philptt 2013). Recent study shows that homeostasis of cations plays a huge role in the biochemical process of digestion in humans (Cyert and philptt 2013). This review paper will summarize how homeostasis regulates the cations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, while including mostly an overview about earlier and current issues regarding regulation of Ca2+ in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
Regulation of Cations
In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, pH regulation should be controlled in both cytosol and lumen of intracellular organelles, and it must be 7.2 that can be measured by expression of pHlourin, which is a ratio metric pH-sensitive florescent protein that can be target cytosol or intracellular ranges to homeostat pH balance (Orij et al. 2011). Alkali metals such as, sodium and
BIOL 468 – RESEARCH METHOD
Dr. Seiser, Fall 2018
Mini-Review Article
potassium are toxic at high level, but Na+ can be regulated due to the existence of an Na+, K+-ATPase, and Na+, K+/H+-antiporter, which helps to the potassium balance as well (Arino et al. 2010). Trace elements such as iron and coper, manganese, zinc can be regulated by the biological processes including respiration, photosynthesis, transcription and post-transcription respectively. As a divalent cation, Ca2+ must be maintained between 50 and 200nM during the cell cycle, which can be accomplished by two processes: Ca2+ pump and exchangers, and during budding yeast, after G2 phase cells require readdiction of Ca2+ for the progression of cell cycle (Cyert and Philpott 2013).

Ca2+ entry in to cell
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae’ cells influx Ca2+ from their environment via three major proteins: Mid1, Cch1, Ecm7 under environmental stress condition (Cunningham 2011). Mid1 and Cch1 are trans-membrane proteins that interact with each other during uptake of Ca2+, whereas Ecm7 is require in absence of Zn2+ (Cunningham 2011). Cunningham and Fink (et al. 1996) discovered that when cytosolic Ca2+ initiate to rise, the activation of calmodulin, calcineurin and Crz1 occur to transcription of Pmc1 and Pmr1, and suppression of Vcx1(which is unknown mechanism). Their previous study shows that inactivation of calcineurin cofactors effects cell growth by the immunosuppressant drug FK506. Recent experimental study concluded that if calcium concentration is ether high or low, calcium sensitive mutants with FK506 can enhance the cells growth (Ghanegolmohammadi 2017). Cunningham and Fink (et al. 1996) concludes that
BIOL 468 – RESEARCH METHOD
Dr. Seiser, Fall 2018
Mini-Review Article
calmodulin and calcineurin signaling pathway not only regulate cytosolic Ca2+concentration but also regulates at least four ions transports in S. Cerevisiae in several environmental condition.
Ca2+ pumpx
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
Calmodulin
Calcineurin
Crz1p
Crz1p
Pmc1p
Pmr1p
Vcx1
Pmc1
Cod1p
Yvc1p
Vcx1p
Vacuole
Ca2+
Pmr1
Pmr1p
Golgi
ER
Ca2+
Nucleus
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
2+
Mid1+Cch1+Ecm7
Ca2+
2+Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
H+
+
Ca2+
Ca2+ pumpx
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
Calmodulin
Calcineurin
Crz1p
Crz1p
Pmc1p
Pmr1p
Vcx1
Pmc1
Cod1p
Yvc1p
Vcx1p
Vacuole
Ca2+
Pmr1
Pmr1p
Golgi
ER
Ca2+
Nucleus
Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
2+
Mid1+Cch1+Ecm7
Ca2+
2+Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
H+
+
Ca2+

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Regulation of Ca2+ in Vacuole
The vacuoles are the prime source of uptake Ca2+ storage organelle in S. Cerevisiae, which is regulate Ca2+ concentration by mainly two pathways: Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+ / H+ exchanger (Pittman 2011). Previous study shows that the regulation of Ca2+ occur in vacuoles by Ca2+ / H+
BIOL 468 – RESEARCH METHOD
Dr. Seiser, Fall 2018
Mini-Review Article
exchanger and Vcx1, which is utilize the protons from the cytosolic concentration via V-type H+-ATPase that allows Ca2+ influx and H+ efflux from the cytosol (Cunningham and Fink et al. 1996). According to them, Vcx1 and Pmc1 work together to regulate Ca2+ concentration into the cell, in which Vcx1 plays important role to control large volume of Ca2+. In addition, Yvc1, also called as transient receptor potential (TRP), is a protein to regulate Ca2+ to release from vacuole. Study shows that when yeast is exposed to osmotic shock, Yvc1 release Ca2+ into cytosol (Denis and Cyert 2002).
Conclusion
Since yeast cell is commonly studied for experiment, it is known that the cation homeostasis can be regulated based on various environmental stress condition, and via signaling pathways. Previous and current study highlights several important proteins that helps to balance Ca2+ ion concentration in cell by vacuoles and nucleus. By the excrement, researcher determined that how calcium can be stable in less amount concentration in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. This review paper explores mainly focus on Ca2+ entry in to the yeast cell and regulation in vacuoles.

BIOL 468 – RESEARCH METHOD
Dr. Seiser, Fall 2018
Mini-Review Article
REFRENCES
Seiser R. 2018. 01 Introduction. PDF posted on Blackboard. accessed 2018 Aug, 30.

Ghanegolmohammadi F, Yoshida M, Ohnuki S, et al. Systematic analysis of ca(2+) homeostasis in saccharomyces cerevisiae based on chemical-genetic interaction profiles. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28(23):3415-3427. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E17-04-0216 doi.

Cyert MS, Philpott CC. Regulation of cation balance in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2013;193(3):677-713. doi: 10.1534/genetics.112.147207 doi.

Orij R, Brul S, Smits GJ. Intracellular pH is a tightly controlled signal in yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810(10):933-944. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2011.03.011 doi.

Cunningham KW. Acidic calcium stores of saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Calcium. 2011;50(2):129-138. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2011.01.010 doi.

Pittman JK. Vacuolar ca(2+) uptake. Cell Calcium. 2011;50(2):139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2011.01.004 doi.

Arino J, Ramos J, Sychrova H. Alkali metal cation transport and homeostasis in yeasts. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2010;74(1):95-120. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00042-09 doi.

Denis V, Cyert MS. Internal ca (2+) release in yeast is triggered by hypertonic shock and mediated by a TRP channel homologue. J Cell Biol. 2002;156(1):29-34. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200111004 doi.

BIOL 468 – RESEARCH METHOD
Dr. Seiser, Fall 2018
Mini-Review ArticleCunningham KW, Fink GR. Calcineurin inhibits VCX1-dependent H+/Ca2+ exchange and induces Ca2+ ATPases in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16(5):2226-2237.

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1 Regulation of Cations Balance in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Heemabahen Patel BIOL 468 September 25. (2019, May 10). Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://midwestcri.org/1-regulation-of-cations-balance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-heemabahen-patel-biol-468-september-25/

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